Organism Adaptations Essay, Research Paper1 ) stimulation: a alteration in the environment that necessities a response, or accommodation by an being ( ex. twirling dust ) response: the accommodation or alteration you make to a stimulation ( ex. winking your eyes ) 2 ) Protists respond to a negative stimulation by traveling off from it. Protists respond to: visible radiation, annoying chemicals, temperature, touch, etc. 3 ) Yes, they grow towards the stimulation ( ex. visible radiation ) . photoropism: it means the being grows towards the visible radiation.

no geotropism: it means the being grows towards the land. no 4 ) This is because animate beings have the most extremely developed centripetal systems of all beings. 5 ) Three factors that affect an being & # 8217 ; s response are the type, figure, and complexness of an animate being & # 8217 ; s sense variety meats. The manner they affect the response is determined by the type, figure, and complexness of the animate being & # 8217 ; s sense variety meats. 6 ) positive: nutrient, money negative: a adult male indicating a gun at you impersonal: sound of traffic 7 ) In general, organisms go towards positive stimulations, and travel off from negative one. 8 ) volunteer: eating a bowl of hot poulet soup nonvoluntary: lacrimation of your oral cavity learned: speaking 9 ) When an animate being receives a panic, it can either Fight, Flight ( travel off from ) , Freeze the/from being that is frightening that animate being. The carnal releases adrenaline that gives it the strength to make one of those things.

pg. 136 # 3,4, rival ) 3 ) machine rifle: I ) winking your eyes when dust gets in them ii ) oral cavity Waterss when you smell nutrient three ) traveling your manus off when it gets burned voluntary: I ) eat a bowl of soup two ) drink H2O three ) watching Television 4 ) The stimulation. You need the stimulation to do a response. B ) No, it is non possible. This is because with an action, there is a reaction. No, you need a stimulation to do a response, otherwise it is non truly a response.

5 ) I ) it comes out of the land two ) it crows three ) it barks and chases the culprit four ) it chases and eats a gazelle B ) I ) the implosion therapy of its place two ) acquiring light three ) the individual interrupting in four ) its hungriness Challenger It helps to maintain the encephalon and bosom from stop deading. pg. 146 # 1-5 ) 1 ) I ) gustatory sensation two ) touch three ) sight four ) smell V ) hearing 2 ) The protists can merely feel chemical. 3 ) This consequence is called centripetal version. B ) An advantage is that you aren & # 8217 ; t bothered by the odor. A disadvantage is if you are accustomed to the odor of fume, the odor of fume might non alarm you if your house is on fire. B ) cone: when it is light out rod: when it is dark out degree Celsius ) They aren & # 8217 ; t every bit developed as some other beings. 5 ) Eyelid: this is because your snake pit cells are really tough from being walked on.

This causes them non to be really sensitive. 5-6-1993 pg.13 # 1-6 ) 1 ) environment: everything in an being & # 8217 ; s milieus biotic environment: all populating things in an environment abiotic environment: non populating things in an environment 2 ) When you breathe, your organic structure extracts O from the air. B ) big carnal chows smaller carnal smaller animate beings larger carnal dies and chows workss fertilizes land dirt grows workss 3 ) biological science, ecology: they are the survey of things on Earth ; ecology is the survey of environment, biological science is the survey of animate beings b ) manufacturers, consumers: they live off the environment ; pro. industries nutrient, con. can & # 8217 ; t industry other nutrient, but eat other beings c ) scavenger, decomposer: both live of away dead beings ; decom.

interrupt down the organic structures of dead beings vitamin D ) home ground, niche: have to make with were an carnal lives hab.=enviro. infinite were an being lives, niche = manner an being reacts with its environment vitamin E ) environment, ecosystem: were organisms unrecorded ; enviro.= everything in an being & # 8217 ; s milieus, eco.= were beings of a distinguishable group interact 4 ) a ) car B ) hetro degree Celsius ) car vitamin D ) car vitamin E ) car degree Fahrenheit ) hetro 5 ) biosphere: bed of planet where populating things exist and interact B ) geosphere: solid part of the Earth & # 8217 ; s surface degree Celsius ) hydrosphere: bed of H2O that covers about 3/4 of the Earth & # 8217 ; s surface vitamin D ) ambiance: mass of air environing the Earth 6 ) The scavengers come and wholly eat the carcase.

The decomposers decompose the carcase and it fertilizes the ditch. pg. 18 # 1-6 ) 1 ) herbivore: animate beings that consume merely works stuff ( ex.

cowss, sheep ) trophic degree: how straight a consumer interacts with the manufacturers of its ecosystem nutrient concatenation: a feeding sequence in which each sort of being eats the one below it in the concatenation ( ex. grass – & gt ; mouse – & gt ; wolf ) 2 ) Because the manufacturer provides the nutrient for the consumers. 3 ) Herbivores, this is because you need the herbivores to feed the carnivores, and if there aren & # 8217 ; t adequate herbivores, the carnivores will decease out. B ) Producers, this is because the manufacturers feed the consumers, and consumers will decease if there is non adequate manufacturers.

4 ) omnivores, carnivore: they both eat animate beings ; omnivores besides eat workss B ) primary, third: they both eat other beings ; primary chows at the first degree, and third chows at the 3rd degree degree Celsius ) nutrient concatenation, nutrient web: they describe feeding sequences ; nutrient concatenation goes from one degree to the following, web is complecting 6 ) There are six nutrient ironss. There are more because the three overlap each other. B ) grain, grass, berries c ) cervid, mouse, grasshopper, coney vitamin D ) hawk, serpent, bird of Minerva, wolf wolf is the top carnivore pg.

36 # 1-8 ) 1 ) environment: everything in an being & # 8217 ; s milieus environmental interaction: interaction within the environment for nutrient and shelter B ) They relate to ecology because the intent of ecology is to analyze the environment and environmental interaction. 2 ) pool H2O: abiotic: pool H2O is non alive B ) works seeds: biotic: seeds are alive because they have the degree Celsius ) ability to turn vitamin D ) fossils: abiotic: this is because dodos are fossilized castanetss of vitamin E ) dead animate beings f ) dirt: abiotic: dirt is non alive g ) dirt beings: biotic: this is because all beings are populating 3 ) autophyte heterotroph grass grasshopper, pink-orange seaweed grass serpent, starfish B ) manufacturer consumer grass grasshopper, pink-orange seaweed grass serpent, starfish degree Celsius ) The autophyte were besides the manufacturers, and the heterotrophs were besides the consumers. 4 ) Decomposers are the heterotrophs because they feed off of dead beings and being waste.

B ) Scavengers are consumers because they feed off of dead beings. degree Celsius ) Because the scavengers and decomposers get rid of the waste and dead beings. 5 ) A dead being is a portion of the abiotic environment because it no longer has life in it. B ) First, scavengers come and eat the meat of the dead being, so a decomposer carries out chemical decomposition. Large, complex molecules of life things are broken down to smaller, simpler molecules. degree Celsius ) If the carbon monoxide rpses were indestructible, our roads and yards would be carpeted with dead bodies. 6)habitat: the environmental space in which an organism lives niche: all the ways in which an organism interacts with its biotic and abiotic environments b)Grass, plants, and a bison occupy different niches in the same habitat. 7The layer of our planet where living things exist and interact.

b)lithosphere: solid portion of the Earth (ex. rocks) hydrosphere: the water portion of the Earth (ex. sea) atmosphere: the air surrounding the Earth (ex.

air) c)The zones are different sections were many organisms live, but the ecosystem is a unit of the biosphere in which organisms forming a distinct group interact with each other and with their environment. 8)ecosystem: a unit of the biosphere in which organisms forming a distinct group interact with each other and with their environment (ex. pond) b)Because green plants feed the other organisms in one way or another. c)There would be more plants because they are used to feeding the other animals. 5-13-1993 Senses Sight: photoreception – cones and rods – location? – function? Hearing: effects of vibrations in the ear? – choclea? – mechanoreception? Smell: olfaction? – chemoreception? – location of receptors Taste: location of chemoreceptors – categories or types – how do we taste spicy food Touch: location of receptors (3 different types) – varying ability – does one receptor in the skin respond to all types of touch, pressure, and pain? Sight photoreception: direction of light by sensory cells cones: specialized eye cells for bright light and color reception rods: specialized eye cells for vision at low light levels Rods and cones are located on the retina. Hearing The effects of vibrations in the ear is that the vibrations travel through a series of small bones into a coiled, fluid-filled cone. The vibrating fluid moves the hair cells, nerve impulses are sent to the brain where they are interpreted as sound.

cochlea: a fluid-filled cone that helps detect sound mechanoreception: the ability to detect motion Smell olfaction: the sense of smell chemoreception: the ability to detect chemical stimuli The olfactory receptors are located high in the nasal cavity in a human Taste The receptors are located in taste buds situated in crevices in the tongue, in humans. Human taste receptors are limited to just four categories: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. You taste spicy foods from the interaction of your sense of smell with these four basic taste. Touch In humans, touch receptors are located in the skin. The three types are Meissner’s corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini corpuscles. There is a variety of touch receptors. They can sense heat, cold, pain, touch, pressure.

The ability of touch is different between people. No, different receptors respond to different types of touch, pressure, and pain. Sensory Systems in other Organisms – protists often respond by eating or avoiding like a baby – Euglena have a pigment spot -> sensitive to light – sense organs in organisms can be different from those in humans e.g. dogs, bats, dolphins respond to higher sound frequencies e.g. birds of prey (ex.

hawk) have a better sense of vision e.g. insects have a better sense of smell Coordinating Responses: Movement and Location 3 steps to sense and response: 1) sensory receptors 2) Organisms must be able to respond ex. move away 3) a coordinated system that links sensing and responding -> this is called nervous system 5-14-1993 Nervous System – simplest nervous system is found in an organism called the Hydra, a fresh water jelly fish – when the Hydra is touched, it contracts – sensory cells in the Hydra relay the message to neurons that carry the message to muscle cells – in complex animals, groups of neurons from nerves and sensory cells are grouped together to form sensory organs – the central nervous system consists of a nerve chord and a brain – Ganglia are clumps of nerve cells that coordinate nerve signals in different parts of the body Three Types of Neurons 1) Sensory neurons: carry signals from the sense receptors 2) motor neurons: carry signals to parts of the body (ex. muscle, glands) 3) inter neurons: connect sensory neurons to motor neurons When your hand touches a hot kettle, heat receptors in your fingertips detect this. -> sends the message to receptors in your arm -> brain and spinal chord’s inter neurons -> motor neurons -> arm muscles Movement and Locomotion – for protists and animals, responses usually involves some form of movement – all animals are capable of some sort of movement – an animal’s movement is controlled by its nervous system locomotion: movement from one location to another – Most animals have some form of locomotion. Locomotion can be difficult to study because some animals move very quickly Nervous and Locomotory Systems of the Earthworm – earthworms respond to light, touch, moisture, and chemicals – sense receptors are located under the skin – central nervous systems of the earthworm is a double spinal chord – nerve chord is connected to two larger ganglia in the worm’s head – this is the brain – there are smaller ganglia for each segment of the worm’s body 5-18-1993 Nervous and Locomotory systems of the Earthworm – continued – Part II – the ganglia enables the earthworm to move each segment independently – earthworm also has 2 sets of muscles -one perpendicular to the other -1) longitudinal muscles: when contracted, the worm becomes shorter and fatter -2) circular muscles: when contracted, the worm becomes thinner and longer – when the worm is moving forward, you can see a wave of motion passing along the body of the worm 5-19-1993 Locomotion in other Organisms – different types of locomotion: running, swimming, gliding, jumping, hopping, crawling or pseudopodia (false feet) amoeba – animals have different body parts that aid in locomotion -e.

g. spider monkey – tail, kangaroo – hind legs, bat – wings Sensory Systems of Other Organisms Protists: have chemoreceptors in cell membrane – these receptors can also detect the presence of other organisms Euglena: have a pigment spot: sensitive to light – Euglena can’t see, but it will move towards the light – when there is enough light, the Euglena will perform photosynthesis – different organisms possess sense organs that are more sensitive than those of humans e.g. dogs and bats can detect sounds of higher frequencies birds of prey have a more sensitive sense of vision insects have a more sensitive sense of smell Photosynthesis sunlight + H2O + CO2 -> glucose + O2 energy + H2O + CO2

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