I am look intoing which supermarkets have the strongest plastic bags ; I have tested this out in an experiment. I will besides be researching whether plastic bags are good or bad for the environment and how they can be replaced or used otherwise. It is estimated that we use over 500 billion plastic bags worldwide every twelvemonth. which is about 1 million bags used every minute. In the UK It is estimated that we use 10 billion which is about 167 bags per individual.

They are really controversial as they take a really long clip to interrupt down and merely 1 in 200 plastic bags in the UK are recycled ; they pose a choking jeopardy for wildlife and kids. plastic contains a batch of chemicals and some found could do malignant neoplastic disease and people find that there are many other replacings like utilizing paper bags alternatively. Plastic is an organic substance consisting of big molecules called polymers. It is distilled from wood. coal. oil and even natural gas by chemicals such as H. N. O and C.

Other chemicals present in plastic may include Cl. sulfur. silicone and F. Plastic bags are made in a figure of ways and for a figure of intents ; each plastic bag is made of a polymer. Polymers are big molecules that contain tonss of a chosen reiterating monomer. Plastic bags are made from the monomer ethene ( ethylene ) . These ethylene molecules are made into polythene. Polyethylenes are generic in that they include all ethene that has been polymerized. but they may hold other features.

Three polythenes are identified as being used in the industry of plastic bags because of their denseness. low-density polythene. additive low-density polythene. and high-density polythene. Branching. replacing the polymer concatenation with other signifiers or fluctuations of the monomer can further alter the features of the plastic. Highly branched polymers make dilutant plastic. Branching besides affects tensile strength and clarity or crystallinity of the plastic.

The more branched the plastic bag. the less ability there is to see through it. and the easier it tears. Plastic bags are made out of polythene. which is a thermoplastic trade good and is used a batch in consumer merchandises. as over 60 million dozenss are produced worldwide every twelvemonth. It is a polymer consisting of long ironss of the monomer ethene. High denseness polythene is a polythene thermoplastic made from crude oil. It takes 1. 75 kgs of crude oil. in footings of energy and natural stuffs to do one kg of high denseness polythene.

This compound is used to do plastic bags. Low denseness polythene is a thermoplastic made from oil. Plastic for bags is created by a blown movie bulge method. The blown movie bulge procedure is a cannular procedure. The rosin is delivered to the bag maker in pellets. The pellets are placed into a hopper. melted and so extruded into a cannular signifier through the force of cool air. Cool air is forced into the tubing until it reaches the right size needed.

The tubing of plastic is now fluxing upward through the chilling tower. After the plastic has cooled. it is guided off from the chilling tower and flattened on a roller. The bags continue to go through the machine as they are separated and sealed as required.

Most plastic bags are thrown off. frequently after a individual usage but sometimes they are re-used. Recycling of plastics after being used is possible. but plastic bags. in peculiar. are seldom recycled. Harmonizing to the UK-based Ban the Bag candidacy group. 0. 5 % of plastic bags are recycled. Standard plastic bags may take between 500 and 1000 old ages to break up. nevertheless. these figures are really merely estimates because plastics have non existed for long plenty for the precise decomposition clip to be measured.

Additives have been developed that allow plastic to degrade and biodegrade within a few months in landfill. as opposed to an estimated 500-1000 old ages for non-degradable plastic. Plastics made with these additives are called oxobiodegradable. However. some argue that oxobiodegradable plastics give out more to planetary heating as they release their C as C dioxide and methane far more rapidly than plastics in landfill. Method

Apparatus
Clamp
Base
Boss
Safety shock absorber
100g multitudes
3 fictile bag from 3 different supermarkets





1. Put up setup as shown in the diagram below.

2. Put the 100g multitudes in the plastic bag until it can’t take any more 3. Repeat this twice more for the same trade name of plastic bag
4. Repeat all the stairss for the other two trade names of plastic bags

Consequences
Tesco
1
Tesco
2
Tesco
3
Somerfield
1
Somerfield
2
Somerfield
3
Waitrose
1
Waitrose
2
Waitrose
3
13. 5kg
13. 2kg
7. 8kg
10. 7kg
11. 6kg
11. 0kg
12. 7kg
12. 8kg
12. 6kg


























Average Consequences
Tesco
Somerfield
Waitrose
11. 5kg
11. 1kg
12. 7kg





Decision
The graph shows that Waitrose plastic bag is the strongest and can keep 12. 7kg on norm. The Somerfield bag is the weakest and can merely keep 11. 1kg on norm and the Tesco plastic bag can keep 11. 5kg on norm. Before averaging the consequences the Tesco plastic bag was the strongest when it held 13. 5kg on the first clip but the 3rd clip it merely held 7. 8kg and the 2nd 13. 2kg. For the Somerfield plastic bag the first clip I tried out the trial it held 10. 7kg. the 2nd clip the plastic bag held 11. 6kg and the 3rd clip it held 11kg. On the Waitrose plastic bags the first clip it held 12. 7kg. the 2nd clip it held 12. 8kg and the 3rd clip it held 12. 7kg.

The supermarket which had the similar consequences before I averages them was the Waitrose plastic bag as all the consequences on the three times I tested them they all turned out to be rather similar. The Tesco bag the first two times I did the trial I got similar consequences but the 3rd clip must hold been an anomalous consequence as the difference between the first clip I did it and 3rd was 5. 7kg which is a large difference. The Somerfield bags were largely all the same on the three times I did the trial.

I made my experiment valid by doing certain that I kept the 100g multitudes in the plastic bags for the same sum of clip each. I merely changed one thing and it was the fact that I used different trade names of the plastic bag. I made certain that I was seting the multitudes in the plastic bag from the same tallness. and that the same individual was seting the multitudes into the fictile bag. I could hold made the experiment more valid if I had made certain the bags were non used before my experiment. as the usage of it might hold made the bag weaker and that might hold been why I had an anomalous consequence. and if I had made certain the bags were all the same size and form as this might hold impacted my consequences.

I made my experiment dependable as I repeated the trial three times. I looked for anomalousnesss and I averaged the consequences and set them into a graph. I could hold possibly improved the dependability of my consequences if I had repeated it more times and comparing my consequences with person else’s to see if we are acquiring the same.

hypertext transfer protocol: //mexipreneur. blogspot. com/2010_08_01_archive. hypertext markup language
Argument
Why they are good?
Plastic bags have so many practical utilizations. There are excessively many utilizations of plastic bags to be able to acquire rid of them. Plastic bags are used as bin line drives you can non replace bin line drives with another type of bag it is non efficient and even worse for the environment. Banning plastic bags would merely see paper bags choke offing up our waterways. Plastic bags are ready to hand to hold and are an of import portion of our lives. Most plastic bags are made from a plastic called polythene ; it is good. because it can. in its natural signifier. be changed to do any coloring material. form. signifier or size desired which makes it inherently versatile.


It is besides really lasting and watertight ; doing it an ideal bearer of heavy good. although it can’t be recycled it can be re-used over and over once more. Plastic bags can be melted and remoulded. and be made into fictile timber in order to be used on things such as park benches and in fencing stuff. They besides emit lower degrees of both solid waste and nursery gases. and any plastic that goes un-recycled is capable of being burned in order to bring forth electricity. which can lend to take downing sulphur emanations produced by firing fossil fuels like coal.

Some people believe we can replace plastic bags with paper bags. as they can be recycled. but in fact it takes more than four times every bit much energy to fabricate a paper bag as it does to fabricate a fictile bag. Paper come from trees. which means the impact of paper bag production on woods. is tremendous. In 1999. 14 million trees were cut to bring forth the 10 billion paper food market bags used by Americans that twelvemonth entirely. Paper bag production delivers a planetary heating because woods which are large absorbers of nursery gases have to be cut down. and so the fabrication of bags green goodss greenhouse gases.

Paper besides creates pollution ; it creates 70 % more air pollution and 50 times more H2O pollutants than plastic bags. Plastic bags are besides better than paper bags ; it takes 91 % less energy to recycle a lb of plastic than it takes to recycle a lb of paper. Besides current research demonstrates that paper in today’s landfills does non degrade or interrupt down at a faster rate than plastic does. because nil wholly degrades in modern landfills because of the deficiency of H2O. visible radiation. O and other of import elements which are needed for the debasement procedure to be completed. a paper bag takes up more infinite than a fictile bag in a landfill.

Some people are believing of censoring plastic bags. but this would do people to lose their occupations. The production of plastic bags is a large industry. There are mills which produce the bags and administer them. There is the fact that these mills may do pollution. but they besides have a huge sum of staff patroling the production and if people ban plastic bags so these people will lose their occupations.

Some supermarkets are besides sing for bear downing for plastic bags and some similar Tesco provide points if you re-use them but some people believe that they are non that bad and it is unjust for supermarket ironss to gain from something they get for free. About all supermarkets get provided plastic shopping bags for free. It is truly non just for supermarket ironss to gain money for a bag when they are used in really big Numberss and they get the bags for free.

Why some people think they are non so good? Some people believe that plastic bags for usage by consumers in supermarkets and other shops should be made illegal. as In the UK entirely. over 13 billion plastic bags are handed to consumers each twelvemonth. Plastic bags are responsible for the deceases of immense Numberss of marine species. who mistake the bags for nutrient. They believe that it is enormously uneconomical. massively unethical. and potentially lifelessly to go on utilizing plastic bags. Most of the polythene that goes into doing the huge bulk of plastic bags is derived from natural gas-which is a non-renewable. Fictile bag production besides uses about 10 per centum of the world’s one-year oil supply.

Merely 3. 5 per centum of this figure are recycled. This means that much of the planet’s natural resources are being used to bring forth plastic bags that many people’s utilizations for it are unneeded. They are non- biodegradable. intending that they can non be broken down to presume their natural. organic province. Even under ideal conditions. they would photodegrade over a periods of between 500-1. 000 old ages.

This means that plastic waste stays in our overall ecosystem for a really long clip. and besides means that every spot of plastic produced since its origin over 50 old ages ago is still with us. which makes it a batch of fictile waste. Plastic bags besides litter streets. as non merely do plastic bags fill up our landfill sites where they will stay everlastingly more. but people throw them into the streets. They accept plastic bags when they do non necessitate to and one time out of the stores take their points and litter the streets with the unwanted plastic bags. Throwing plastic bags could do the dirt unfertile ( soil pollution ) .

This is really bad. we need fertile dirt because it helps workss to turn. which is our nutrient. Animals besides need dirt cause it make workss to turn and animate beings eat workss. We can state they indirectly depend on dirt. firing plastics causes really contaminated gases which could do our lungs weak on take a breathing them. besides can do many lungs diseases like asthma. Daily more than 5 dozenss of plastic bags are thrown off. Animals can acquire caught in them. motor accidents are caused. and many end up in trees. Countless plastic bags end up in the ocean and cause injury to the marine wildlife. Many marine animate beings and birds erroneously ingest plastic or go embroiled and choking coil in plastic bags that are drifting about.

Some polo-necks mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and accidently eat them. it is estimated 100. 000 marine mammals die each twelvemonth because of plastic litter in the ocean in the North Pacific. In some states like India. cattles are erroneously consuming plastic bags on the streets as they are scavenging for nutrient and stop up choking or hungering to decease. as the plastic can non be digested. Plastic bags don’t merely kill animate beings they can besides kill worlds. as some immature babes and kids could smother on them. in other instances if a parent doesn’t want their kid they can smother the babe themselves and kill them.

If supermarkets start bear downing for plastic bags it could be a good thing. as it would discourage people from utilizing them in big sums. If each plastic bag cost 10p. so people would non utilize them in big sums because they are paying. If person shopping twice a hebdomad. utilizing six plastic bags each store. and the bags cost 10p each. they would recognize that that would be over ?60 a twelvemonth so they would either non utilize as many. or they would get down to recycle plastic bags. If everyone started to re-use plastic bags while they were shopping so. so plastic bags wouldn’t be made in big Numberss. and this manner they wouldn’t need to be replaced because people are utilizing less.

I think that plastic bags are all right as. some people believe that replacing them with paper bags or bags made out of fabric. or merely censoring plastic bags. I think that censoring plastic bags would salvage plastic. but add to the environmentally harmful production of paper and fabric. We do still necessitate something to set shopping or rubbish in and if we stop utilizing plastic for the bags. we’ll start utilizing another resource which will be bad for the environment such as paper and as I stated above that’ll be worse for the environment than plastic bags.

I think that we could replace plastic bags. but with something that is environmentally friendly. it wouldn’t harm the environment and so we would utilize less fictile bags. Or I think person should contrive a bag which is like a fictile bag but one that does non utilize up natural resources or harms the environment or putting to deaths people to maintain everyone happy. something that is besides biodegradable so even if it does acquire thrown away it will degrade in the landfills fast.

hypertext transfer protocol: //mhsgroup. org/plastic/plastic-bags/degradable-plastic-bags/

Glossary
Biodegradable- Capable of disintegrating through the action of life beings. Branching- A division or subdivision of the root or axis of a tree. bush. or other works. Decompose- To divide or decide into constitutional parts or elements. Degrade- To interrupt down ( a compound. particularly an organic hydrocarbon ) . Ethylene- A colourless. flammable gas. C 2 H 4. holding a sweet. unpleasant smell and gustatory sensation. the first member of the ethylene series. normally obtained from crude oil and natural gas: used as an agent to better the coloring material of citrous fruit fruits. in the synthesis of polythene. ethylene dibromide. ethylene oxide. and other organic compounds. and in medicine chiefly as an inspiration aesthetic.

Excursion- The supplanting of a organic structure or a point from a average place or impersonal value. as in an oscillation. Molecules- A measure of a substance. the weight of which. measured in any chosen unit. is numerically equal to the molecular weight ; gram molecule. Monomer- A molecule of low molecular weight capable of responding with indistinguishable or different molecules of low molecular weight to organize a polymer. Pollutants- Any substance. as certain chemicals or waste merchandises. that renders the air. dirt. H2O. or other natural resource harmful or unsuitable for a specific intent.

Polymers- A compound of high molecular weight derived either by the add-on of many smaller molecules. as polythene. or by the condensation of many smaller molecules with the riddance of H2O. intoxicant. or the similar. as nylon. Thermoplastic- Soft and fictile when heated. as some plastics. without any alteration of the built-in belongingss. Unfertile- Incapable of growing or development. as seeds or eggs.

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