Occupational health aims at the promotion and
maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of
workers in all occupations and the prevention amongst workers of departures
from health caused by their working conditions. Occupational health defined
as:”the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and
social well-being of workers in all occupations 1– total health of
all at work”.



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” Source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of
injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the workplace environment,
or a combination of these”

Types of occupational health

A. Physical

B. Chemical

C. Biological

D. Mechanical

E. Psychosocial


Role of Ministry of Health and Labor
Office in Sudan

of health and labor office in Sudan has been playing an important role in the
issue of occupational safety and health. They developed the legislations and
laws that promote the provision of occupational safety and health among Sudanese
people. The following are the main documentations issued in this regard:2

Ø  1949
– Factory and Workshops Act

Ø  1976
Industrial Safety Act

Ø  •Factories
Decree of 1981

Ø  Occupational
health Act of 1981

Ø  Labor
 Code of 1997

Ø  Tobacco
Act 2005

Ø  Occupational
Safety Compensation Law 2007

Ø  National
Pension Fund Law – 2008

state has developed an occupational safety and health law in 2011. This law
stated clearly the role that ministry of health can play in notion of occupational
health and safety. According to this law The administration of occupational
health has the following authorities and responsibilities:

Ø  Develop  policies ,strategies, general directions and
technical standards that ensure health of workers and protect them against occupational
diseases and injuries at settings that has occupational health impact according
to scientific references.

Ø  Supervising
and controlling the environmental hazards and ensuring that the working
environment is complying with the standards set by ministry of health.

Ø  Provision
of consultancy services regarding health of workers

Ø  Conduction
of researches, field studies and laboratorial studies for different industrial

Ø  Respond
to complaints from individuals and groups that pertain to occupational health.

Ø  Taking
samples of the materials used in the industrial and agricultural processes for

Ø  Conducts  medical and laboratory diagnosis for workers
in every organizations

Ø  Check
the contingency plan and do analysis for the hazards within the organization


 Influence of the Ministry of Health and the Labor Office in
improving the current situation.

Ministry of health and
labor office in sudan can improve the occupational safety and health if they
implement and apply  their laws and
policies. The improvement in the current situation of occupational health by
actions of the two bodies is possible. Because many countries achieved
significant improvement through labor office and ministry of health
interventions and regulations. capacity-building;
monitoring and evaluation with a participatory approach. The ILO is currently
developing an initiative to address decent work in urban agriculture. It is due
to be first implemented in Harare (Zimbabwe) in 2013. Government authorities
and other actors also have an important role to play by supporting the
organization of workers, by recognizing the importance of their work
(especially in the case of waste workers and street traders), and by raising
social awareness of their work and contributions to society. This has led to
the improvement of health and safety conditions. At the same time, it is vital
that the workers themselves take action to promote self-organization.Important
lessons can be drawn from the Brazilian experience. For example, during the
1980s in Belo Horizonte the Street Pastoral Care of the Archdiocese started to
support waste pickers to organize themselves and to fight for their rights.
During the 1990s ‘ASMARE’ (Association of Paper,Cardboard and Recyclables’
Pickers of Belo Horizonte) was created (Gonçalves et al., 2008). Subsequently,
an article was included in the municipality’s Organic Law stating that
cooperatives should be given preference in the collection of recyclable
material. Similar decrees were passed in Porto Alegre and Diadema. Brasilia
recognized the waste pickers’ cooperatives as service providersfor the
collected materials generated in public buildings (2004) and in the
implementation of se-lective collection throughout the Federal District (2006).
All these achievements came through via a long process of organization and
negotiation. Other cities have also shown similar gains, not only in Brazil but
also in other countries, such as, for instance, Egypt and India (Dias and
Alves, 2008).Municipal gains have also trickled up to the national level.
According to Medina (2007), Colombian waste pickers organised the first
national cooperative movement in the world. A non-governmental organisation
called Fundacion Social helped non-organised waste pickers in the formation of
their cooperatives throughout the period 1986-2000. The National Movement of
(urban) Waste Pickers (Movimento Nacional dos Catadores de Materiais
Reciclaveis) in Brazil was founded in 2001 but their root came from the 1990s
(MNCR, 2011). The Movement was a result of articulation of several organized
groups, associations, cooperatives in different cities and states throughout
the country, which were helped by religious groups, non-governmental
organizations and other groups. The movement in Brazil reached some important
conquests at the national level, such as: National Commission of (urban) Waste
Pickers (2001); recognition of waste pickers as a professional oc-cupation in
the Brazilian Classification of Professional Occupations of the Ministry of
Labour and Employment; federal degree of 11 September 2003 which created an
inter-ministerial forum for the inclusion of waste pickers; recognition of
waste pickers and their organizations as partners of local authorities in waste
management activities in the National Policy of Solid Waste (2011); among
others. Waste pickers acting individually faced the set of occupational hazards
noted before in this paper. Their organization brought considerable progress,
by raising the awareness about health and safety risks and also providing
personal protective equipment.Exchange of experiences among groups of waste
pickers have also made others more aware of the importance of organizing and of
how organization can lead to improvements of health and safety. Governments and
International Organizations can support networks. Examples from other sectors
can also be found. For instance, in the past decade the ILO supported the organization
of informal construction workers in Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), leading to its recognition
by the National Construction Council with improvements in occupational health
and safety (Jason, 2007). There are examples of cities and towns which recognized
and supported street traders by allowing them to register as self-employed
workers, with proper documentation. This has positively impacted on the level
of stress faced by such traders, addressing its health consequences. Under such
new conditions, street traders feel secure to improve their work environment,
with appropriate chairs and many times stands with protection from the sun and
rain. Other times, local authorities created specific market places for street
traders (with the caveat that such markets need to be located in areas with
large influx of potential clients, and not in faraway places). Such markets
represent im-provements in personal hygiene, protection against sun and rain,
and in the reduction of harassment and consequent stress.In regard to domestic
workers, following pressure from social movements linked with such workers,the
Brazilian government created the National Programme for Domestic Work and
Citizenship (“Programa Nacional Trabalho Doméstico Cidadão”). The programme was
created under the Ministry of Labour and Employment and was developed and
improved through different part-nerships with other government authorities
(such as State Department for Racial Equality Policies;

State Department for Women’s Policies; Ministry of Social Protection;
Ministry of Cities; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Education; Federal Savings
Bank; Bureau of the President of the Republic).Partnerships with UN agencies
were also promoted (ILO, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNIFEM, UNDP,UN-Habitat) as well as
with actors related to the labour movement. A National Federation of Domestic
Workers (FENATRAD) was created.Actions included: a Professional Qualification
Programme integrated to the fundamental level of formal education, national
workshops for capacity building, national seminars related to domestic workers’
rights, national conferences involving many sectors of the society in many
municipalities, dissemination through campaigns using television, radio, DVD
production, sectoral magazines and manuals, actions for the improvement of
social protection and specific programs and projects for housing and campaigns
for the formalization of the workers, improvements of the work con-

ditions (including health) and stimulus for the debate and
labour legislation revision (ILO, 2010). Successful examples from waste
pickers, construction workers, street traders and domestic workers can be used
as good practices to inspire progress where it still has not taken place. They
can also be an important source of knowledge for urban agricultural workers,
whose organization is by and large still incipient.


Duty to ensure the health and safety of employees include3:

Ø  Workers should be provided by clean
healthy water in suffient amount in workplaces

Ø  Clean areas supplied with chairs and
tables away fro work location

Ø  If number of workers is between 30
to 150 should appoint an industrial officer released fro his normal
occupational duties

Ø  When the number of workers reach 150
to 500 workers, the owner of the factory shall appoint an industrial safety
officer who must be released fro his normal occupational duties

Ø  In every factory employing 500
workers or more, an industrial safety committee shall be established

Ø  The industrial safety committee
shall hold ameeting at least once amonth.

Ø  It shall be obliged to meet also in
thecase of serious accident or with in one weel after the discovery of an
occupational disease

Ø  Employers shall not assign workers
to perform ajob before providing him with enough training

Ø  Every owner of an industry shall
inform his workers of the occupational hazards and means for protection against
such hazards

Different actors can take action to address the health risks
faced by urban workers. While trade unions are adopting new roles, other
organizations are joining in campaigning for the workers. Examples include SEWA
(Self-Employed Women’s Organization) in India, and WIEGO (Women in the Informal
Employment: Globalizing and Organizing), among others. The government plays an
important role through health and safety inspection in enterprises. By and
large there are not enough inspectors to police even large enterprises, let
alone the myriad of small ones. The way forward is to change the role of labour
inspectors to one of education and prevention, as opposed to inspection and
prosecution. Another important process is to hold clients and contracting
enterprises co-responsible for the work conditions in subcontracted enterprises
– i.e. to make sure that they buy goods and services delivered under decent
work conditions.

Provision of adequate training on occupational health and
safety reaching casual workers is also fundamental. To this end, the ILO has
produced a number of training packages for small enterprises which can be
promoted by government authorities as well as other institutions supporting
such enterprises and their workers. They have a comprehensive approach which
includes health and safety. Examples include: (a) for small enterprises in
general: WISE (Work Improvements in Small Enterprises); (b) for construction:
WISCON (Work Improvements in Construction Enterprises); (c) for waste
management: WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing); (d) for
agri-culture: WIND (Work Improvements in Neighbourhood Development). While WIND
has been designed for rural areas, it could be adapted to urban agriculture. In
addition, the Sectoral Activities Department of the ILO is currently developing
a Policy and Users’ Guide to Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture, which includes
health and safety. The ILO has also produced a specific manual on occupational
health and safety in low-technology construction. The manual includes only
pictures, and no words. Therefore, it can be used across the world, including
by illiterate workers. In regard to urban agricultural workers specifically,
suggestions for improvement listed in the literature include: waste segregation
at source (which is cheaper and healthier); the improvement of linkages between
health, agricultural production, waste and environmental management and
adequate treatment; farmer education on management of health risks and on the
proper management of agrochemicals; control of dogs and other animals.

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