P1 – Internal System UnitComponents Processer and options The CPU (Central ProcessingUnit) is the brains of the computer, it is the part which allows for the fourmajor processes to take place.
These include; fetch, decode, execute and writeback.In the CPU there is a vitalcomponent, this is known as the ALU (arithmetic logic unit), and this carriesout the necessary arithmetic and logic operations that allow the computer tofunction.Anothervital component is the CU (control Unit), the control unit extractsinstructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU forassistance when necessary.Most CPU’sare multicore meaning that they contain more than one processor, this is betteras it means it allows the computer to operate faster as it has more computingpower and can complete more tasks at once.Processorsrun at different clock speeds, this means the speed at which a processorexecutes a set of commands.The CPUrequires a set number of clock ticks/cycles to complete each instruction.
Thefaster the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second. Forexample if the CPU has a clock speed of 3.6 GHZ, which means it is completing 3,600,000,000instructions in 1 second. For the CPU to work you needram, this is temporary memory where it stores information and data that isbeing currently used or that is used frequently to allow for quick access ofthe data.
There are 2different options when I comes to which CPU to buy, you can either buy an IntelCPU or an AMD CPU. These both have different pin sets, AMD use the PGA pin set,this involves the pins being on the CPU and the socket on the motherboardhaving the female counterpart to the CPU’s pins, compared to the Intel’s LGAsocket which is the opposite having pins on the motherboards socket and havingcontacts on the CPU’s surface. Motherboards Amotherboard is the backbone of any computer, it is the main connectivity pointwhich everything else plugs into. It is a large Printed circuit board (PCB)which can include 6-14 layers of fiberglass, copper connecting traces andcopper planes for power and signal isolation to travel through.Motherboardshave to include a connection for anything that you may want to add to yourcomputer, so most modern motherboards will have processor sockets, DIMM, HTX,PCI, PCIe and M.2 slots as well as power supply connections.
There will also beSATA connections USB connections including 2.0/3.0 and sometimes 3.1.There are 9different types of motherboard design, these are; ATX, extended ATX, mini-ATX, microATX, BTX,microBTX, mini ITX, micro ITX and nano ITX.
Sometimesmotherboards also come with dedicated graphics cards (GPU’s) in them, thismeans u will not have to pay extra for a GPU. Motherboardsuse either a PGA pin set or LGA pin set like CPU’s, this means they arespecific to certain CPU’s for example this motherboards pins are PGA meaning ithas he female parts on it and it has the connectors.This motherboard displayed bellow isan E-ATX motherboard meaning it is an extended ATX BIOSThe BIOS(Basic Input/output System) is the program on a computer’s processor which is toget the computer system started after you turn it on. It also manages data flowbetween the computer’s OS (operating system) and any connected devices such asthe hard disk, GPU, keyboard, mouse and printer. Power supply A power supply is a hardwarecomponent that supplies power to an electrical device.
It receives power froman electrical outlet and converts the current from AC (alternating current) toDC (direct current), which is what the computer requires. It also controls thevoltage to the correct amount, which allows the computer to run smoothlywithout overheating. The power supply is the most important part of anycomputer and must function correctly for the rest of the components to work. Heat Sink A heat sinkis an electronic device that usually is attached to a fan to keep a hotcomponent such as a processor cool. There are two heat sink types: active andpassive.Active heatsinks use the power supply and are usually use a fan. Sometimes these types ofheat sinks are referred to as an HSF, which is short for heat sink and fan.
Passive heatsinks are 100% reliable, as they have no mechanical parts. Passive heat sinksare made of an aluminium-finned radiator that dissipates heat through theheatsink itself. For passive heat sinks to work to their full capacity, thereshould be a steady airflow moving across the fins. The picture bellow showsthis Hard Drive Configurations andControllers A hard driveis where the data that you save is stored these disks spin extremely fast usuallyat either 5400 or 7200 RPM so that data can be accessed immediately fromanywhere on the drive. The data is stored on the hard drive magnetically, so itstays on the drive even after the power supply is turned off.
SATAStands for”Serial Advanced Technology Attachment,” or “Serial ATA.”It is an interface used to connect ATA hard drives to a computer’s motherboard IDEAnintegrated development environment is a software suite that contains the basictools developers need to write and test software. For example, an IDE containsa code editor, a compiler or interpreter and a debugger that the developeraccesses through a single graphical user interface.
EIDEEnhanced IDEis a standard electronic interface between your computer and its storage devices.EIDE’s enhancements to IDE make it possible to address a hard disk larger than528 Mbytes. Master/SlaveThemaster/slave is a model for a communication protocol in which one device (knownas the master) controls one or more other devices (known as slaves). Once themaster/slave relationship is established, the direction of control is always fromthe master to the slave. Ports USBUniversalSerial Bus is a common port that enables communication between devices and a computer.It connects peripheral devices such as digital cameras, mice, keyboards,printers, scanners, media devices, external hard drives and flash drives Parallel On PCs, theparallel port uses a 25-pin connector and is used to connect printers,computers and other devices that need relatively high bandwidth Internal Memory RamRandomaccess memory is the area in which the operating system, application programsand data in current use are kept so they can be quickly reached by the device’sprocessor. RAM is much faster to read from and write to than other kinds ofstorage in a computer, such as a hard disk drive, solid-state drive or opticaldrive.
Data remains in RAM as long as the computer is running. When thecomputer is turned off, RAM loses its data. When the computer is turned onagain, the OS and other files are once again loaded into RAM, usually from anHDD or SSD. RomRead onlymemory contains the programme (the operating system) which allows your computerto boot up. Rom memory is also in your motherboards BIOS. The data in ROM isnot lost when the computer is turned off. CacheCache memoryis RAM that a computers CPU can access more quickly than it can access regularRAM.
This memory is typically built into the CPU chip or placed on a separatechip that has a separate bus interconnect with the CPU. Specialised Cards Network Card A networkinterface card is a circuit board that is installed on the computersmotherboard so that it can be connected to a network. The card providesthe computer with a dedicated connection to a network. PC’s and workstations ona local area network usually have a network interface card that has been specificallydesigned for the LAN transmission technology inside of them. Graphics Card A graphicscard is a display adapter installed in most computers to display graphical datawith high clarity, colour, definition and overall appearance. A graphicscard is designed to take away the graphical processing tasks from the processoror RAM. IT is its own unit and have dedicated RAM that help it to process graphicaldata quickly.
Like most processors, a graphics card also has a dedicated heatsink to keep the heat out of the GPU. A graphics card enables the display of3-D images, higher pixel ration, a broader range of colours and more. Graphicscards includes various expansion ports e.g.
HDMI, DVI, VGA and Display port Peripherals Output Devices MonitorThe monitordisplays the computer’s user interface and open programs, allowing them tointeract with the computer, usually using the keyboard and mouse.Oldercomputer monitors were built using cathode ray tubes, which made them heavy andcaused them to take up a lot of desk space. Most modern monitors are builtusing LCD technology. These thin monitors take up much less space than theolder monitors. PrinterA printer isa device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers theinformation to paper either, usually to standard size sheets of paper.
Ink is usuallyused to transfer the information to the paper. In general, more expensiveprinters are used for higher-resolution colour printing. CameraA camera isused to take photographs or videos, the photos and videos that have been takencan then be transferred to the computer by using a usb. Input DevicesScannerA scanner isa device used to capture images of a hard copy and convert it into a soft copy.By doing this it transfers the document from something physical to a documenton the computer. PlotterA plotter isa printer that takes commands from a computer to make line drawings on paperwith one or more pens.
Unlike a regular printer, the plotter can drawcontinuous point-to-point lines from vector graphics files or commands. Thereare a number of different types of plotters: a drum plotter draws on paperwrapped around a drum which turns to produce one direction of the plot, whilethe pens move to provide the other direction; a flatbed plotter draws on paperplaced on a flat surface; and an electrostatic plotter draws on negatively chargedpaper with positively charged toner. CaballingCoaxialA Coaxialcable is a transmission line that consists of a tube of electrically conductingmaterial surrounding a central conductor held in place by insulators and thatis used to transmit telegraph, telephone, television, and Internet signals.
OpticalA technologythat uses glass threads/fibres to transmit data. A fibre optic cable consistsof a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messagesmodulated onto light waves. Twisted PairTwisted paircabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit aretwisted together for the purposes of cancelling out electromagneticinterference from external sources; for example,electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair cables, and crosstalkbetween neighbouring pairs. Backing storage TypesDiskThere aretwo different types of disks, these are magnetic disks and optical disks.
Floppy disk:A typical 5¼-inch floppy disk can hold 360K or 1.2MB (megabytes). 3½-inchfloppies normally store720K, 1.
2MB or 1.44MB of data. Floppy disks or obsoletetoday, and are found on older computer systems.
Hard disk:Hard disks can store anywhere from 20MB to more than 1-TB (terabyte). Harddisks are also from 10 to 100 times faster than floppy disks.Removablecartridge: Removable cartridges are hard disks encased in a metal or plasticcartridge, so you can remove them just like a floppy disk. Removable cartridgesare very fast, though usually not as fast as fixed hard disks.OpticalOpticalstorage is any storage method where the data is written and read with a laserto save it. Usually, data is written to optical media, such as CDs and DVDs. FlashA solidstate drive which uses non-volatile memory to retain data. PortableA storagedevice that can be attached to a computer through a USB connection, orwirelessly.
External hard drives typically have high storage capacities and areoften used to back up computers or serve as a network drive. Data is usually transferredthrough the USB port in these devices.FixedA hard diskdrive is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrievedigital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks coated withmagnetic material. M1 –Comparing and Contrasting Western Digital – Caviar Blue This is asolid hard drive and has a 7200RPM and is 1TB, it costs £40. This s a very lowend HDD being slow and holding a small amount of storage. Its data transferrate is in the low Mb/s as it is very slow.
Intel – DC P3608 This is aPCI-e solid state drive, it is one of the most upmarket storage types as itconnects directly to the motherboard via PCI-e meaning its transfer rates areup to 8GB/s compared to the Mb/s of thehard drive that has been stated above. RecommendationI wouldrecommend that the Western Digital – Caviar Blue HDD should be used as it doeseverything that the business needs to accomplish in the time frame, it doesn’tneed to be too fast but it completes the purpose it has been bought for .ComparisonUrban mobiledoes not need its data transfer rates to be too high they just need it to bewithin a reasonable timeframe for example 10 seconds whereas a company such asgoogle would need a much higher transfer rate as they are a search engine, sotheir data centre would need to have much faster data storage. P2 –Types of disaster recovery Types of backup storageYou can backup the data to; An External Hard Drive A Solid State Drive Network Attached Storage CloudStorageI wouldadvise backing up urban mobiles data to the cloud as it is a very good offsitebackup. That isn’t affected by events and disasters such as theft, floods, fireetc.
Also they could also copy their data to an external hard drive that is onsite as this is a very good option for local backups of large amounts of data asit is the cheapest storage option in terms of pounds per GB it is also veryreliable when handled with care.The cloudbackup would be located offsite in for example one of googles data centres orwhoever is hosting the cloud service and the External HDD would be located onsite, meaning urban mobile would need to purchase the equipment to allow forthem to store this data.The datashould be backed up at the end of every day to make sure if any new customershave joined they will have a backup of their info and to make sure the backupis as up to date as it can possible be.The datathat will be backed up will be user accounts, information, stock quota andcurrent prices along with customer purchase history as well as staffinformation, staff payroll etc.I decided toadvise Urban Mobile to use cloud storage as this means they don’t have to worryout maintaining a server meaning they will not have to hire specialist staff toensure the maintenance and running of it, also it means it isn’t affected bydisasters or theft etc.It alsomeans urban mobile could in theory reduce annual their operating costs by usingcloud storage; cloud storage costs about 2 pence per gigabyte to store datainternally. Users can see additional cost savings because it does not requireinternal power to store information remotely.
Also, it means Stored files canbe accessed from anywhere via Internet connection.As mentionedbefore cloud storage is located offsite using a company’s data storage services P3 –Appropriate components The softwarethat would run on the servers would be, OpenMediaVault, as it has a very cleanand user-friendly UI, also it is based on Debian meaning it will receivefrequent patch and updatesThe serverthat I advise using will be the ASUSTOR AS-604T as it is not too expensive at£308, it contains four bays meaning there will be enough space to add extrastorage cater for the company’s needs. It also contains a cloud backup as wellas being able to run RAID.
It will becloud connected meaning that the data will be transferred wirelessly, or youcan manually connect it in a LAN also.An off-siteserver engineer will need to be hired meaning if something goes wrong he can bephoned in order to get the problem resolved.This set upis very accessible as the server is simple and easy to understand, the softwareused in it us user friendly and has a clean interface. Operating systemsThe role ofan operating system is to control the backing store and peripherals such asscanners and printers, to deal with the transfer of programs in and out ofmemory, the organisation of memory between programs, to organises processing timebetween programs and users, to maintains security and access rights of users,to deals with errors and user instructions and it allows the user to save filesto a backing store as well as providing the interface between the user and thecomputer – for example, Windows Vista and Apple OS.Utility SoftwareUtilitysoftware are applications which allow the user to manage the computer, examplesof utility software are, Backup, disk cleaner, disk defrag, formatting. Theseare the maintenance utilities, some of the security utilities include, Useraccounts, encryption, antivirus software and firewalls.Application SoftwareApplicationsoftware, also known as an application or an app, is computer software designedto help the user to perform specific tasks.
Examples include accountingsoftware, office suites, graphics software and media players. Applications maybe bundled with the computer and its system software, or may be publishedseparately. In recent years, the abbreviation “app” has specificallycome to mean application software written for mobile devices P4 –Installing Hardware The RAM slot has been opened and the 2GB stick on top of the power supplyis ready to be inserted into the open slot, so it can but put into dual channelwith the other 2GB Ram stick The ram hasbeen inserted and has been closed locking it into place meaning it will notcome loose and fall out. Onceinserted correctly this should appear when the ram has been inserted and if itdoes not it would suggest something has been done wrong. P5 – Maintenance Types ofpreventive maintenance include installing Windows updates, scanning for virusesand malware, and running cleaning programs. Anti-virus and anti-malware scansshould also be run at least once a week. Be sure to run updates for theseprograms whenever they “rereleased, as new viruses and malware spring upconstantly. Keeping your network secure, installing a firewall, and using safedownloading practices can protect your computer and any information on it frombeing compromised.
Power surges and overheating can destroy electronicequipment, so protect your hardware by investing in a surge protector andcleaning your equipment periodically to remove dust. Should any preventativemeasures fail, it is always a good idea to have a backup for important files:Invest in an external hard drive to save any important files should yourcomputer need replacing.Types ofremedial maintenance would be for if the mouse is unresponsive if the mousedoesn’t show up on the screen or doesn’t seem to move correctly, then you mustgo to start < configuration < control panel < mouse. The indicatorsshown control the mouse functions, if the configuration seems correct verifythat the mouse is correctly connected, or possible failures of a video card are:spots show up on the screen, the video doesn't load, it doesn't have a goodresolution or it's not in colours; the solution is to change the entire thingor take it to someone who can find the damaged connection and repair it.
Thefailures that occur in the Hard Drive are the scratching of the platters,overheating of the controller board, physical damage to the conductors anddents caused by a lack of caution when giving maintenance, there is only onesolution, to replace the whole part by a new one as there is no way to repairit.ScagliaINDEVA have designed a preventative maintenance product which gives u access toregular servicing from their highly trained engineers.AnElectronic Records Management System is a computer program designed to trackand store records and this is the type of software that would be used in thedocumentation of the maintenance plans.Dust anddebris will accumulate in the PC’s parts because of air cooling. Any filtersused to reduce this need regular service and changes. I wouldchoose preventative maintenance over routine maintenance as this allows you tomitigate any chance of problems occur therefor meaning you will not have to payexpensive bills to get parts repaired or replaced due to dam age over time orpower surges killing your machines power source etc.Routinewould be best for the collage as it means the collage can set the date for whenthe students are not in school meaning they will not miss out due o thecomputers being down and not available for usage.
P6 – Test Plan Planning isneeded before conducting the maintenance as you need clear guidelines to showhow it needs to be completed and in which specific order as if it is not itmeans that in the process something could break, and you wouldn’t know how torevert or correct the mistake.A type of maintenancewould be by using route maps, route maps are used when redistributing routesinto an OSPF, RIP, or EIGRP routing process. They are also used when generatinga default route into an OSPF routing process. A route map defines which of theroutes from the specified routing protocol can be redistributed into the targetrouting process. Another type is anupgrade schedule, this is when a specific time and date is set aside to upgradethe components of a computer.