of the most influential invention of the greek architecture was the three
classical orders, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. The Doric order was the first
and the simplest but also most distinctive out of the three, as it marks the
period of the transition from the use of wood to marble and limestone.
order’s name was taken from the Achaeans or Dorians. They were invaders who pushed
the original inhabitants to the remotest regions such as the islands,
themselves became the Athenians and the people who lived in most of other
cities in Greece mainland. Due to the fact that they were nomadic herdsmen,
they personified gods from forms of nature as male characters and their main
concerns was to pacify the gods therefore the nature and appearance of doric
order is quite masculine with power and heaviness reflected upon the shorter
and lack of base columns in comparsion of the otehr two orders. This style was used
among builders during the Archaic period, and was the predominant order for
temples through the early fifth century,
occuring frequently in Greek mainlands.
the other hand, Ionic order comes from the Ionians, natives who fled to the islands.
They were agriculturists and their religion was to express their gratitude to
gods for the fertility and growth. Therefore, in contrary, their gods were
personified as female figures. This idea had added the hint of mystery to the
goddesses they worship and more mystical in comparison to the Dorians.
Furthermore, their worship was through devotion leading to a more extensive
sensual and emotional elements than the Dorians. As Dorians` religions appeared
to have more aggressive and unexplainable gestures, human aspects was the main
focus of Ionians` mythology. This is reflected upon in the Ionic order columns as
they were more slender, more attentive to decorations, as they tried to express
femininity. This style was used for temples from around 600 B.C.E. and mainly
found in Asia Minor regions and islands.
last of the three orders was Corinthian, an invention during an incident when came
across a tomb with acanthus plant grown around the basket of offerings during
the visit to Corinth. This order was first developed and appeared towards
the end of the classical period, commonly used during Hellenistic and later in
three orders share similar layout structures, such as a cornice, frieze, architrave,
capital, a column, a stylobate and stereobate. However, the three orders differ
in details of their components. Both Doric and Ionic orders have a pediment, a
sloped roof, whereas Corinthian has a flat roof.
the entablature, all orders have a cornice but dentils are found only in
Corinthian. At the frieze of Doric order, metope and triglyph could be found
whereas in Ionic and Corinthian orders, the frieze have continuous carved
figures ornament. Ionic order’s frieze was carved with relief sculptures
arranged in a continuous pattern around the building. Doric order’s frieze is
separated by the regula from the architrave which does not found in other
up is the architrave, all three orders have lined architrave apart from Doric
which can have a smooth architrave as well. The three orders have a rectangular
abacus but Corinthian order’s abacus contains concave sides. The three orders
are all quite different in their capitals, Doric order has a convex echinus
where Ionic order has two opposed volutes in the echinus resting on a band of
palm leaf ornament and between the volutes is an egg and dart carved oval
decoration. Corinthian order has the most decorative capital, bell shaped
echinus decorated with acanthus leaves, thus spirals, palmettes and small
volutes at all corners, hence is the reason why Corinthian is considered as the
most elegant order of the three.
and Corinthian order have a necking which is absent in the Ionic order and the
column ratio of the Doric order is lower than the other two orders which made
it appear to be shorter and heavier. Doric orders columns also consists of Doric
drums and are about five times its diameter, Ionic`s are nine times its lower
diameter and Corinthian`s columns are ten times its diameter. The presence of
base in the other two orders adds to their slenderness whereas Doric order’s
columns sit directly into the stylobate which further adds to its heavy