In an ever-changing universe. society tends to go progressively diverse. in footings of behaviours. values beliefs and norms. With changeless internal and environmental stimulations. such behaviours. values. beliefs and norms develop overtime which creates a grade in the head of every person. and is observed through societal patterns. spiritual constructions and artistic look. The terminal consequence of such alteration is what we recognize now as civilization. Culture directs an individual’s thought. making and being. Within the context of nursing pattern. cultural backgrounds can act upon positions on wellness and wellbeing and unwellness. which in bend might hold an consequence on their perceptual experiences on health care and health care results. Due to the recurrent concerns sing the challenges encountered in the attention for culturally diverse patients. transcultural attention has become an of import facet of wellness attention. Nowadays the end of the medical system is to supply optimum and holistic attention for all patients. to be culturally competent is an ingredient in order to carry through quality attention and wellness results. The demand for clinicians to go more sensitive to cultural differences and derive an apprehension of transcultural constructs has been repeatedly stressed by Leininger ( 1988 ) and is the purpose of this piece of authorship.

Our group hails from diverse locations and is working in different parts of non merely the Philippines. but besides of the universe. With different upbringings and different imposts that we grew up with and meet on a day-to-day footing as nurses. we chose Madeleine Leininger. who was a innovator in her clip. as our nursing theoretician.

When Madeleine Leininger’s name was suggested. the bulk instantly agreed on her because of the construct that she has developed ; the Theory of Culture Care. Culture Care or Transcultural Nursing trades with nursing and the civilization of the clients. And as we are nurses who are working in assorted nursing Fieldss. in different locations. the group saw how it can be adapted to our profession. Seeking farther cognition on it and how it applies to our specialisation. will heighten each person farther as efficient nurses.

The construct is besides applicable non merely to our work but besides to us. pupils of Masters of Humanistic disciplines in Nursing. because we are presently accommodating to a new civilization with a different survey environment. holding interactions with people in assorted locations by assorted signifiers of media. This construct would non merely be applied in the work puting but besides in our instruction.

With this. our group encourages you to read through our survey and we hope that you will be able to understand and appreciate its contents. We feel confident that after traveling through our end product. you will come to reason that nursing transcends all civilizations. supplying attention for every race and state. Theory Definitions and Specifics of The Theory of Culture Care

Enrique Luis Nuguid

Dr. Leininger said that Illness and health are shaped by a assorted factors including perceptual experience and get bying accomplishments. every bit good as the societal degree of the patient. She besides stressed that cultural competency is an of import constituent of nursing and that spiritual and cultural cognition is an of import ingredient in wellness attention. She stressed that value of civilization is influential in all domains of human life. It besides defines wellness. unwellness. and the hunt for alleviation from disease or hurt. Health constructs held by many cultural groups may ensue in people taking non to seek modern medical intervention processs and that wellness attention suppliers need to be flexible in the design of plans. policies. and services to run into the demands and concerns of the culturally diverse population. groups that they likely to be encountered.

Most instances of unwellness have multiple causalities and may necessitate several different attacks to diagnosis. intervention. and remedy including common people and western medical intercessions. Harmonizing to her surveies. the usage of traditional or alternate theoretical accounts of wellness attention bringing is widely varied and may come into struggle with western theoretical accounts of wellness attention pattern that is why being a-depth with different civilizations guide the behaviour into acceptable ways for the people in a specific group since civilization originates and develops within the societal construction through inter personal interactions. Effective intercultural communicating must take topographic point so that nurse can successfully supply attention for a client of a different cultural or cultural to play down.


The pattern of transcultural nursing addresses the cultural kineticss that influence the nurse client relationship. Because of its focal point on this specific facet of nursing. a theory was needed to analyze and explicate results of this type of attention. Leininger creatively developed the Theory of Culture Care: Diverseness and Universality with the end to supply culturally congruous wholistic attention. Some bookmans might put this theory in the in-between scope categorization. Leininger holds that it is non a expansive theory because it has peculiar dimensions to measure for a entire image. It is a wholistic and comprehensive attack. which has led to broader nursing pattern applications than is traditionally expected with a middle-range. reductionist attack. ( Personal communicating with Penny Glynn on September 12. 2003 ) . Leininger’s theory is to supply attention steps that are in harmoniousness with an person or group’s cultural beliefs. patterns. and values. In the 1960’s she coined the term culturally congruous attention. which is the primary end of transcultural nursing pattern.

Culturally congruous attention is possible when the undermentioned occurs within the nurse-client relationship ( Leininger. 1981 ) : Together the nurse and the client creatively design a new or different attention life style for the wellness or wellbeing of the client. This manner requires the usage of both generic and professional cognition and ways to suit such diverse thoughts into nursing attention actions and ends. Care cognition and accomplishment are frequently repatterned for the best involvement of the clients…Thus all attention modes require coparticipation of the nurse and clients ( consumers ) working together to place. program. implement. and measure each lovingness manner for culturally congruous nursing attention. These manners can excite nurses to plan nursing actions and determinations utilizing new knowlwdge and culturally based ways to supply meaningful and fulfilling holistic attention to persons. groups or establishments.

· Under Leninger’s theory. the enthohistory of a patient is besides of import when measuring adequate attention. Under Leninger’s theory. ethnohistory refers to “to the past events and experiences of persons or groups. which explain human lifeways within peculiar cultural contexts over short or long periods. ” For illustration. a individual who may hold been a member of an African folk that does non traditionally believe in or swear medical professionals will necessitate a nurse who is particularly careful and slow to present medical interventions. Other Concepts

· Leninger’s theory besides states that its can non merely be applied to the nurse-client relationship but besides includes attention for households. groups. communities. civilizations and establishments. Her theory would be particularly of import in state of affairss in which a nurse may be enlisted in the Army or a member of the Peace Corps. where there will be cultural every bit good as spiritual divides. and it would be of the extreme importance for the nurse to be able to turn to the differences provide attention consequently.

Flor Kenneth Alobin

Madeleine Leininger focused on attention as an built-in facet of nursing. Unlike other nursing theoreticians. she did non emphasized on basic constructs of individual. nursing. wellness and environment.

Alternatively. she formulated the undermentioned descriptions of these:

Person: refers to an single homo lovingness and cultural being every bit good as a household. group. a societal establishment. or a civilization.

Human existences are best explained in her premises. Worlds are therefore believed to be caring and capable of being concerned about the desires. public assistances. and continued being of others. Human attention is corporate. that is. seen in all civilizations.

Worlds have endured within civilizations and through topographic point and clip because they have been able to care for babies. kids. and the aged in a assortment of ways and in many different environments. Therefore. worlds are universally- caring existences who survive in a diverseness of civilizations through their ability to supply the catholicity of attention in a assortment of ways harmonizing to differing civilizations. demands. and scenes.

Leininger ( 1991 ) besides indicates that nursing. as a caring scientific discipline should concentrate in front of traditional nurse-patient interactions to include “families. groups. communities. entire civilizations. establishments. ” every bit good as world-wide wellness establishments and ways to spread out international nursing attention policies and patterns.

Environment: refers to the physical or ecological environment and a context in which persons and cultural groups live

Alternatively of ‘environment’ Leininger uses the construct ‘environmental context’ . which includes events with significances and readings given to them in peculiar physical. ecological. sociopolitical and/or cultural scenes.

Her description of civilization centres on a peculiar group ( society ) and the patterning of actions. ideas. and determinations that occurs as the consequence of “learned. shared. and familial values. beliefs. norms and lifeways. ” This acquisition. sharing. conveying. and modeling take topographic point within a group of people who function in an identifiable scene or environment. Therefore. although Leininger does non utilize the specific footings of society or environment. the construct of civilization is closedly related to society/environment. and is a cardinal affair of her theory.

Health: encompasses a wide spectrum of conditions. including well-being. unwellness. disablement. and disability

Madeleine Leininger discussed about constituents of wellness. specifically:
§ wellness systems
§ wellness attention patterns
§ altering wellness forms
§ wellness publicities
§ wellness care

Health is a cardinal construct in transcultural nursing. Because of the weight on the demand for nurses to hold cognition that is specific to the civilization in which nursing is being practiced. it is acknowledged that wellness is seen as being cosmopolitan across civilizations but distinguishable within each civilization in a manner that represents the beliefs. values. and patterns of the peculiar civilization. Thus. wellness is both cosmopolitan and diverse.

Nursing: a subject and profession of transcultural human attention. It is a erudite humanistic and scientific profession and subject that focuses on phenomena and activities of human attention in order to help. support. facilitate. or enable persons or groups to keep or recover their wellbeing ( or wellness ) in culturally meaningful and good ways. or to assist people face disabilities or decease

First. Leininger considers nursing a subject and a profession. and the term ‘nursing’ therefore can non explicate the phenomenon of nursing. Alternatively. attention has the greatest epistemological and onto logic explanatory power to explicate nursing. Leininger ( 1995a ) positions ‘caring’ as the verb opposite number to the noun ‘care’ and refers it to a feeling of compassion. involvement and concern for people ( Leininger 1970. Morse et Al. 1990. Reynolds 1995. McCance et Al. 1997 ) . When Leininger’s definition of attention is compared to other transcultural scholars’ definitions. it appears that her position of attention is wider than. for illustration. that of Orque et Al. ( 1983 ) . who describe attention as goal-oriented nursing activities. in which the nurses recognise the patients’ cultural and cultural characteristics and incorporate them into the nursing procedure.

Leininger showed her concern to nurses who do non hold sufficient readying for a transcultural position. For that ground. they will non be able to value nor pattern such point of view to the fullest extent possible.

She gave three types of nursing actions that are culturally-based and therefore consistent with the demands and values of the clients. These are:

1. Cultural attention preservation/maintenance
2. Cultural attention accommodation/negotiation
3. Cultural attention repatterning/restructuring

These three manners of action can take to the rescue of nursing attention that best tantrums with the client’s civilization and therefore cut down cultural emphasis and opportunity for struggle between the client and the health professional.

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