PhilosophiesAccordingto Alligood (2014b), philosophies are specific theories that focus on one ormore metaparadigm concepts in a wide spectrum philosophical way (p.
43). For someoneto understand philosophies it is required to understand the knowledge type, metaparadigms.MetaparadigmMetaparadigmis the vast perspective of a discipline and a way to describe a concernspecifically to a profession or department (Alligood, 2014b, p. 42). NursingMetaparadigmAlligood(2014b) explains metaparadigms in nursing knowledge are human beings,environment, health, and nursing (p. 42). These perceptions are exemplified in eachphilosophy and conceptual model (Alligood, 2014b, p. 42).
NursingPhilosophyThepractice of nursing evolves daily from theories and philosophies proven byresearchers, resulting in the growth of the medical profession and advancedevidence-based knowledge. A philosophy of nursing would be a broad statementthat would create general ideas about specific values or beliefs. Alligood(2014b) stated, “Philosophies present the general meaning of nursing andnursing phenomena through reasoning and logical presentation of ideas” (p. 42).
Metaparadigm PersonChinnand Kramer (2015) define the metaparadigm of person aims on the recipient of carein the aspect of wholeness and the holistic view. This includes a person’sculture, family, socioeconomic status, and spirituality (p. 46). Westerncultures consider the whole equal to its sum of the parts and stress theinterrelationships amongst the parts; compared to the Eastern culture who believehealthcare teams must take into consideration all aspectsof the patient to treat them. EnvironmentAccordingto Chinn and Kramer (2015) the metaparadigm environment or society refers to both dependent and independent factors thatare directly significant to the patient and his or her care (p 47). Nightingale believed all people involved inthe care of a patient should maintain a therapeutic setting to heighten thecomfort and healing (Pfettscher, S. A.
, 2014a). On the other hand, MarthaRogers believes that humans and the environment are one and theirmanifestations derive from mutual developments. She also believes a person is aconsolidated whole and cannot be observed by looking at its parts (Gunther, M.E.
, 2014a). HealthThemetaparadigm health, stated by Chinn and Kramer (2015), is distinguished as thegoal of nursing. Health is defined differently among nurse authors varying fromthe principle of nursing to assist ill patients while attaining the highestquality of health, to health being an influential process that alters with lifecircumstances (Chinn and Kramer, 2015, p. 47).
Myra Levine avoids the term health or illness and refers to these termsas conserving wholism. This idea leads nurses to direct their attention to theentire patient situation and environment instead of the typical factorsreferred to by healthcare (Chinn and Kramer, 2015, p. 48). NursingChinnand Kramer (2015) describe the metaparadigm nursing as the connections and assistingprocess amongst a patient and the nurse (p. 45). In addition, how the nurseattributes the plan of care and the knowledge he or she presents. From amedical framework, nursing follows the medical aspect. Contrary, the nursingframework describes interpersonal interaction as the main component with tasks beingsupportive.
While most nurse authors believe interpersonal interaction as thecenter focus of nursing, there are differences that remain. For example, thepatient is the main aspect of directing what plan of care will be taken and thegoals that are achieved. For others, the nurse is predominantly the personleading the plan of care. Each relationshipis unique and determined by factors like time, culture, experience,psychological development, situation, age, goals, and values (Chinn and Kramer,2015, p.
46). Although these relationships vary, the importance of theirsimilarity is the human interaction for developing health as a whole. Personalthoughts and beliefsNursingIbelieve the metaparadigm nursing ties all of the concepts together.
The nursingprofession is complex and nurses have the responsibility of someone’s life intheir hands while balancing several tasks. I strongly agree that everyrelationship between a patient and myself is different, however the care givenremains the same providing the utmost dedication and love. Some patients andparents are exceptionally involved in their plan of care, while others just cometo the hospital to be treated and proceed home. The attitude of each individualstrongly determines the plan of care for that particular patient, which leadsinto the metaparadigm person. PersonEachpatient is cared for in the same manner by the healthcare team I work withdaily and everyone is treated based on a holistic standard. Each patient shouldbe assessed, diagnosed, and treated for after reviewing all aspects of apatient’s life. New parents come to the hospital terrified to ask questions,but this is the best time for healthcare providers to educate.
For example, withinfants diagnosed with failure to thrive, it is crucial for the healthcare teamto consider all factors related to this patient for them to benefit from thecare given. My concerns would include the formula used, frequency and amountfed, changes in formula, history of prematurity, and parent’s involvement inthe child’s care. Many factors are vital in treating this patient along withlabs and procedures needing to be completed.
Parents may ponder why the nurseis asking these questions but the resolution could be a simple change informula. These questions give the healthcare team a better outlook on theperson, health, and environment. EnvironmentEnvironmentis a vital aspect in the care of individuals and can alter their healingprocess. The environment should be a place where the patient feels safe and thehealthcare team should promote comfort.
This is an effortless yet imperativeeffort to provide optimal care for a patient. If every person entering apatients’ room were loud, turning on lights, and then slamming the door, thepatient would not have a calm environment for his or her body to heal,resulting in a longer visit and complications. Equally important, people canperform everyday healthy lifestyle changes to better themselves and othersaround them. HealthThe metaparadigmhealth in my opinion is focusing on preventing and maintaining excellent healthin the hospital and at home.
Care should be focused on preventing disease ratherthan treating illnesses by working as a team and promoting healthy behaviors, resultingin patients having better health outcomes. In addition, early detection is adynamic aspect of health promotion that is vital to preventing the chronicdisease burden. In my opinion, nurses need to focus on educating patients andfamily members more than simply administering a medication or performing aprocedure. Providing education about health to family members could be beneficialand passed on to people in the community. ConceptsInterrelated Nursing actions are based onthe interrelationships between these four concepts. A person can refer to morethan just the patient but also the support system and healthcare team involvedin one’s care. An individual’s health will be influenced by his or her environmentand everyday lifestyles. Nurses should consider a person’s culture,spirituality, beliefs, and wishes, as well as their home environment andoverall health and possible lifestyle changes when providing nursing care.
Itdoes not go without difficulty to define one metaparadigm without correlatingwith another. In my practice, I believe each of these metapardigms is essentialin caring for patients.