Oneaspect that I felt was the most important for a company to grow and besuccessful regardless of the economic environment is the flexibility andadaptability of the leaders in the company. I believe that leaders who are ableto be flexible are leaders who can make the business grow despite anything. Ibelieve that being able to adapt to any circumstance is vital. If a change isneeded, then leaders and the company can adapt to those changes if necessary. Ifthere is a concern, leaders could manage any conflicts because they are able toadapt to any circumstance.
For instance, if there is a concern with sales,leaders and the company on a whole will be able to adapt and be flexible todeal with this by probably enhancing their marketing procedures for example. Inmy opinion, this aspect will help a company to grow and leaders who are capablecan help the company to be innovative.Thecompany’s organization design is so aligned with its structure that employeescan work effectively.
They can bring forth new, creative designs. They can allcommunicate effectively with one another. Lockheed has provided its employeeswith the equipment and programs to help create an innovative and technologicalenvironment. By an organization design that enhances innovation, LockheedMartin will continue to be on the competitive edge through the development andcreation of new technologies. According to Katz (2012), “Kubasikstates that the company’s role in developing emerging technologies will be afactor in its ability to remain globally competitive” (para. 5).Moreover,Lockheed Martin embraces technological innovations. If it were not for theinnovations of the company, the company would not be where it is presently.
Lockheed Martin has emerging technologies in Advanced Aeronautics,Nanotechnology, Robotics, Scientific Discovery and Quantum. To keep citizensand soldiers safe, they have robots and unmanned aerial systems that couldventure into dangerous places that humans cannot. The company has been breakingthe realms of space explorations. They are the prime contractor for Orion whichis NASA’s spacecraft designed for humans to venture deep into space. Thespacecraft is said to be capable of carrying passengers to the moon andeventually to Mars. They are making customers dreams come through with theseinnovations.
According to Lockheed Martin (n.d.), They have been workingalongside the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Air Force, andNavy to determine viable approaches to maintain U.
S. air dominance capabilitiesin the post-2035 world which is all led by the Skunk Works” (Air Dominance ofthe Future section, para.2). We see innovations like the F-35 which hascapabilities of not being detected by radar. These innovations are helping theUS and its allies to keep air dominance.
Accordingto Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014), “Although the design for anorganization should reflect its size, it must also be adjusted to fittechnological opportunities and requirements” (p.364). Lockheed Martinorganization’s design helps communication, productivity and innovation tofoster. Lockheed Martin is a company that is known for its innovation capabilities.Therefore, an organizational design that helps this is important. Its strategyis to be help customers needs and keep them safe by providing services andproducts to fit those needs.
Their organizational design effectively ensuresthat their goals and missions are accomplished. Through an environment whereinnovation can be created, and performance can be enhanced, they have managedto reach their goals.EnvironmentInaddition, I believe process controls along with output controls are used byLockheed Martin. I believe that management ensures that all levels are aware ofthe goals set forth by the company, but they also leave room for innovationalideas as well by those levels.
In terms of process controls we could view howthe ethics code is represented in the company. The company has rules andpolicies when it comes to ethics. They also have training programs as well sothat employees know what behavior is expected of them.
Ibelieve the company accomplishes a lot of advantages in these organizationforms. I believe it increases communication across the business. I believe thatteamwork is better in these types of organization forms. This will help toincrease performance within the business. I believe that there will also bemore accountability since every department knows their specific tasks.
Thisstructure also ensures that their strategy can be achieved. Each department isset out to develop innovative solutions to satisfy their customers and to keepthem safe. Thecompany uses a Matrix departmentation. This form utilizes both functional anddivisional departmentation. This is used by most aerospace companies andLockheed Martin has been using this form to its advantage. They also have ahybrid structure preferably a conglomerate.
Lockheed Martin has a wide varietyof business areas. It has the Aeronautics area which deals with the designingand building of high performance aircrafts especially military aircraft. Italso has a Missiles and Fire Control department. This area according toLockheed Martin (n.
d.), “develops, manufactures and supports advanced combat,missile, rocket, manned and unmanned systems for military customers thatinclude the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, NASA and dozens offoreign allies” (Our Business, para. 2). It also provides products and servicesto the global civil nuclear power industry and the military’s green powerinitiatives. There is also the Rotary and Mission Systems area that caters toUS military and other customers.
The is also the Space department that have awide variety of products including space explorations products. They also havejoint venture with United Launch Alliance and United Space Alliance. Thesebusiness areas all have their Vice Presidents.Ibelieve that Lockheed Martin institutional strategy goal and objective is toprovide products and services to its customers despite how challenging theirrequests may be and to continue to deliver exceptional performance andinnovation despite the challenges and to adapt in the ever-changing environmentto grow their company. The mission statement as stated by Lockheed Martin(n.d.), is “We solve complex challenges, advance scientific discovery anddeliver innovative solutions to help our customers keep people safe” (Who WeAre section, para.1).
These objectives are in light of the mission statementbecause despite the challenging request made from their customers they arewilling to focus on their customers priorities. They are making remarkableprocess in their innovations to fit their customer’s needs. They are working onproviding innovative solutions so that their customers can remain safe.
LockheedMartin is very stringent on their code of ethics. It is important for everyoneto be respectful and trustworthy. Their values at the company is to do what’sright, respect others and perform with excellence. Lockheed Martin has a strongcommitment to ethics and to living up to those ethical values that they haveset forth. The company has zero tolerance for corruption. They have a culturethat encourages employees to speak up when they suspect actions that are notconsistent to their values.
They have various training programs to keepemployees up to date with behavioral standards. They have policies that ensure that there isno violence or discrimination against any race. The company stresses itsvalues. As a major contractor for the government, they have to ensure thatevery employee is aware of the code of conduct.
They must understand anti-corruptionlaws. Their aim is to continue to raise the bar for ethical business conduct. Organizational StructureThere are four steps in the processof innovation.
There is Ideas creation, Initial experimentation, Feasibilitydetermination and Final application. These are the steps that Lockheed Martinuse. The leaders and the company as a whole, reinforce and support a strongculture that promotes innovation by giving employees space to come up withcreative ideas. By the establishment of Innovation Garages, engineers are ableto come up with creative ideas. According to Watson (2015), “When they have anotion for a project, they present it to the leadership team, which thenprovides funding for teams to mature their concepts.
The objective is to movefrom idea to rapid prototype in about 16 weeks.” By having competitions, ithelps employees to be more creative which also helps and promotes innovation. Ibelieve that leadership also plays an important role.
Leaders play a key rolein terms of providing an atmosphere where employees can come to them and beopen about their ideas. According to Quinn (2012), Sharon Watts states that”You need to be in an environment where you can go run and tell somebody youridea” (para.1).
This is the environment that Lockheed Martin has tried toperfect throughout the years to improve innovations year after year.There may be potential sources of resistance.There may be limitations such as the US government and regulations. Thegovernment may be worried about security. I believe this is one of the reasons why theyhave been slow to expanding internationally. Through effective communication Ibelieve the resistance to change can be overcome. Strong commitment andinvolvement will also be needed. Leaders had to remain strong through thesechanges.
So far, I believe Lockheed Martin has been resilient in their efforts.I believe they are trying their best to expand. I believe having meetings withthese countries and paving the way for new contracts will be ideal.I believe that rational persuasioncan be used to achieve the planned change.
I believe this is a reasonableapproach because stating the facts will help others to understand why thatchange is necessary. I believe we have to honest about the situation and whatthese changes entail and how they would benefit everyone. The force coerciveand shared power are not quite necessary for this matter.
I believe that Lockheed Martin shouldhave more of an international presence. They should enlarge the customer base abit more to international countries instead of being heavily reliant on the USgovernment for revenue and profits. This change may not be moving at a quickpace due to constraints by the US government due to security reasons andregulations.
I believe they have started to see that this is a much-neededchange. I believe they have to stay open minded about this and keep pressingforward. I believe this change could be manage using the three-phase model ofplanned change. The Unfreezing phase is the first phase in this model. It isimportant that the company prepares everyone for this change.
According toConnelly (2016), “It involves getting to a point of understanding that changeis necessary, and getting ready to move away from our current comfort zone”(para. 3). I believe it is up to the leaders of the company to inform everyonethat change is needed. The company can not rely on only revenues from thegovernment to make a profit. Therefore, action needs to be taken. The nextphase is the Change or Transition phase. In this phase, everyone sees the needfor the change and is moving in the direction of change.
I believe knowing howthis will benefit everyone is important. I believe that by doing this it maycreate new jobs. By expanding internationally, international sales willincrease and so will profits.
The final phase is the Refreezing phase.Employees will feel a sense of stability and confidence here. The company hasto reassure every one of its progress.ChangeManagement and Innovation CultureLockheedMartin has utilized training programs for its teams. It has also utilizedprocesses to improve team communication and decision making.
The company has anEthics Awareness Program that helps employees make ethical decisions in toughsituations. The company has also been aware of when there are communicationissues in the company. There was a situation in the past where engineeringteams were not getting along on a program. Management did everything that theycould but failed.
Lockheed Martin turned to the Vanto Group to aid in thesituation. Employees had to participate in various sessions. In these sessionsthey voiced their concerns and opinions. They developed solutions for theissues. At the end of the sessions, those who had participated in the VantoGroup Program had a more positive attitude. Productivity increased due to thefact that each team member was collaborating with each other. As a result ofthis program, not only did communication and decision making improve but theproject that they were initially working on was completed.Teambuilding is also essential at Lockheed Martin.
In order to have a collaborativeenvironment and to improve innovation, team members have to learn how to worktogether. According to Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014), “Real teamworkoccurs when team members accept and live up to their collective accountabilityby actively working together so that all of their respective skills are bestused to achieve team goals” (p.142). There are various team building activitiesthat have been used to help improve teambuilding skills. For example, nineteams of engineers at the company participated in a duct tape competition. In this competition, coworkers were given fiveminutes to tape their partners to the wall with one roll of duct tape.
The teamwho stays up for 20 minutes wins the challenge. According to Martin 2017,Engineer Manager Paul Mittan stated that “our engineers do a lot of challengingthings every day and this is just a great opportunity to get together as a teamand build some camaraderie, have some fun and solve difficult problems”(para.3). Employees also participated in a building block competition and aportable bridge challenge to improve their team work.
These types of teambuilding activities allow members to trust each other. It also improves task performancewithin the organization. As stated by Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014),”With regards to task performance, an effective team achieves its performancegoals in the standard sense of quantity, quality, and timeliness of workresults” (p.142). It is important to have team building activities at LockheedMartin because high team performance is very essential for the daily operationsof the company. With teamwork, the best products can be produced.
One personcan not get the job done. It takes an entire team. I believe Lockheed Martinhas stressed the point that teamwork is important and that team members shouldrespect and learn to work with each other. When everyone is working together,it drives innovation. It allows everyone to be creative and come up with newideas.Team Building Accordingto Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014), “Risk management involvesidentifying critical risks and then developing strategies and assigningresponsibilities for dealing with them” (p.
195). Lockheed Martin has anEnterprise Risk Management strategy to identify and manage potential risks tothe business. The process is guided by the Risk and Compliance Committee andcorporate functions. According to Lockheed Martin (n.
d.), the 2015Sustainability Report states that, “We execute our ERM strategy through acontinuous process to identify, assess, prioritize, mitigate and report on themost critical risks and their probability of achieving business objectives” (p.18).In order to have a risk transparent culture, Lockheed Martin uses risk managementpractices, core values and their Code of Ethics and Business Conduct. Actionplans are also used for potential risks. Ibelieve the company resolves conflicts by using the integrative approach.According to Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn and Osborn (2014), “The integrativeapproach to negotiation is less confrontational than the distributive, and itpermits a broader range of alternatives to be considered in the negotiationprocess.
From the outset there is much more of a win–win orientation” (p.227). Ifwe view the current situation with Lockheed Martin and the government in thebattle of costs with the F 35, we can see that both parties want to win. PresidentDonald Trump wants to pay less for the F 35. Therefore, Lockheed Martin had tonegotiate with the president a suitable solution.
Usually with theinterrogative approach, both parties win. In this negotiation both parties didwin. President Trump got what he wanted which was to save the government fromspending billions of dollars on this defense program. Meanwhile, LockheedMartin reducing the cost of the F 35s means that if the government place largerorders since the price is reduced, the company’s profits will increase. LockheedMartin has also participated in Negotiation Training Institute for Win-WinNegotiations Training. In this training workshop, attendees learned variousnegotiation strategies to help them stay ahead of the negotiation process.
Decisionmaking often requires multiple levels of approval. Because the company has aMatrix Structure, decisions and information flow from the top to the bottom.However, there are five steps in the decision-making process. The first step isto recognize and define the problem. Then, identify and analyze alternativeactions. Then choose a preferred course of action. After, implement the courseof action and then evaluate results and follow up. I believe the company usesthese steps when making decisions.
According to Uhl-Bien, Schermerhorn andOsborn (2014), “Criteria used in making the choice typically involve costs andbenefits, timeliness of results, impact on stakeholders, and ethical soundness”(p.190). In this company timeliness is important. Customers especially themilitary, expect products to be made for a certain date.
Therefore, decisionshave to be made in regard to timeliness. The company takes pride in having anorganizational culture that is very ethically sound. Therefore, decisions arealso made in these regards. Despite leaders making decisions in the company,the company tries to have a diverse and inclusive culture. Therefore, employeescan contribute ideas.
LockheedMartin has a culture that encourages collaboration and innovation. When thereis collaboration, innovation more likely takes place. Communication is alsokey.
It is important that everyone not only communicate effectively, but alsolisten to each other as well. There are a few examples where we can seefirsthand how collaboration and communication play a role in the operations ofthe company. One of these examplesinclude the collaboration and communication efforts amongst team members atLockheed Martin Space Systems Company.
There are times when the entire companyhas to work on projects. One of these projects is the Digital Tapestry.According to Watson (2015), “We know our teams perform best when they achieve”collective genius.” When we collaborate, we expand our range of ideas. Part ofthis comes from tapping into individual members’ different talents,perspectives, and experiences – so we must be inclusive” (para.
6).Collaboration is also prominent because the different development teams fromacross the company all have to share information with each other. Communicationskills are also vital. In order for everyone to collaborate, there must be effectivecommunication. Everyone must be willing to share and exchange information andopinions with each other. Listening to each other on the job is also of equalimportance.
According to Watson (2015), “We try to put the emphasis on goodlistening. That means listening to customers to truly understand their needs,listening to each other as we suggest ideas or recount relevant experiences andlistening to ourselves” (para.8). There are times when complex matters need tobe discussed on the job. Therefore, communication is vital amongst employeesand even customers.LockheedMartin business environment takes pride in innovation, inclusion, leadershipand ethics.
The company has a Full Spectrum Leadership model which has beenapart of the organization’s culture since 2006. The five characteristics/imperativesof the Full Spectrum Leadership are Deliver Results, Shape the Future, BuildEffective Relationships, Energize the Team and Model Personal excellence,Integrity and Accountability. These five characteristics/imperatives all haveindividual meanings. For example, energizing the team means that leaders shouldalways have a positive, engaging work environment where all employees canexcel.
I believe these five imperatives show that the interaction that leadershave with not only other employees but with customers and stakeholders shouldbe a positive one. The leaders within the company have to ensure that thevalues of the company and the culture of the company is set to a high standard.The relationships that leaders have with employees and customers should be thatof a strong and effective relationship. Therefore, the use of these imperativeswill help the company to have a productive work environment. An environmentwhere leaders and followers can communicate effectively to get tasks completed.
An environment where collaboration is possible. According to Lockheed Martin(n.d.
), Rick Edwards who is the Vice President of Missiles and Fire Controlstates that, “Leaders have a responsibility to create an environment where allemployees feel valued- an environment where employees feel at eas e and canbring their full selves to work every day” (Full Spectrum Leadership Section,para.5). The Full Spectrum Leadership is also aligned with the CARE Program.
This program help leaders to be aware of the attributes they must have to besuccessful. There are also various leadership development programs. One ofthese programs include Communications. An applicant can grow their expertise inemployee communications. This program will help employees gain expertise on howto communicate with others more effectively. These leadership developmentprograms help to groom employees into effective leaders. Lockheed Martin groom’sleaders to cultivate an inclusive and supportive work environment.
LockheedMartin strives to have a company that is inclusive. This also helps employeesto interact with leaders. In 2016, the aeronautics department hosted an eventcalled Connect and Engage Week. This allowed colleagues to get to know oneanother and it also gave them an opportunity to learn about different cultures,talents and hobbies. There are also Employee Resource Groups, Leadership Forumsand Employee Networks where employees can interact and connect with each other.Decision Making Today,the company celebrates over a hundred years of innovation. The company’sheadquarters is in Bethesda, Maryland.
It is home to 97,000 employeespresently. The CEO of Lockheed Martin presently is Marillyn Hewson who is thefirst female to ever hold that position at the company. Lockheed Martin is a global security andaerospace company whose products include aircraft, missiles and other advanced-technology systems.The company does majority of its business with the US department of defense andfederal government agencies. It provides products and services to all branchesof the military.
The company’s mission is to ensure that its customers andtheir people are safe through the innovative products and services that theyprovide for them. The company upholds a high standard for values and ethics.In1995, Lockheed and Martin merged together to form Lockheed Martin Corporation. However,they both had humble beginnings before the merger. In 1912, Glenn L. Martinestablished the Glenn L. Martin Company in Los Angeles, California.
Hisinnovative ideas began in a church when he designed his first aircraft. In thefollowing years, the company supplied bombers to the US military during theWorld War. In the 1960s, the Martin company started producing missiles andspace launchers.
In 1912, Allan and Malcolm Lockheed founded the AlcoHydro-Aeroplane Company which was renamed Lockheed Aircraft Company. The twomechanic brothers started their innovative ideas in a garage. At first, theydesigned seaplanes. However, during the World War and the following years, thecompany supplied aircrafts and other products to the military such as ballisticmissiles along with spacecraft. After the war, Skunk Works gained the title of beingthe leading military aircraft developer in the industry