aspect that I felt was the most important for a company to grow and be
successful regardless of the economic environment is the flexibility and
adaptability of the leaders in the company. I believe that leaders who are able
to be flexible are leaders who can make the business grow despite anything. I
believe that being able to adapt to any circumstance is vital. If a change is
needed, then leaders and the company can adapt to those changes if necessary. If
there is a concern, leaders could manage any conflicts because they are able to
adapt to any circumstance. For instance, if there is a concern with sales,
leaders and the company on a whole will be able to adapt and be flexible to
deal with this by probably enhancing their marketing procedures for example. In
my opinion, this aspect will help a company to grow and leaders who are capable
can help the company to be innovative.

company’s organization design is so aligned with its structure that employees
can work effectively. They can bring forth new, creative designs. They can all
communicate effectively with one another. Lockheed has provided its employees
with the equipment and programs to help create an innovative and technological
environment. By an organization design that enhances innovation, Lockheed
Martin will continue to be on the competitive edge through the development and
creation of new technologies. According to Katz (2012), “Kubasik
states that the company’s role in developing emerging technologies will be a
factor in its ability to remain globally competitive” (para. 5).

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Lockheed Martin embraces technological innovations. If it were not for the
innovations of the company, the company would not be where it is presently.
Lockheed Martin has emerging technologies in Advanced Aeronautics,
Nanotechnology, Robotics, Scientific Discovery and Quantum. To keep citizens
and soldiers safe, they have robots and unmanned aerial systems that could
venture into dangerous places that humans cannot. The company has been breaking
the realms of space explorations. They are the prime contractor for Orion which
is NASA’s spacecraft designed for humans to venture deep into space. The
spacecraft is said to be capable of carrying passengers to the moon and
eventually to Mars. They are making customers dreams come through with these
innovations. According to Lockheed Martin (n.d.), They have been working
alongside the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Air Force, and
Navy to determine viable approaches to maintain U.S. air dominance capabilities
in the post-2035 world which is all led by the Skunk Works” (Air Dominance of
the Future section, para.2). We see innovations like the F-35 which has
capabilities of not being detected by radar. These innovations are helping the
US and its allies to keep air dominance.

to Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014), “Although the design for an
organization should reflect its size, it must also be adjusted to fit
technological opportunities and requirements” (p.364). Lockheed Martin
organization’s design helps communication, productivity and innovation to
foster. Lockheed Martin is a company that is known for its innovation capabilities.
Therefore, an organizational design that helps this is important. Its strategy
is to be help customers needs and keep them safe by providing services and
products to fit those needs. Their organizational design effectively ensures
that their goals and missions are accomplished. Through an environment where
innovation can be created, and performance can be enhanced, they have managed
to reach their goals.


addition, I believe process controls along with output controls are used by
Lockheed Martin. I believe that management ensures that all levels are aware of
the goals set forth by the company, but they also leave room for innovational
ideas as well by those levels. In terms of process controls we could view how
the ethics code is represented in the company. The company has rules and
policies when it comes to ethics. They also have training programs as well so
that employees know what behavior is expected of them.

believe the company accomplishes a lot of advantages in these organization
forms. I believe it increases communication across the business. I believe that
teamwork is better in these types of organization forms. This will help to
increase performance within the business. I believe that there will also be
more accountability since every department knows their specific tasks. This
structure also ensures that their strategy can be achieved. Each department is
set out to develop innovative solutions to satisfy their customers and to keep
them safe.

company uses a Matrix departmentation. This form utilizes both functional and
divisional departmentation. This is used by most aerospace companies and
Lockheed Martin has been using this form to its advantage. They also have a
hybrid structure preferably a conglomerate. Lockheed Martin has a wide variety
of business areas. It has the Aeronautics area which deals with the designing
and building of high performance aircrafts especially military aircraft. It
also has a Missiles and Fire Control department. This area according to
Lockheed Martin (n.d.), “develops, manufactures and supports advanced combat,
missile, rocket, manned and unmanned systems for military customers that
include the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, NASA and dozens of
foreign allies” (Our Business, para. 2). It also provides products and services
to the global civil nuclear power industry and the military’s green power
initiatives. There is also the Rotary and Mission Systems area that caters to
US military and other customers. The is also the Space department that have a
wide variety of products including space explorations products. They also have
joint venture with United Launch Alliance and United Space Alliance. These
business areas all have their Vice Presidents.

believe that Lockheed Martin institutional strategy goal and objective is to
provide products and services to its customers despite how challenging their
requests may be and to continue to deliver exceptional performance and
innovation despite the challenges and to adapt in the ever-changing environment
to grow their company. The mission statement as stated by Lockheed Martin
(n.d.), is “We solve complex challenges, advance scientific discovery and
deliver innovative solutions to help our customers keep people safe” (Who We
Are section, para.1). These objectives are in light of the mission statement
because despite the challenging request made from their customers they are
willing to focus on their customers priorities. They are making remarkable
process in their innovations to fit their customer’s needs. They are working on
providing innovative solutions so that their customers can remain safe.

Martin is very stringent on their code of ethics. It is important for everyone
to be respectful and trustworthy. Their values at the company is to do what’s
right, respect others and perform with excellence. Lockheed Martin has a strong
commitment to ethics and to living up to those ethical values that they have
set forth. The company has zero tolerance for corruption. They have a culture
that encourages employees to speak up when they suspect actions that are not
consistent to their values. They have various training programs to keep
employees up to date with behavioral standards.  They have policies that ensure that there is
no violence or discrimination against any race. The company stresses its
values. As a major contractor for the government, they have to ensure that
every employee is aware of the code of conduct. They must understand anti-corruption
laws. Their aim is to continue to raise the bar for ethical business conduct.

Organizational Structure

There are four steps in the process
of innovation. There is Ideas creation, Initial experimentation, Feasibility
determination and Final application. These are the steps that Lockheed Martin
use. The leaders and the company as a whole, reinforce and support a strong
culture that promotes innovation by giving employees space to come up with
creative ideas. By the establishment of Innovation Garages, engineers are able
to come up with creative ideas. According to Watson (2015), “When they have a
notion for a project, they present it to the leadership team, which then
provides funding for teams to mature their concepts. The objective is to move
from idea to rapid prototype in about 16 weeks.” By having competitions, it
helps employees to be more creative which also helps and promotes innovation. I
believe that leadership also plays an important role. Leaders play a key role
in terms of providing an atmosphere where employees can come to them and be
open about their ideas. According to Quinn (2012), Sharon Watts states that
“You need to be in an environment where you can go run and tell somebody your
idea” (para.1). This is the environment that Lockheed Martin has tried to
perfect throughout the years to improve innovations year after year.

There may be potential sources of resistance.
There may be limitations such as the US government and regulations. The
government may be worried about security.  I believe this is one of the reasons why they
have been slow to expanding internationally. Through effective communication I
believe the resistance to change can be overcome. Strong commitment and
involvement will also be needed. Leaders had to remain strong through these
changes. So far, I believe Lockheed Martin has been resilient in their efforts.
I believe they are trying their best to expand. I believe having meetings with
these countries and paving the way for new contracts will be ideal.

I believe that rational persuasion
can be used to achieve the planned change. I believe this is a reasonable
approach because stating the facts will help others to understand why that
change is necessary. I believe we have to honest about the situation and what
these changes entail and how they would benefit everyone. The force coercive
and shared power are not quite necessary for this matter.

I believe that Lockheed Martin should
have more of an international presence. They should enlarge the customer base a
bit more to international countries instead of being heavily reliant on the US
government for revenue and profits. This change may not be moving at a quick
pace due to constraints by the US government due to security reasons and
regulations. I believe they have started to see that this is a much-needed
change. I believe they have to stay open minded about this and keep pressing
forward. I believe this change could be manage using the three-phase model of
planned change. The Unfreezing phase is the first phase in this model. It is
important that the company prepares everyone for this change. According to
Connelly (2016), “It involves getting to a point of understanding that change
is necessary, and getting ready to move away from our current comfort zone”
(para. 3). I believe it is up to the leaders of the company to inform everyone
that change is needed. The company can not rely on only revenues from the
government to make a profit. Therefore, action needs to be taken. The next
phase is the Change or Transition phase. In this phase, everyone sees the need
for the change and is moving in the direction of change. I believe knowing how
this will benefit everyone is important. I believe that by doing this it may
create new jobs. By expanding internationally, international sales will
increase and so will profits. The final phase is the Refreezing phase.
Employees will feel a sense of stability and confidence here. The company has
to reassure every one of its progress.

Management and Innovation Culture

Martin has utilized training programs for its teams. It has also utilized
processes to improve team communication and decision making. The company has an
Ethics Awareness Program that helps employees make ethical decisions in tough
situations. The company has also been aware of when there are communication
issues in the company. There was a situation in the past where engineering
teams were not getting along on a program. Management did everything that they
could but failed. Lockheed Martin turned to the Vanto Group to aid in the
situation. Employees had to participate in various sessions. In these sessions
they voiced their concerns and opinions. They developed solutions for the
issues. At the end of the sessions, those who had participated in the Vanto
Group Program had a more positive attitude. Productivity increased due to the
fact that each team member was collaborating with each other. As a result of
this program, not only did communication and decision making improve but the
project that they were initially working on was completed.

building is also essential at Lockheed Martin. In order to have a collaborative
environment and to improve innovation, team members have to learn how to work
together. According to Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014), “Real teamwork
occurs when team members accept and live up to their collective accountability
by actively working together so that all of their respective skills are best
used to achieve team goals” (p.142). There are various team building activities
that have been used to help improve teambuilding skills. For example, nine
teams of engineers at the company participated in a duct tape competition.  In this competition, coworkers were given five
minutes to tape their partners to the wall with one roll of duct tape. The team
who stays up for 20 minutes wins the challenge. According to Martin 2017,
Engineer Manager Paul Mittan stated that “our engineers do a lot of challenging
things every day and this is just a great opportunity to get together as a team
and build some camaraderie, have some fun and solve difficult problems”
(para.3). Employees also participated in a building block competition and a
portable bridge challenge to improve their team work. These types of team
building activities allow members to trust each other. It also improves task performance
within the organization. As stated by Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014),
“With regards to task performance, an effective team achieves its performance
goals in the standard sense of quantity, quality, and timeliness of work
results” (p.142). It is important to have team building activities at Lockheed
Martin because high team performance is very essential for the daily operations
of the company. With teamwork, the best products can be produced. One person
can not get the job done. It takes an entire team. I believe Lockheed Martin
has stressed the point that teamwork is important and that team members should
respect and learn to work with each other. When everyone is working together,
it drives innovation. It allows everyone to be creative and come up with new

Team Building



to Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014), “Risk management involves
identifying critical risks and then developing strategies and assigning
responsibilities for dealing with them” (p.195). Lockheed Martin has an
Enterprise Risk Management strategy to identify and manage potential risks to
the business. The process is guided by the Risk and Compliance Committee and
corporate functions. According to Lockheed Martin (n.d.), the 2015
Sustainability Report states that, “We execute our ERM strategy through a
continuous process to identify, assess, prioritize, mitigate and report on the
most critical risks and their probability of achieving business objectives” (p.18).
In order to have a risk transparent culture, Lockheed Martin uses risk management
practices, core values and their Code of Ethics and Business Conduct. Action
plans are also used for potential risks.

believe the company resolves conflicts by using the integrative approach.
According to Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014), “The integrative
approach to negotiation is less confrontational than the distributive, and it
permits a broader range of alternatives to be considered in the negotiation
process. From the outset there is much more of a win–win orientation” (p.227). If
we view the current situation with Lockheed Martin and the government in the
battle of costs with the F 35, we can see that both parties want to win. President
Donald Trump wants to pay less for the F 35. Therefore, Lockheed Martin had to
negotiate with the president a suitable solution. Usually with the
interrogative approach, both parties win. In this negotiation both parties did
win. President Trump got what he wanted which was to save the government from
spending billions of dollars on this defense program. Meanwhile, Lockheed
Martin reducing the cost of the F 35s means that if the government place larger
orders since the price is reduced, the company’s profits will increase. Lockheed
Martin has also participated in Negotiation Training Institute for Win-Win
Negotiations Training. In this training workshop, attendees learned various
negotiation strategies to help them stay ahead of the negotiation process.

making often requires multiple levels of approval. Because the company has a
Matrix Structure, decisions and information flow from the top to the bottom.
However, there are five steps in the decision-making process. The first step is
to recognize and define the problem. Then, identify and analyze alternative
actions. Then choose a preferred course of action. After, implement the course
of action and then evaluate results and follow up. I believe the company uses
these steps when making decisions. According to Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and
Osborn (2014), “Criteria used in making the choice typically involve costs and
benefits, timeliness of results, impact on stakeholders, and ethical soundness”
(p.190). In this company timeliness is important. Customers especially the
military, expect products to be made for a certain date. Therefore, decisions
have to be made in regard to timeliness. The company takes pride in having an
organizational culture that is very ethically sound. Therefore, decisions are
also made in these regards. Despite leaders making decisions in the company,
the company tries to have a diverse and inclusive culture. Therefore, employees
can contribute ideas.

Martin has a culture that encourages collaboration and innovation. When there
is collaboration, innovation more likely takes place. Communication is also
key. It is important that everyone not only communicate effectively, but also
listen to each other as well. There are a few examples where we can see
firsthand how collaboration and communication play a role in the operations of
the company.  One of these examples
include the collaboration and communication efforts amongst team members at
Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. There are times when the entire company
has to work on projects. One of these projects is the Digital Tapestry.
According to Watson (2015), “We know our teams perform best when they achieve
“collective genius.” When we collaborate, we expand our range of ideas. Part of
this comes from tapping into individual members’ different talents,
perspectives, and experiences – so we must be inclusive” (para.6).
Collaboration is also prominent because the different development teams from
across the company all have to share information with each other. Communication
skills are also vital. In order for everyone to collaborate, there must be effective
communication. Everyone must be willing to share and exchange information and
opinions with each other. Listening to each other on the job is also of equal
importance. According to Watson (2015), “We try to put the emphasis on good
listening. That means listening to customers to truly understand their needs,
listening to each other as we suggest ideas or recount relevant experiences and
listening to ourselves” (para.8). There are times when complex matters need to
be discussed on the job. Therefore, communication is vital amongst employees
and even customers.

Martin business environment takes pride in innovation, inclusion, leadership
and ethics. The company has a Full Spectrum Leadership model which has been
apart of the organization’s culture since 2006. The five characteristics/imperatives
of the Full Spectrum Leadership are Deliver Results, Shape the Future, Build
Effective Relationships, Energize the Team and Model Personal excellence,
Integrity and Accountability. These five characteristics/imperatives all have
individual meanings. For example, energizing the team means that leaders should
always have a positive, engaging work environment where all employees can
excel. I believe these five imperatives show that the interaction that leaders
have with not only other employees but with customers and stakeholders should
be a positive one. The leaders within the company have to ensure that the
values of the company and the culture of the company is set to a high standard.
The relationships that leaders have with employees and customers should be that
of a strong and effective relationship. Therefore, the use of these imperatives
will help the company to have a productive work environment. An environment
where leaders and followers can communicate effectively to get tasks completed.
An environment where collaboration is possible. According to Lockheed Martin
(n.d.), Rick Edwards who is the Vice President of Missiles and Fire Control
states that, “Leaders have a responsibility to create an environment where all
employees feel valued- an environment where employees feel at eas e and can
bring their full selves to work every day” (Full Spectrum Leadership Section,
para.5). The Full Spectrum Leadership is also aligned with the CARE Program.
This program help leaders to be aware of the attributes they must have to be
successful. There are also various leadership development programs. One of
these programs include Communications. An applicant can grow their expertise in
employee communications. This program will help employees gain expertise on how
to communicate with others more effectively. These leadership development
programs help to groom employees into effective leaders. Lockheed Martin groom’s
leaders to cultivate an inclusive and supportive work environment. Lockheed
Martin strives to have a company that is inclusive. This also helps employees
to interact with leaders. In 2016, the aeronautics department hosted an event
called Connect and Engage Week. This allowed colleagues to get to know one
another and it also gave them an opportunity to learn about different cultures,
talents and hobbies. There are also Employee Resource Groups, Leadership Forums
and Employee Networks where employees can interact and connect with each other.

Decision Making


the company celebrates over a hundred years of innovation. The company’s
headquarters is in Bethesda, Maryland. It is home to 97,000 employees
presently. The CEO of Lockheed Martin presently is Marillyn Hewson who is the
first female to ever hold that position at the company.  Lockheed Martin is a global security and
aerospace company whose products include aircraft, missiles and other advanced-technology systems.
The company does majority of its business with the US department of defense and
federal government agencies. It provides products and services to all branches
of the military. The company’s mission is to ensure that its customers and
their people are safe through the innovative products and services that they
provide for them. The company upholds a high standard for values and ethics.

1995, Lockheed and Martin merged together to form Lockheed Martin Corporation. However,
they both had humble beginnings before the merger. In 1912, Glenn L. Martin
established the Glenn L. Martin Company in Los Angeles, California. His
innovative ideas began in a church when he designed his first aircraft. In the
following years, the company supplied bombers to the US military during the
World War. In the 1960s, the Martin company started producing missiles and
space launchers. In 1912, Allan and Malcolm Lockheed founded the Alco
Hydro-Aeroplane Company which was renamed Lockheed Aircraft Company. The two
mechanic brothers started their innovative ideas in a garage. At first, they
designed seaplanes. However, during the World War and the following years, the
company supplied aircrafts and other products to the military such as ballistic
missiles along with spacecraft. After the war, Skunk Works gained the title of being
the leading military aircraft developer in the industry

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