Part BAnswer the following question in no more than 1500 words.To what extent do young people shape their own distinct youth cultures?For this assignment, you should explain the concept of youth culture. You may want to discuss ways in which young people identify with particular groups or subcultures, and reasons for why they might do this. Do subcultures represent a rebellion against adult society? How does this differ in different contexts?You should also consider factors outside young people’s control that might also influence their participation in youth cultures. How might youth cultures be influenced by the social and political contexts of wider society? How might they be influenced by commercial factors, like marketing? You should consider ways in which young people’s experiences of youth cultures have changed over time, and how they differ in different contexts.Answers in Essay Form Youth culture has been consistently changing over the generations even one of the cases to be ever widened the gap between our young members of society to adult generations.  Our young generations have faced same challenges to each other to be exact, but each generation has unique experiences in approach to different situations that shape their attitudes and behaviors. However, when the culture in any particular is involved even the risk of influence exists personal choice matters a lot.At times in any generations, ethnocentricity occurs as each group used to in tagging their names. Millennials, generation X and Y, gangs, fraternities and any other names as they called it. Whatever may be differences and distinctions happen probably due to availability or what is present in a particular genre or era. According to Mac a Ghaill (1994), she came up with the typology of the student within the following groups: Macho Lads, Academic Achievers, New Entrepreneurs, Real Englishmen.  This typology explains the working-class attitudes and behaviors of the future adults as they take part when they enter the world of professionals. It talks about the projections of the young ones in line with their behavior towards schools in which believed that has a great effect in putting up their career life in the future.However, in comparison with Shain’s (2003) study of Asian girls in school focused on how diverse the difference of Asian girls in which diversity of identities happens due to the undeveloped notions in Western practices among other cultures. Stereotyping among teenagers happens in the generations in able to blend not in just one group so that adaptation in the movement of their environment match with what needs to be addressed in the society. Since stereotyping does not only requires in the society but a choice of action among individuals as one way of daily survival.  I believe that all adults before they reach their stage right now pass through this method of stereotyping. In our society, elite class and working class are being labeled and determine and so as well with the diversity among teenagers. Even the classifications being called “Asian” and “Western”. These classifications of culture have a great effect on them. Everyone has this notion that Asian teenagers are mostly weird, in terms of academics since Education is a must among the families in every Asian nation. That even how hard or difficult life is the best education one has the better the life waits for him or for her. Liberation and being modern are mostly attached to young ones among Western people, that it seems too taboo among Asians because these are things in which seldom being discussed at home in the basis not to shock the traditional or classic practices of the elders. However, in the degree of getting what is the standard beneficial in both cultures are first education is for everyone regardless if your Asian or if you’re from the Western group. Being weird and too intelligent is just a matter of choice among young ones in which I think all generations have these same ideas too.  Next to being liberated or too modern in attitudes and acts do not only account to Western teenagers. It will be part of teenagers lifestyle in which how he or she upholds standards of values in practice.   I would like to quote what is mentioned in Book 2, Chapter 4, page 176; “Successive generations of youth researchers have pointed to the relationship between youth cultures and wider society.” Thus, it explains here the vices among youth such as rave parties, illegal drugs in which Redhead (1993, p. 4) refers to this phenomenon as ‘hedonism in hard times’. These appear among millennials, generation x, digital natives. How and why all of these appears to these generations but not happened in the classical era or in the traditional youth. As what has been mentioned change has been very active and only thing that is constant. As the needs of the man arise, the demands for the advancement of knowledge still appears and we all expect this to elevate and escalate generation from generations. Everything becomes easily available to the young ones. And so, if they act differently based on the standard of the past generations they will fall under the category of rebellion in the perception of the adult mind. Being part of they culture adults view teenagers creating smaller groups forming a minority within the minority. They tend to be specific in terms of them labeling themselves. Like “emo” just to be more specific about being too emotional. However, within this term, if we will check clearly insecurities, depressions are only basic emotions that destroy their belief in emotion. As what has mentioned in the psychological development emotion is the scariest part of being a human. It either makes you or breaks you thus, same practice to the young generations. I would like to give emphasis on what was stated in Book 2, Chapter 4 page 180 “In the past, young people moved from school to work and from the family home to the marital home with little time or money for carefree pleasure.”  This statement supports one of the final points of subcultures.  Another concern also is the subcultural acts. In such a way how do teenagers react to what is happening in the society? Very seldom in a traditional era that voices of the young ones can be heard. Hence, as adaptation arises and the fight for the right, eventually the voices of these little plants echoes and marks big footsteps in the history of generations. Young ones express their acts using themselves as the medium or the representation among themselves. They can act thru styles of the haircut. For them, a haircut does not only show fashion or style. It symbolizes the cause for their unification to be recognized. The youth tends to give an important voice to generation change and social structure. The youth are in search of the ‘magical resolutions’ too powerful and contradictory emotions they are fighting for. The teenagers are risk takers to take the action to be heard thru different variations like a haircut, fashion, and musical influence. The subcultures among Hip Hop have been diversified too and gives debates in a different point of view. Since personal identity matters a lot to determine the social role among young one’s race matters too. For them, there are maybe inferior to them and superior because of the differences in skin color thus it states how importance aesthetic beauty is. Hip-hop is usually a group of men in young urban areas in which majority in numbers are young black men. They portray the ‘action’ of the group as more diverse practices are preferred to the public display of their Western counterparts. These young men seek to have awareness for equality, for individuality and for the sense of recognition that colors cannot justify one’s personality. Hip-hop culture also uses their core elements to establish a distinctive subcultural identity. The group of Hip-hop stands to represent the race, class, and value of the black culture.Among these topics about generations takes in effect also the young women in the society. Due to the stereotyping in our society the value of the women most of the times cannot attain its maximum potential as a woman. In Chapter 4, the name LOLITA has mentioned in which it explains primarily an aesthetic and the subculture among the teenagers. In promoting beauty about women becomes appreciative however degrading to some. The term Lolita is concerned with the production and display of innovative fashion. The standard of beauty has started to set in mind among many in the society which become debatable to the majority. The value of appreciation and determining acts among young women should not be defined by how beautiful she is physically. That teenager’s mind should be developed that the value of women does not stand as a sex object. The fast-cultural objects and ideas transmission is globally today are significant factors in the number of youth subculture groups that are identified. The main change with regards to countercultural groups today is a large number of the young generation around. Perhaps more fundamentally, youth culture has become more accepting and accommodating of various different groupings within the community. There are groups on the fringe of society who may be counter-cultural in orientation, like punks and gangs by large there now seems to be a strong sense of tolerance for difference and a feeling that diversity may even be positive. If there is degeneration of the young ones they are also the product of their main influencer who are the parents. The parents experienced generalization. The twist and turns of the roles in the society will give us the awareness that the practice of acts among themselves has evolved also; thus, results of the transition of our young ones in all aspects. At the end of the day, the cultural practices and the value of culture will still depend on how we nurture our children. Still, adults still stand to influence the young ones and how we treat the results of their actions towards themselves and to their environment. Relevant materials• The following chapter of book 2:Gallacher, L. and Kehily, M.J. (2013) “Youth cultures”, in Bragg, S. and Kehily, M.J. (eds) (2013) Children and young people’s cultural worlds, Bristol, Policy Press/Milton Keynes, The Open University.

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