This chapter is designed to supply an overview to touristry in Malacca and the background of Jonker Street. It is divided into few subdivisions to explicate approximately civilization as a factor for travel among tourers, touristry state of affairs in Malacca, background of Jonker Street, job statement, research aims, significance of survey, restrictions of survey, definition of footings, methodological analysis every bit good as research organisation.

Overview of touristry in Malaya

Tourism sector in Malaysia is the 2nd largest economic subscriber to the state ‘s Gross Domestic Product after oil and gas production. Authorities has been giving attending to this sector as it helps in bring forthing employment chances, increasing economic gross every bit good as making the chance for development. Malaysia is a state that boasts with its natural environment such as flaxen beaches, tropical islands, national Parkss and mountains, which one of it is known as Southeast Asia ‘s highest mountain – Mount Kinabalu that is situated in the province of Sabah. Furthermore, Malaysia is home to a mixture of alone individualities, having multi-racial and multiethnic communities ; hence, Malaysia has become a state rich in civilization, humanistic disciplines and traditions.

Over the old ages, this industry in Malaysia has its ups and downs in tourer reachings and grosss ( mention to postpone 1 ) , due to economic downswing and natural catastrophes. The most important diminution in figure of tourers was experienced in twelvemonth 2003 when an eruption of disease – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome [ SARS ] hit the universe environment. However, despite confronting the universe economic recession in twelvemonth 2008 and H1N1 flu disease in 2009, tourer reachings to Malaysia continued to turn by 57.32 % which is from 15.7 million tourers in twelvemonth 2004 to 24.7 million tourers in twelvemonth 2011.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Table 1: Tourist Arrivals to Malaysia from 2002 to 2011

Year

Tourist Arrival ( million )

Tourism Receipts ( RM billion )

2002

13.2

25.8

2003

10.5

21.3

2004

15.7

29.7

2005

16.4

32.0

2006

17.4

36.3

2007

20.9

46.1

2008

22.0

49.6

2009

23.6

53.4

2010

24.6

56.5

2011

24.7

58.3

Beginning: Tourism Malaysia ( 2012 )

Cultural Tourism in Malaysia

In today ‘s universe of travel, the procedure of acquisition and sing different civilizations has been cited as a common and turning factor for travel among tourers ( Lynch, Duinker, Sheehan, & A ; Chute, 2011 ) . This factor was non a front-runner among tourers when a canvass was conducted in the 1980 ‘s at the state of United States by Lou Harris, nevertheless, in the 1990 ‘s, mentioning “ sing cultural, historical and archeological hoarded wealths ” was of import to most of the study ‘s respondents ( Lord, 1999 ) . This happening indicates that cultural touristry has long been in demand from the tourer ‘s position. Harmonizing to Richards ( 2007 ) , cultural touristry has the possible to be a new signifier of alternate touristry among local and international tourers. Therefore, cultural touristry is now a widespread touristry phenomenon. Cultural tourers seek genuineness in their travel ( MacCannell, 1973 ) , therefore, it is of import for a finish to continue its ain alone individuality.

Malaysia is a state rich of natural beauty and cultural diverseness. As more tourers are into the impression of going for the intent of “ larning other civilizations ” , Malaysia ‘s promotional board, Tourism Malaysia, has created the slogan “ Malaysia, Truly Asia ” as an attempt to pull tourers. Besides, Malacca has besides created the slogan “ Visit Historic Melaka Means Visit Malaysia ” ( Hamzah, 2004 ) .

Cultural touristry has become a factor that has lured tourer reachings to Malaysia and had turned out to be a possible signifier of alternate touristry for both international and domestic tourers ( Mohamed, 2005 ) . Two out of 13 provinces in Malaysia are popular finish for cultural touristry, which are Malacca and Penang that has gained listings into UNESCO Heritage List on 8th July 2008. Malacca and Penang both portion similarities respects to elements of heritage in the province. For illustration, both metropoliss depend on historical colonial edifices of the metropolis as chief physical attractive force for advancing touristry ( Ismail, Baum, & A ; Kokranikkal, n.d. ) . Besides, these two metropoliss are located along the Straits of Melaka and were of import trading port in the yesteryear, had illustrated the multi-culturalism it possesses in the metropolis. ( explicate the stats )

1.3 Overview of touristry in Malacca

For this cultural touristry survey, the metropolis of Malacca has been chosen as the survey ‘s finish due to the fact that is has been the focal point of Malaysia ‘s history. On 15th April 1989, Malacca was so declared as a Historical City to advance its image as a historic touristry finish in Malaysia and was seen as an attempt to zone land for touristry and urban preservation ( Ismail et al. , n.d. ) . Malacca together with Georgetown Penang has gained listings into UNESCO ‘s ( United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ) World Heritage List in its Culture Category as “ Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca ” in twelvemonth 2008 due to its historical and cultural factors. Among the standards that has made Malacca into the list are – stand foring the multicultural trading town in East and Southeast Asia ; touchable and intangible multi-cultural life heritage whereby different Asiatic faiths, cultural, linguistic communication, dance, costumes, art, nutrient and music coexisted ; reflects a alone blend of Asiatic and European colonial influences on its architecture, townscape and civilization, particularly, its ‘ store houses and townhouses with some arising in the Dutch and Lusitanian periods ( UNESCO, n.d. ) . However, in order to maintain the rubric of being a “ World Heritage Site ” , Malacca has to conserve, continue, and prolong the true unique, beautiful historical and cultural parts of Malacca.

Malacca has divided its touristry sector to 12 different subsectors and each subsector has its ain alone merchandising point. Two of the chief subsectors in Malacca ‘s touristry context, is heritage touristry and cultural touristry. This is due to the fact that Malacca is a province rich with multicultural society and lasting artifacts that dates back into the fifteenth century. For case, Malacca has a mix community of Baba and Nyonya, “ Kristang ” ( Portuguese-Eurasian or Portuguese-Malaccan ) , Chitty, Chinese, Malay and Indian ; each with its alone cultural individuality. Hence, it can be summarized that touristry activities that is based on heritage and civilization is important in Malacca because besides historical facets, Malacca besides has the singularity of touchable and intangible cultural heritage which is non available in any other provinces in Malaysia, for illustration the Dutch Square and A’Famosa.

Figure: Tourist Arrivals in Malacca

Beginning: ( Melaka-Tourism-Promotion-Division, 2012 )

Figure 1 shows Numberss of tourer reachings to Malacca for the past 5 old ages. Before the declaration of Malacca as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, tourer reachings recorded by the Melaka Tourism Promotion Division ( refer to calculate 1 ) was every bit much as 6,023,311 people in twelvemonth 2007. However, despite confronting universe economic recession in twelvemonth 2008 and 2009, Malacca after the UNESCO declaration, tourer reachings has shot up by 19.62 % to the figure of 7,205,492 tourers in twelvemonth 2008 and an addition of 23.59 % by twelvemonth 2009 with a sum of 8,905,273 tourers. The addition in Numberss of tourer reachings has shown that Malacca has the attractive forces that could catch the attending of tourers who are largely domestic tourers.

After the universe economic crisis, touristry was projected to bounce strongly in twelvemonth 2010 and 2011 in international tourer reachings and grosss ( Kapiki, 2011 ) . Conversely, in twelvemonth 2010 and 2011, although there is an addition in the figure of tourer reachings, it is noticed that the figure had increase by a smaller per centum. For case, tourer reachings in twelvemonth 2010 has an addition by 16.28 % compared to reachings in twelvemonth 2009 ; and 17.49 % in twelvemonth 2011 compared to reachings in twelvemonth 2010. In other words, although figure of tourer reachings recorded in twelvemonth 2011 was 12,165,866 tourers, which is the highest record than old old ages, nevertheless, the reachings of tourers had reduced while the universe economic system has easy improved. This has prompted the inquiry of whether Malacca ‘s attractive force is able to supply the reliable experience which is seek by cultural tourers.

1.3 Background of Jonker Street

History of Jonker Street, harmonizing to a documented research done by Lim and Jorge ( 2006 ) , dating in the fifteenth centuries, Jonker Street was one of the densely- populated country of merchandisers and craftsmans during the reign of Malacca Sultanate. It continued to be so during the period of Portuguese and Dutch. Following the licking of Lusitanian power to the Dutch, Jalan Hang Jebat was named as Jonker Straat ( Nobleman ‘s Street ) by the Dutch. With the strategic location of Jonker Street locating near the sea, it has helped in thriving the country and became place to most comfortable people.

To guarantee a better landscape is seen in Jonker Street, the Dutch authorities in the mid 1600 ‘s, had implemented regulations and rigorous ordinances to the houses design, size of brick, place of Windowss, walls and drain, so that all houses are conformed to the same edifice criterions. In the 1800s, more Chinese merchandiser bought up houses at Jonker Street, therefore, adding Chinese architecture and designs to the facade of edifices. There is a mix community of Chinese, Dutch, Muslim and Portuguese-Eurasian celebrated staying at Jonker Street until the nineteenth century, conveying in a diverse of civilization and architecture.

At the present clip, Jonker Street is a five 100 metre long street with a stretch of edifices by both sides of the route. The frontage of these edifices features a mixture of Dutch and Chinese architecture. Many of these houses are every bit old as 300 old ages. Although the breadth of houses along Jonker Street seems narrow, nevertheless, the length of these historical edifices is at least 50 metres long ( Ong & A ; Ong, 2004 ) and creates a infinite in the center of the house as courtyards for better air airing. Furthermore, the breadth of Jonker Street is narrow ; hence, this historical colony was designed without a pavement for walkers.

Jonker Street – besides known as Jalan Hang Jebat, was selected to organize a portion of the “ World Heritage Site ” listings for its residential and commercial values. It is fundamentally, a street that is full of little concerns, coffeehouse, art gallery, handcraft stores, antique stores and apparels store, which has made it into a shopping zone in the country. However, it could be noticed that some of the stores conducts two or three types of concerns in one store batch to increase gross. For illustration, the proprietor of an hereditary hall had rented out half of the lower land of the edifice to an endeavor to sell local nutrient merchandise and traditional Chinese marrying accoutrements such as bed linens, marrying garb and ruddy packages and so on ; In add-on, a store merchandising keepsakes and old-timers, is besides selling sweets. These stores are largely operated by Malaccan occupants whereby some of the stores are being passed down from coevals to coevals such as an old-timer store known as Abdul Company.

Besides, Jonker Street is besides a topographic point with a assortment of craftsmans and craftsmen such as goldworkers, ticker menders, geta shapers, beaded cobblers and local chefs. Furthermore, spiritual activities are conducted at topographic points such as temples, kin edifices and hereditary halls, located along this route. The presence of temples and kin edifices had non merely served its intent in stand foring the demands of its kin members, but it had besides strengthened the cultural elements of Jonker Street.

By looking at its yesteryear, it is apparent that Jonker Street is rich with different architectural manners, and traditional stores that had made it outstanding. However, steps to advance this invaluable hoarded wealth have non served its intent. Malacca touristry officers had noted Jonker Street ‘s heritage and cultural value, therefore, to farther advance it as a touristry topographic point, more coffeehouse, stores and adjustments emerged ; and in June 2000, the local governments had added a hebdomadal activity at Jonker Street – which is “ Jonker Walk ” , where it became a street that is popular for its weekend flee market that opens every Friday, Saturday and Sunday. Jonker Walk is a popular attractive force for tourers as there is an array of merchandises to be sold, runing from, bites, keepsakes, dress and accoutrements.

Harmonizing to a survey on tourer motion forms in Malacca done by Rahman, Ismail, and Wai ( 2011 ) in detecting 8 tourer zones, which is Dataran Sungai Melaka, St. Paul ‘s Hill, Kota Street, Laksamana Street, Temenggung Street, Kampung Pantai, Tokong Street and Jonker Street, it is proven that the tourer attractive force with the highest figure of tourers, occurs at Jonker Street. Streets in Melaka World Heritage Site such as Tokong Street, Temenggung Street and Kampung Pantai portion similar character as Jonker Street ; for case, these streets have traditional bargainers such as goldworkers, Sn Smiths, store houses and concern bargainers. However, one factor that makes Jonker Street outstanding is the design of its edifices. Harmonizing to Rahman et Al. ( 2011 ) , Jonker Street was the most visited tourer finish in Malacca as it provides shopping, hotel and providing installations to the tourers all in one street. Hence, Jonker Street is chosen as the survey ‘s finish. Furthermore, Jonker Street together with Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock, has formed the oldest heritage zone in Malacca, and were introduced by Malacca as its “ life museum ” ( Ong & A ; Ong, 2004 ) .

Problem Statement

Malacca is a province rich in history and civilization, which some of it, could non be found in other provinces of Malaysia. Therefore, plentifulness of attempts have been made to develop touristry merchandises in Malacca and actively advancing it both within and outside of the state. Jonker Street is one of the illustrations where by the authorization had recognised it as a tourer attractive force due to its advantage as the oldest heritage zone in Malacca.

1.4.1Influence of Chinese architecture and presence of Chinese kins

When the British took over in the 1825, most of the belongingss at Jonker Street were acquired by Chinese merchandisers and changed the architecture of houses at the street with Chinese frontages as more affluent and influential Chinese merchandisers began to get. Soon in the 1900 ‘s Jonker Street depict strong Chinese influence with the presence of nine Chinese kin associations and temple for worship. Traditional accomplishments such as goldworker, woodworking, bricklaying, boatbuilding and baking were besides brought in by the Chinese community.

1.4.2 The beginning of commercial country

Shortly, in 1927 Eurasian community begin to look at Jonker Street. This was when Jonker Street begins to construct its repute as a commercial country with stores selling spirits, fix stores, furniture stores, auto salesroom and etc. By the terminal of World War Two and the Nipponese Occupation, many occupants had moved out of the topographic point, doing room for local concerns to get down functioning the basic demands of Malaccans.

1.4.3 Increase of employment chances

Tourism sector is now considered as one of the three chief beginning of financial strength in Malaysia besides beginnings from crude oil and industry ( Hoffman, 1979 ) . This sector has provided local people with a batch of employment chances ; it is besides seen as a chief index that contributes to the economic growing of a topographic point. Malacca is a province rich with cultural diverseness, this in manus, has given Malacca the chance to develop its cultural touristry sector.

Conceptually, Jonker Street represents the features of rich historical and multi-cultural background of Malacca. Being in a alone cultural scene has besides provided chance to the multi-cultural society to transform their civilization into a salable object. For case, touchable civilization of Chinese and Baba Nyonya heritage could be sold to tourist through nutrient such as poulet rice balls, nyonya laksa and traditional nyonya bars ; apparels such as nyonya kebaya, wooden getas and beaded places. This popularity has attracted a assortment of new art gallery, oddity store and eating house operators to get down concern in the country. Besides plentiful of shopping picks, the humanistic disciplines and civilization of Jonker Street was besides reflected through orchestral music public presentations, dance lessons, nutrient and keepsake. Jonker Street is now deemed as a cultural attractive force by the Melaka Tourism Promotion Division.

Jonker Street is being promoted as a shopping territory, stressing on things to purchase such as old-timers and keepsakes instead than its alone architecture edifices and civilization. Undeniably, bring forthing gross revenues is a must in a touristry finish in order to obtain economic benefits from the tourers, yet, are the merchandises sold reflect the civilization of Jonker Street? Are the tourers able to retrieve where they get that piece of merchandise from?

Jonker Street has been chosen as the instance survey based on old research mentioning that there is vagueness to the significance of Jonker Street as a cultural attractive force despite possessing standards that proved it is. Harmonizing to Ong and Ong ( 2004 ) , whose survey is based on “ Jonker Walk ” – the weekend dark activity in Jonker Street, has garnered grounds that the undertaking has received negative unfavorable judgment from the populace, mentioning that it is a negative development on Jonker Street and it is a hapless thought in conserving Malacca. One of the unfavorable judgment mentioned in Ong and Ong ( 2004 ) , was from Elizabeth Vines ( Unesco Asia-Pacific representative ) observing that the development of “ Jonker Walk ” as a tourer attractive force has changed its original character into a commercialized tourer attractive force ; Vines besides reference that in order to convey success to tourism development and publicity of the province, the State Government and entrepreneurs has to see Malacca ‘s “ character, psyche and genuineness ” .

Furthermore, Lim and Jorge ( 2006 ) , has besides point out that the development of Jonker Street as a dark market on weekends, has become the agencies of devastation of the street ‘s heritage by evicting traditional trade Masterss and destruction of heritage edifices. For illustration, premises of goldworkers from the 1800s to twelvemonth 2000 were renovated, taking away antique painted glass panels and wall mirrors to suit a fast nutrient mercantile establishment, a craftsman of traditional Chinese bound pes shoe shaper every bit good as incense and joss stick shaper were evicted from their premises and demolished the edifices to do manner for new multi-storey hotel which had failed to go on.

More to the point, this issue was besides brought up by Lindt ( 2012 ) , Jonker Street is an illustration of civilization street in Malacca that had been transformed into a tourer finish which is less reliable, mentioning that spiritss, batik linens and brash Jerseies are among the merchandises sold to tourers at the centuries old heritage street.

From the treatment above, the most important job being discovered is since the local governments implemented a new undertaking named “ Jonker Walk ” to add to the attractive forces of Jonker Street, this has raised the inquiry of whether this development affects the cultural values built-in to it? How much of civilization value in Jonker Street still remains after the transmutation? What cultural experience does Jonker Street offer? Hence, this research is to analyze what are the merchandises that are provided at Jonker Street in relation to civilization touristry elements ; and the genuineness of cultural merchandises at Jonker Street from the position of stakeholders.

1.5 Research Objective

The chief aim in this survey is to analyze whether tourers perceived Jonker Street as an reliable cultural attractive force. From this chief aim, three sub-objectives are formed, as listed below:

To analyze the bing merchandise provided at Jonker Street in relation to civilization touristry elements

To analyze the genuineness of cultural merchandises at Jonker Street from the position of stakeholders ( authorities, Jonker Walk Committee, enterpriser and tourer )

1.6 Research Question

As an fact-finding research survey, the research inquiries developed are based on the aims of the research. The research inquiries are as below:

What merchandise is provided at Jonker Street in footings of cultural attractive force?

What are the demographics of tourers in Jonker Street?

What is the involvement to see Jonker Street?

What is the perceptual experience of stakeholders towards genuineness in Jonker Street?

Table 1: Summary of Objective and Research Question

Research Aims

Research Questions

To analyze the bing merchandise provided at Jonker Street in relation to civilization touristry elements

What merchandise is provided at Jonker Street in footings of cultural attractive force?

What are the demographics of tourers in Jonker Street?

What is their involvement to see Jonker Street?

To analyze the genuineness of cultural merchandises at Jonker Street from the position of stakeholders

What is the perceptual experience of stakeholders towards genuineness in Jonker Street?

Significance of survey

Jonker Street is among the celebrated tourer attractive force in Malacca. The governments have to guarantee that Jonker Street has its alone merchandising point that would be able to pull tourers revisiting the topographic point once more. Tourist inflow to the street has generated income for some of the occupants at the country by selling keepsakes, apparels, nutrient and so on. However, it is noted through observation that merchandises sold at Jonker Street, particularly keepsakes are largely imported goods from other states and does non typify or reflect civilizations of Jonker Street. Hence, this research is to analyze the genuineness of cultural merchandises at Jonker Street.

Authenticity is related with cultural touristry as genuineness in touristry context means “ the coveted experience a tourer gets associated with visits to tourism finishs ; the consequence of meeting a civilization different than of the tourer ” ( Smith, 1989 ) which is similar to the aim of cultural touristry that is for the tourer to larn and see the civilization of other states. This survey will be important to the touristry publicity boards of Malacca as it tries to understand the attractive forces at Jonker Street, features of tourers and stakeholders ‘ perceptual experiences. Percepts of stakeholders determine whether Jonker Street is able to supply the reliable experience that tourists seek in a cultural touristry finish. This in bend helps touristry contrivers of Malacca to foster enhance cultural touristry in its province, whilst keeping the civilization of Malacca people.

1.8 Scope and restriction of survey

This survey is limited to stakeholders related to Jonker Street, Malacca merely. It is focused on stakeholder ‘s perceptual experience of genuineness of cultural merchandise at Jonker Street, Malacca. The dependent variable of this survey is perceptual experience of stakeholders while the independent variables are merchandises provided at Jonker Street and characteristic and profile of tourer. This survey will utilize genuineness as a step to position stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience on Jonker Street. This will demo whether Jonker Street is perceived as a cultural attractive force or frailty versa. The inaccessibility of secondary informations of tourer reachings at Jonker Street and clip restrain has besides caused restrictions to this survey.

Definition of footings

The undermentioned definitions of footings are used for this survey:

Authenticity

Authenticity comes from the word “ reliable ” . In general, “ reliable ” means echt, reality and pureness. Authenticity in the leisure context means the existent or echt experience a tourer gets during their travel to topographic points with civilizations different than their ain ( Hillman, n.d. ) . Objective genuineness is an experience whereby tourers are able to understand the civilization of other society at a tourer finish ( Hillman, n.d. ) .

Cultural touristry

Culture includes a wide spectrum of beliefs, a set of patterns that acts as a general guiding rule. Harmonizing to Bonink and Richards ( 1992 ) , cultural touristry is defined as going to specific cultural finishs such as heritage sites, artistic and cultural attractive forces, humanistic disciplines and play at topographic points outside of their usual environment ( as cited in ( Ding, 2009 ) )

Cultural Merchandises

Cultural merchandises reflect a civilization ‘s characteristic. As said by Ivanovic ( 2008 ) , the cultural attractive force itself is known as the cultural touristry merchandise. The writer has noted that when intrinsic cultural value is found at a cultural attractive force, it gives the topographic point potency to be developed as a cultural touristry merchandise. Furthermore, the development of adjustment, substructure, services and installations at that cultural attractive force, will be an added value to the merchandise. Hence, the intrinsic value of civilization along with added value has formed the finish ‘s cultural resources into cultural touristry merchandises. For illustration, when a tourer visits a finish, they are really utilizing the entire cultural merchandise, which are, adjustment, nutrient, conditions, transit, cordial reception and attitude of hosts ( Ivanovic, 2008 ) . Cultural merchandises could be categorized into two groups which are touchable and intangible. Tangible merchandises are things that are presented in a material signifier while intangible merchandises are that societies believe it exists but could non be seen. Examples of touchable merchandises are toys, musical instruments, frocks, types of abode, nutrient, athleticss equipment, literature and graphics ; while intangible merchandises are such as dance, music, linguistic communication and literary manners ( Lawrence, 1999 ) .

Methodology

Research Objective

Literature Review

Culture

The construct of Cultural touristry

The construct of Authenticity

Pilot survey

Data Collection

Structured Interview

Datas Analysis

Data assemblage & A ; key in

Data Selection & A ; Formulation

Contented Analysis

Summary of findings

Concluding Report

Background Study

Malacca, voice from the street ( Lim & A ; Fernando, 2006 )

The devising of Jonker Walk ( Ong & A ; Ong, 2004 )

Research Problem

Scope of Research

Jonker Street, Malacca

Merchandise mix

Characteristic and profile of tourer

Preparation of Interview

The research attack for this survey will be based on observation, literature reappraisal and interview. Choice of respondents will be chosen through purposive sampling. The study will be conducted at Jonker Street, Malacca on weekends to roll up informations from domestic and international tourers and enterprisers every bit good as to carry on structured interview on weekdays with other stakeholders such as authorities and Jonker Walk Committee. Data collected through this study will be analysed through content analysis. The intent of the information analysis is to detect the involvement for tourer to see Jonker Street, the merchandises provided at Jonker Street sing to civilization touristry and to understand the perceptual experience of stakeholders towards genuineness of cultural merchandises at Jonker Street.

1.11 Research Administration

Chapter 1 – Chapter 1 is an debut to the background of research, research job, research aim, research inquiry, range and restrictions of survey, definition of footings, research process and research organisation

Chapter 2 – Chapter 2 will discourse approximately theoretical model to explicate regarding civilization touristry, civilization merchandises, genuineness, and dealingss of cultural merchandises to genuineness. This will explicate about the effects of genuineness of cultural merchandises to tourers.

Chapter 3 – Chapter 3 high spots the methodological analysis of research which will be used in this survey. The position of stakeholders towards genuineness of cultural merchandises at Jonker Street will be collected through structured interview.

Chapter 4 – Chapter 4 explains on the genuineness of cultural merchandises from the position from stakeholders of Jonker Street, Malacca.

Chapter 5 – Chapter 5 gives decision on the survey by analysing findings on the positions of stakeholders chosen and do suggestions to the relevant governments of Malacca.

Chapter 6 – Chapter 6 states the restrictions of survey, decision and nowadayss information on possible extensions on future research.

Written by
admin
x

Hi!
I'm Colleen!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out