Parable: a usually short fictitious story that illustrates a moral attitude or a religious principle; differs from a fable in its employment of human characters, as opposed to plants or animalsOrigen: Greek parabole meaning to draw comparison or analogyExample: “An Imperial Message” by Franz KafkaThe distance, whether it be physical, spiritual, or societal, between a ruler or deity and his subjects creates an limitless chasm between them.Yet the subjects never cease yearning and waiting for a sign of recognition, of their importance and significance in the eyes of their superior. (kinda like Waiting for Godot)Biblical Example: the parable of “The Good Samaritan” told by Jesus in LukeA beaten man lying helpless on the road is passed and ignored by a priest and a Levite. However, a Samaritan who passes by the traveller helps him. Even though Samaritans were generally despised by the Jews, Jesus considers the Samaritan his neighbor because of his charity. Actions mean more than religious labels; embody your beliefs.The 40 parables of Jesus are perhaps the most well known of parables; parables are found in many religious texts to instill moral teachings in their disciples Paradox: a statement that appears self-contradictory or silly but may include a latent truth; used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to accepted traditional ideas; often serves to make a reader think over an idea in innovative way (literarydevices.net) Origin: Greek paradoxos meaning contrary to expectations (prefix para means beyond or outside of and dokein means to think)Two types: particular or “local” and general or “structural”Particular paradox: short, pithy statements Example: ‘I must be cruel only to be kind’ (spoken by Hamlet in Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet)Structural: a fundamental structural device which sustains the dialectic and argument; more complex than the particular paradox and often used in poetryExample: “The brief sun flames the ice, on pond and ditches,/In windless cold that is the heart’s heat,/Reflecting in a watery mirror/A glare that is blindness in the early afternoon.” -T.S. Eliot’s Little GiddingParadox amplifies the parallel structure and rhythm of the poem.Often contain elements of ironyExample: “What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young.” -George Bernard ShawThis paradox is ironic because youth is a defining characteristic of “the young.” On the other hand, youth, especially its energy and vigor, is seemingly wasted on those who are too naive to recognize its true value and take full advantage of it. If anything, the young are eager to shed their youth for knowledge and maturity.An indirect means of stating a profound truth. By not plainly and directly articulating their message, paradoxes force readers to analyze the writing more carefully, bestowing greater import upon its implications A paradoxical perspective of the behaviour and society is found in much nonsense poetry and in plays belonging to the Theatre of the AbsurdLiterary paradox: “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.” Animal Farm by George OrwellThis quote taken from the end of Animal Farm symbolizes the downfall of the animals’ noble yet naive vision of complete equality within their society. The commandments may state that “all animals are equal” but throughout the allegory it grows increasingly apparent that such is not the case. For example, the pigs are more intelligent (but also more greedy and selfish) than the sheep. The paradox represents the sobering, perhaps somewhat cynical reality beneath the glittering promises and proclamations of idealistic politicians and theorists. Pathetic fallacy: attributes human qualities and emotions to inanimate objects of nature; “pathetic” is not meant in the derogatory sense of being miserable, but rather means “imparting emotions to something else” (literarydevices.net) invented by John Ruskin in 1856 (Modern Painters, Vol. III, Pt IV)Ruskin meant the term in a derogatory sense, arguing pathetic fallacies applied the ‘true appearances of things to us’, but to the ‘extraordinary, or false appearances, when we are under the in uence of emotion or contemplative fancy’Example: “The one red leaf, the last of its clan/That dances as often as dance it can.” -Christabel by Samuel ColeridgeRuskin would argue that such a beautiful image was a false or misleading depiction of a mere red leaf dangling from a tree Now used in a non-pejorative wayOften confused with personificationPersonification attributes human attributes to nonhuman creatures, objects, or ideas. Pathetic fallacies on the other hand are the human qualities and emotions evoked by inanimate objects of natureAllows readers to more easily relate to abstract emotions by depicting them through natural surroundingsLiterary Example: “So furious had been the gusts, that high buildings in town had had the lead stripped off their roofs; and in the country, trees had been torn up, and sails of windmills carried away; and gloomy accounts had come in from the coast, of shipwreck and death.” Great Expectations by Charles DickensThe “furious” gusts help create the mood of the novel and act as an external depiction of the inner turmoil of Pip.Poetic Example: “I wandered lonely as a cloud/ That floats on high o’er vales and hills,” “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” by William WordsworthThe lonely cloud represents the speaker’s emotions. They are an inanimate reflection of his current emotional state.Satire: a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society through humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule; serves to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles; often uses fictional characters, which stand for real people, to expose and condemn their corruption. (literarydevices.net) Horatian: satire given in indulgent, tolerant, amused, and witty voice; the speaker gently ridicules the absurdities and follies of humans; utilizes clever mockery, exaggeration, and self-deprecating humor (britannica.com)Named after Roman poet and essayist Horace (1st c. bc) who used gentle satire to comment on the violence and social unrest of his lifetime and to praise the new man who earns his fortune through work and not inheritance; Horace particularly mocks the social abuses of the wealthy, especially against small landownersSheds light on human vice not through angry tirades, but wry and sympathetic humorExample: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark TwainMiss Watson constantly preaches honesty and the virtues of Christianity to Huck, meanwhile she not only owns slaves, but also, despite her promises, intends to sell one of them, Jim. Ms. Holier-than-thou also smokes. Twain pokes fun at the hypocrisy of adults using light-hearted Horatian satire.Juvenalian: a more contemptuous and abrasive form of satire than Horatian; addresses perceived social evil through scorn, outrage, and savage ridicule; often pessimistic; characterized by the use of irony, sarcasm, moral indignation and personal invective; reflects the serious moral purpose of its diatribesFrom the extremely bad-tempered and censorious satires of the Roman poet Juvenal (1st–2nd c.)Strongly polarized political satire can often be classified as Juvenalian.Example Brave New World by Aldous Huxley The dystopian society worships Henry Ford, inventor of the repetitive, mind-numbing, creativity-killing conveyor belt and the standardized, impersonal model-T. In doing so, Huxley condemns the base materialism and conformity of modern society and the demoralizing and dehumanizing effects of mass production.Menippean: form of satire characterized by attacking mental attitudes rather than specific individuals or entities; creates extraordinary situations for the purpose of testing philosophical truth, especially through the manipulation of perspective (University of Massachusetts Boston)Examines the “ultimate questions” full of contradictory behavior and inappropriate characters who often violate social expectations in terms of speech and politenessLength and structure similar to a novel: consists typically of a loosely organized narrative incorporating a series of dialogues between representatives of various viewpointsfrequently dialogues occur spontaneously in ordinary situations and sometimes in ‘extraordinary’ situations, as e.g. in other worlds. The characters portrayed in Menippean satire are often few, sometimes just one or two, who will dominate the dialogue to the virtual exclusion of other participants, who function just as ‘asides’ in a theatre or a play. straightforward, conversational and humorous language, often used for the purposes of parody with its numerous references and allusions to other literary works. just like the Cynics, the writers of Menippean satire ridicule or rather, scoff at, institutions, philosophers, intellectuals, material goods and worldly aspirations Lucilius of Rome heavily used Menippean satire in his works, popularized hexameter for satire, inventor of Roman satire Invented by Menippus (300 B.C.), a philosopher and a Cynic who satirized the follies of men in a mixture of prose and verse, Most of our knowledge of him comes from the Syrian satirist Lucianus of Samosata who often imitated him and introduced him as a figure in several of his dialogues, Lucianus portrays Menippus as “a jester in a Cynic’s cloak Literary Example: The Apocolocyntosis of Seneca by SenecaTraces the death of the emperor Claudius, his ascent into heaven and judgment by the gods, and his eventual descent into Hades. Seneca mocks his moral and personal failings, particularly his arrogant cruelty and his inarticulateness. Perhaps the only surviving example of Menippean satire from the classical era The Sublime: an emotional response (joy and ecstasy) to power, authenticity or authority; marked by the presence of great thoughts, noble feeling, and lofty diction and arrangement; to surpass excellence; associated with spiritual and religious aweOrigins as a critical and aesthetic term stem from the treatise, On the Sublime, by Longinus. Example: Edmund Burke’s A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1757) Critical contribution to our grasping of the conceptBurke’s ideas were of great interest to those concerned with aestheticsdistinguished between the sublime—which is associated with the infinite, solitude, emptiness, darkness and terror—and the beautiful—which is associated with brightness, smoothness and smallness. Poetic Example “Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey” by WordsworthOf aspect more sublime; that blessed mood,/In which the burden of the mystery/In which the heavy and weary weight/Of all this unintelligible world,/Is lightened (37-41)Wordsworth describes the feeling of sublime as one in which the heavy burden of living in this complex world is “lightened”. In doing so, he imparts a positive connotation upon the sublime and associates it with a pleasant, relieving experience.