Nigeria And Democracy Essay, Research Paper
It is one thing to demo a adult male that he is in an mistake, and another to set him in ownership of truth & # 8211 ; John Locke. Nigeria is Africa & # 8217 ; s most thickly settled province and one of it & # 8217 ; s wealthiest. For this ground entirely, Nigerians should cognize the truth about their coutry so that they can cognize the roots of their jobs which would assist them in happening a solution. Nigeria consists of a facinating aggregation of different peoples, civilizations, histories and faiths which have unluckily ne’er been united at any period in the yesteryear but today, bit by bit through democracy, it is seeking to happen a sense of nationhood out of the competitions and bloodshed which bedevilled the state for old ages after independency. They are fighting to be democratic but are non rather at that place yet.
The demographics and pre-colonial traditions of Nigerians were really different. The Hausa in the North had been organizing provinces and came under the influence of Islam in about the fifteenth century. But subsequently on they were conquered by the Fulani for non being rigorous plenty in their Islamic patterns and being excessively worldly. This made political relations and faith one. They learnt Islam in their schools and the mosques became a Centre of activity. Their swayer ruled them based on the Islamic jurisprudence hence there where no bounds on his power. But they were the lone group with this sort of spiritual and political system. There were two outstanding groups in the South viz. the Yoruba & # 8217 ; s and Igbo & # 8217 ; s. The Yoruba & # 8217 ; s inhabited the forest part and formed several lands. They had small town councils which voted heads therefore restricting the heads authorization by the councils cheques. The Igbo had little organized small town constructions. They where really independent people so had much freedom. The small town authoritiess hence had less power. Both of these groups worshipped their ascendants so where really different from North in footings of Religion. The presence of democratic elements in the Igbo and Yoruba groups made democracy a batch easier to put in subsequently on. This already put them apart from the North because the North traditionally accepted to be ruled by one individual ( was set-up more like a absolutism ) . This differences laid a rickety foundation for democracy in Nigeria because the South was culturally prepared for it whereas the North was non.
Nigeria & # 8217 ; s history of different colonial regulation besides made democracy hard to set up. Political control by Britain over Nigeria began in the early 1900 & # 8217 ; s. The North was ruled indirectly because the Emirs were incharge of everything so the British could non come and interrupt this. Whereas in the South, the British challenged the authorization of the traditional swayers and set the people who were traveling to be more profitable to them as heads. Roll uping revenue enhancements became a cardinal responsibility in the colonial system which was the beginning of struggle between the people and their heads who were viewed as treasonists. This made the people in the South disrespectful to their leaders and long edifice tensenesss led them to revolt against anything British because the people considered revenue enhancements as extortion. The British concentrated on the South because the had more fertile land than the North which already gave the South more chance than the North in development. Along with the British came missionaries and instruction. They evangelized merely the South because the North emirates had an apprehension with the British that Christian proselytising would non be permitted in their spheres. The long term consequence of this was that the South became more educated than the North which helped them get the tools with which they could dispute colonial regulation on their swayers own footings. If they could read and compose so they could be developed and independent. The instruction in the South made the Southeners able to associate with other states in the Western universe which was really good for trade and developement. This even widened their economic spread with that of the North. The Koranic schools in the North did non value advancement therefore what the Southern politicians judged conservative was normally seen as extremist by the North. There was really small footing for a democratic Nigeria because the North and South had different outlooks which was further broadened by instruction.
Nigeria & # 8217 ; s federal construction is non to fault for their troubles in organizing a stable authorities. This construction consists of an independently elected president balanced against a two house national assembly ( with governors and legislative assemblies ) at federal degree. There is besides the supreme tribunal on the other manus. In the recent old ages, a batch of local authorities countries have been introduced to vouch a proportionate portion of places in federal establishments therefore equilibrating representation in the execution of policies. But these vicinities are non every bit effectual as they could be because barely any money reaches down to this degree due to corruptness. Besides, Nigeria & # 8217 ; s difficuty with this construction is their failure to accomplish a stable constitutional regulation. The mistake nevertheless is non due to the construction but is due to the cultural clas
Hes and hence the deficiency of trust among the country’s subcultures. This construction works good for other democratic states like the United States and Canada. Even though Nigeria has struggled to utilize a democratic construction, it does non work really good. Therefore Nigeria has to happen a balanced construction which would accommodate it irrespective of it’s cultural differences.
Another singularity of Nigeria is her past political experiences with democracy and military authoritiess. For a state which has had 7 putschs, 3 elections, 2 presidents forced out and 2 authoritiess handed over to the civilian authorities, Nigeria ia instead alone in her instability. Whether or non this instability can be justified is answered by their definition of legitimacy. Legitimacy of a authorities for Nigerians is determined by it & # 8217 ; s effeciveness and non the procedure hence, when a certain authorities Michigans being effectual a rapid alteration is needed which consequences in a putsch most of the clip. They have had 23 and a half old ages of a military authorities, 5 and a half of probationary and 11 and a half of democracy. But because Northerners have dominated the the leading of the state under both civilian and military regulation, it makes it difficult for Nigerians to make a stable authorities because they keep hesitating back and Forth between military and democratic authoritiess. This fluctuations show an effort for a democracy because it is non easy for this to go on when half of the people do non believe in democratic ideals ( the Northerners ) .The determination seems to be in the northener & # 8217 ; s manus because the Southerners seem ready to be democratic because they have a history of democratic regulation and have been exposed to western civilization. However there has been positive marks with the recent democratic authorities of Nigeria because the party in power is a alliance inbetween the North and South. This is important because the Nigerian battle for a democracy is taking them at least partly towards integrity.
Nigeria & # 8217 ; s political parties are going cross-ethnic. Because ethnicity droves much of the political organisation in the state, in the past the political parties were formed and voted for harmonizing to cultural individuality. But this tradition is get downing to run. The fact that Abiola ran in a cross cultural party and reasonably won the elections are marks of alteration. Additionally, the present president Obasanjo, is a Christian Yoruba running for a Muslim party. This is really important because Nigeria is bit by bit drawing off from her cultural prejudice and vote based on the party that best represents the persons positions.
Nigeria faces really serious jobs today because the eternal beginning of easy money through the sale of oil has stopped. Oil accounted for migration from the countrysides to the metropolis because when oil was discovered there was a demand for labor. The people left their farms in the countryside and came to the metropolis. But now that Nigerian oil competes with other states, the oil monetary value has risen to 3.60 $ /l. The refinement installations were non maintained as a consequence of this, Nigerians now to import refined gasolene so do non hold adequate money to supply the occupations which one time existed. The effects of this is that thepeople who migrated to the metropoliss are stuck in the metropolis with no money and now face jobs like overcrowding, pollution, easy spread of disease, and the enticement to go robbers.
The oil bring forthing countries in Nigeria are the least developed. This is really
Education is besides a serious job as a consequence of the oil clang. Education was one time free during the oil roar but in recent old ages, has seen the debut of fees. Those who can non afford this fees do non direct their kids to school hence, soon merely 60 % of kids attend primary school and Nigeria is 19th topographic point for instruction in Africa. This is awful because with the immense size and abundant natural resources in Nigeria, they are supposed to be a batch better than this.
Corruptness is endemic amongst the civil retainers in Nigeria. It started by the people stealing anything they could from the British as retaliation for the revenue enhancements the British took. But when the British left, because any bad wont is hard to halt, stealing from their authorities became a wont excessively for the Nigerians. In a sense, the British brought about corruptness to Nigeria. But the Nigerians are to fault for go oning to empoverish their economic system through corruptness.
Inflation has besides taken it & # 8217 ; s toll. Nigerians took a bad move by publishing more money to pay their debt. The consequence is that rising prices has risen upto 6,000 % in 20 old ages. And they even have a heavier debt of 34.5 billion $ . The involvement of this debt is over 25 % of authorities outgo.
Nigeria has been divided in history, demographics, political civilization and experiences, political construction and parties with bold fists. But bold moves have bit by bit been made to acquire the state together and more and more, we see the appearnace of democracy. However, the serious fiscal, educational, corruptness and rising prices jobs she faces porhibit her minute