ONFebruary 17 2017, President Donald Trump stated the following, “The FAKE NEWSmedia is not my enemy, it is the enemy to the American People!” With thePresident of the United States doubting mainstream media, we must askourselves, how important are opinions of experts in our search for knowledge? Humansshould form their own opinions. If this ‘expert’ we are basing our opinion offof has not done his research, than the opinion being made is false. But, if anaverage man gave us an opinion he has not research and tells us its fact, thenwe should not believe it. We can base our opinions on experts, but to anextent. There are three main reasons why we should base our opinions onexperts, nut only to a certain extent.
Firstly, experts who have gone against society’snorms have found truth previously not found. Secondly, many people fall underthe trap of what is called an authoritative fallacy, because they do not formtheir own opinions. Thirdly, we must base our opinions on knowledge we havefound for ourselvesLW1 .Many of the discoveries in our world todayare thanks to somebody challenging the norms of society. We must first definean expert: a person who has a comprehensiveand authoritative knowledge of a skill in a particular area. WouldLW2 Galileo had discover that the universe is heliocentric had he notchallenged the Church? No! The world would have kept believing that the worldwas geocentric and we would still be leaning about this in school had he notgone against the opinions of an ‘expert.’ Another example would be the historyof the atom. Around 460 B.
C, a Greek philosopher, Democritus, developed theidea of atoms. He thought about matter and how many you could break it untilyou broke it no further. He called these atoms.
Aristotle threw the idea awayand for 2000 years no one questioned it. Until a man named John Dalton tookmatters into his own hand and questioned matter. In the early 1800’s, he cameout with the ‘Raisin in the Pudding model’. Fast-forward to 1911 and theRutherford came out with the Rutherford-Borh model.
All these expert opinionshave come to what we now know as the Atomic Cloud model. Every single one ofthese experts had opinions and had done research to support them. Theirresearched opinion are what most of the world considers now common knowledge.Authoritative fallacy is one of the manylogical fallacies. It is presented as when a person making a claim is presented as an expert whoshould be trusted when his or her expertise is not in the area being discussed.For example, let’s say this headlines appears in the Winnipeg Free Press, “Dr.Bill, TV’s hottest new psychologist says that coffee enemas are the fountain ofyouth!” There are many things wrong with this statement. The most obvious onebeing that our ‘Dr.
Bill’ is most likely a psychologist and has no expertise incoffee enemas, thus he’s not qualified to give his advice on non-psychologicalissues. Extending is expertise on psychology to issues of coffee is a fallacy.Another real life example would be of a man named Mitch Synder. Mitch Snyderwas a man born in 1940. He was an advocate for homeless people all overAmerica. He’s what one might call an ‘expert’. He made a claim in the late 80’sthat 3 million people in America were homeless. This seemed outrageous becauseit would mean that 1 in 3 Americans are homeless.
This was disproved by basiceconomics, but for over a year people believed him and donated to his ‘campaignfor the homeless’. This is an example of an authoritative fallacy. Is peoplewould have form their own opinions, people would not have donated to Mr.Snyder’s campaign based on a lie. A great man once said, “Do not believe in anything simply because you have heardit. Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumored by many.
Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written in your religiousbooks. Do not believe in anything merely on the authority of your teachers andelders. Do not believe in traditions because they have been handed down formany generations. But after observation and analysis, when you find thatanything agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and benefit of one andall, then accept it and live up to it.” (Buddha). He basically telling usto form our own opinion for ourselves, because passed down knowledge can becorrupt. An example of this is the Catholic Church deleting passages from itsown Bible! The main stream version of the Bible, known as the NIV (New Internationalversion), that is accepted by the Catholic religion as its main doctrine hasmany differences with the King James Bible. The King James Bible being the mostexact translation we have.
There are more than 64,000 words missing from theNIV. On top of that, a whole chunk of the second commandment is missing!Needless to say, Buddha’s words ring true here, “Do not believe in anythingsimply because it is found and written in your religious books.” We must formour own opinions based on knowledge we have found.
We can base our opinions on experts, butonly to an extent. Firstly, experts who have gone against society’s norms havefound truth previously not found. Secondly, many people fall under the trap ofwhat is called an authoritative fallacy, because they do not form their ownopinions. Thirdly, we must base our opinions on knowledge we have found forourselves. As humans we should stopbasing our opinions on opinions of expert, they can be wrong.
To move forwardunto new discoveries me must come up with our own knowledge to make humanitybetter. LW1In your introduction, it is important that you have a clearly statedknowledge question (KQ) as most of the marking (see marking rubric here: https://goo.gl/h2jbTn) depends on it. The KQ is derived from the prescribed title, but isnot the title itself. This gives you room to draw out a KQ of your own that is related to the titlebut fits with the examples you choose in the essay. If the idea of a KQ isunclear, here is an I.B.
document that also explains it: https://goo.gl/CjspZZ You should also define some of theterms in the title and knowledge question. For example, what is your definitionof knowledge? LW2Source?