Over the past 20 years Canada has changed a lot in many
fields from legislation of multiculturalism to overcoming the recession during
early 2000 how the life has changed for youths during these stages? by the way
what exactly are called youths lets be more specific about it. The definitions
of youth are many and often controversial. Are they called as a group of people
aged between 15 to 23 or it refers to boys and girls whom are under no
responsibility to run a family? However, this research is not emphasizing on
the definition of youth so as it is a broad discussion we are just considering
them as people age 15-24 who are no longer studying in high schools or
universities and they are seeking a job to earn what it takes to run their
lives. In this article we are discussing the obstacles which youth faced during
1990 to 2015 to find the job and examine why youths tended to get less job
opportunities than seniors in recent years rather than how it was in the last
decade of 19th century.



The youth unemployment rate has been higher than adults from
the very beginning after industrial revolution. Recent years, during 2008-2009
recession and the afterward recovery from that recession, have been no
exception. Authority of the minister published the below comparison on statcan
website back in 2013 stating “In 2012, the unemployment rate of youths aged 15
to 24 was 14.3% according to statistics Canada, compared with a rate of 6.0%
for workers aged 25 to 54 and workers aged 55 or older The gap between the
unemployment rates of youths and adults has not decreased since the early
1990s, and has even increased slightly since 2010. In 2012, the youth
unemployment rate was 2.4 times that of workers aged 25 to 54, the biggest gap
recorded since 1977. The extending of the gap between the two unemployment
rates is primarily because of the fact that the level of employment among young
people had still not, by 2012, returned to its pre-recession level (Bloskie and
Gellatly 2012)”. It is safe o assume that the labor force participation rate of
youth has been generally lower than that of adults, mainly because a majority
of young people attend school. here is one question to be asked why
unemployment ratio is higher for youths than adults? The answer has different
dimension one of them is as youths may be interested in occupy a job for a
limited time to provide some of their expenses like paying the rent and their
studying debts such as university tuition they are more likely to leave the job
rather than adults because they might find a new and better job which has
relation to their field they are studying or for whom has left high school or
university to get back to studying after a while.

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Another reason for this cause is that Young workers are more
likely than adult workers to be laid off by their employers. Authority of
minister declared, “The monthly layoff rate among youth was 3.5% in 2012.This
rate is more than twice the rate of 1.3% for workers aged 25 to 54 and the rate
of 1.5% for workers aged 55 or older. Since 1977, the annual layoff rate for
youth aged 15 to 24 has been between 2.0 to 2.7 times that of workers aged 25
to 54”. As it is less expensive for an employer to replace an employee who has
just been employed than a more experienced staff, the employer may have more
tendency, when it is required to reduce the numbers of employees, to discharge
and fire a worker whose younger and less experienced (Bloskie and Gellatly
2012). This fact can be concluded that one aspect of the difference in layoff
rates between young workers and adult workers is because of their lower
seniority, on average, of young workers. To prove this theory, the sack rates
of youth and adults who were part of a sample of workers with less than one
year of seniority with their employers was examined by labor force survey. For
this category of newly hired workers, the gap between the layoff rates of youth
and adults persists but is considerably smaller. The authority of minister also
added: “Indeed, the layoff rate was 4.8% for youth in 2012 compared to 3.1% for
workers aged 25 to 54 and 5.6% for workers aged 55 or older.” hence, youth have
a better chance to get the ax more because of their lack of seniority with the
employer than because of their age. This gap did not exist during the early
1990 and there was no difference in the chance of getting discharged between a
senior and a youth but the gap has widened as the time passed.



One another reason that it is harder nowadays for youths to
find a job compared to adults is that they are more likely to get a new job
after exiting or resigning from their last job due to research conducted by
Bloskie and Gellatly 2012. Authority of minister added:” In 2012, an average of
23.2% of workers aged 15 to 24 who were unemployed one month found work the
following month. This is a higher percentage than that observed among workers
aged 25 to 54 (20.6%) and workers aged 55 or older (15.8%) (Bloskie and
Gellatly 2012). Even in 2009, coming out of the recession, the outflow rates
from unemployment to employment were higher for youth than for the other two
age groups (Bloskie and Gellatly 2012)”. At the beginning of each month,
employees, particularly young workers, can end their spell of unemployment by
leaving the labor force. According to statcan.ca In 2012, that proportion was
27.7% for youth compared to 15.1% for workers aged 25 to 54 and 19.0% for
workers aged 55 or older. However, most unemployed youth who leave the labor
force are full-time students who will likely rejoin the labor market after a
period of time, which depends on the length of their education or severity of
their private problems. The proportion of unemployed youth resigning from the
labor force to enter school full-time has increased noticeably over the years.
this proportion was, according to authority of minister on average, 8.2%
between 1977 and 1989, it was 17.4% in 2012. In contrast, there has not been
significant change over time in the proportion of unemployed youth who resign
from the labor force without going to become full-time students, with that
proportion always staying under the corresponding proportion for unemployed
workers aged 25 to 54.  (Bloskie and
Gellatly 2012).




In the early 1990 there was almost no difference to get out
of unemployment between youths and seniors according to Topel, R.H., and M.P.
Ward (1992) but in the recent years although for all age groups, newest
unemployment spells last less than three months but youth are more likely than
adults to experience relatively short spells of unemployment. In 2012, 79.4% of
youth who became unemployed were no longer unemployed less than three months
later. In comparison, that proportion was 67.6% for workers aged 25 to 54 and
70.6% for workers aged 55 or older but after 1990 the outflow rates within
three months of new spells of unemployment has gradually aroused for youth
compared to adults.



 To amend the situation
to get job opportunities for youths All jurisdictions in Canada offered a range
of program responses to problems of youth employment back in 1998 (W. Craig
Riddell 1997). At the risk of oversimplification, two general types can be
identified. The first addresses one particular youth employment problem, such
as the need of post-secondary graduates for initial job experience, or the need
of unemployed youth who wish to start up their own businesses for training and
access to start-up capital. The second is a multifaceted approach designed for
more disadvantaged youth who face multiple barriers and obstacles to
employment. Typical problems are low levels of education, lack of employability
skills, and lack of self-confidence. For this set of problems most
jurisdictions have developed multifaceted programs that combine counseling and
career information, job search assistance, work experience, on the job and
classroom training, life skills training, support for returning to formal
education, and various forms of wage subsidy to assist the transition from
unemployment to full-time work. In some jurisdictions, this entire range of
specific and multifaceted programming is packaged within a multi-dimensional
and comprehensive program that aims to ensure coherence and coverage of the
needs of all targeted groups. One example for these multifaceted programs was
to work under guidance and surveillance of an experienced employee to learn the
basic skills to do that job because one of the concerns was about the lack of
skills of youth in handling some complicated problems which may occur once upon
a time by this program they gain those skills needed and they opt to work more
efficiently in the work place.



We are going to wrap up this article by a conclusion. The gap
in unemployment rates of youth and adults is due more to the higher
unemployment inflow rates among youth, a phenomenon linked largely to their
higher risk of layoff and their periodic departures from the labor force to
attend school full-time. Their higher risk of layoff is explained in large part
by their lower seniority with employers. Although jurisdictions put some good
efforts in and made it easier for youths to be employed but still employers
would rather to employ adults over youths. I am not saying that they must
discharge seniors from their jobs to open space for youths talents to blossom
of course they need job as well but it would be really nice that youths would
be given more opportunity to assist them overcome their financial problems by
working and to mature in order to adapt to their future jobs as soon as















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