Americans believe that if Franklin D. Roosevelt would hold lived longer. that he would hold been able to stem the tide of tensenesss between the Soviet Union and the United States. His replacement lacked greatly the Endowment of FDR. The new president. who was more comfy with machine politicians than with polished New Dealers. liked to speak tough and act rebelliously. Truman complained that the U. S. Negotiations had been a “one manner street” merely ten yearss after he took office. He so vowed to non “baby” the Soviet no thirster.
A crisis in the Mediterranean prompted President Truman to demo his colourss. On February 21. 1947. amid a civil war in Greece. Great Britain informed the U. S. State Department that it could no longer afford to shore up up the anti-Communist authorities there and announced it’s purpose to retreat all assistance. Truman concluded. Greece. Turkey. and possibly the full oil-rich Middle East would fall under Soviet control. without U. S. Intervention.
On March 12. 1947. the President made his statement before Congress in bold footings: “At the present minute in universe history. about every state must take between alternate ways of life… One manner of life is based upon the will of the bulk. and is distinguished be free institutions…and freedom from political subjugation. The 2nd manner of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed on the majority… And the suppression of personal freedoms. ” Never adverting the Soviet Union by name. he appealed for full-scale opposition to a “certain ideology” wherever it appeared in the universe. The saving of peace and the freedom of all Americans depended. the president insisted. on incorporating communism.
Congress approved a $ 400 million appropriation in assistance for Greece and Turkey. which helped the monarchy and rightist military crush the rebel motion. Truman’s triumph buoyed his popularity for the approaching 1948 election. It besides helped to bring forth popular support for a run against communism. both at place and abroad.
The significance of what became known as the Truman Doctrine far outlasted the events in the Mediterranean: the United States had declared it’s right to step in to salvage other states from communism. Equally early as February 1946. foreign-policy advisor George F. Kennan had sent an 8. 000-word “long telegram” to the State Department take a firm standing that Soviet fanatism made cooperation impossible. The USSR intended to widen it’s kingdom non by military agencies entirely. he explained. but by “subversion” within “free” states. The Truman Doctrine described the differences between the United States and the Soviet Union as absolute and unreconcilable. as an ideological breach that resonated far beyond foreign policy. It was now the duty of the United States. Truman insisted to safeguard the “Free World” by diplomatic. economic. and. if necessary. military agencies. He had. in amount. fused anti communism and internationalism into an aggressive foreign policy.
The Truman Doctrine complemented the European Recovery Program. normally known as the Marshall Plan. On June 5. 1947 the program was introduced in a beginning address at Harvard University by secretary of province and former ground forces head of staff George C. Marshall. The program sought to cut down “hunger. poorness. despair. and chaos” and to reconstruct “the assurance of the European people in the economic hereafter of their ain states and of Europe as a whole. ” Although Marshall added that “our policy is directed non against any state or philosophy. ” the program that bore his name to boot aimed to turn back both socialist and Communist electoral commands for power in northern and western Europe while advancing democracy through an economic reclamation.
The most successful postwar U. S. Diplomatic venture. the Marshall Plan supplemented the Bretton Woods understandings by farther bettering the clime for a feasible capitalist economic system. in western Europe and in consequence conveying receivers of assistance into a bilateral understanding with the United States. Western Europe states. 17 in all. ratified the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ( GATT ) . which reduced commercial barriers among member states and opened all to U. S. Trade and investing. The program was dearly-won to Americans. in it’s initial twelvemonth taking 12 per centum of the federal budget. but effectual. Industrial production in the European states covered by the program rose by 200 per centum between 1947 and 1952. Although deflationary plans cut rewards and increased unemployment. net incomes soared and the criterion of life improved. Supplemented by a multimedia propaganda run. the Marshall Plan introduced many Europeans to American consumer goods and life styles.
The Marshall Plan drove a deeper cuneus between the United States and the Soviet Union. Stalin was invited to take part but he denounced the program for what it was. an American strategy to reconstruct Germany and to integrate it into and anti-Soviet axis that encompassed all western Europe. The president readily acknowledged that the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine were “two halves of the same walnut. ”
The policy of containment depended on the ability of the United States to endorse up it’s committednesss through military agencies. and Truman invested his religion in the U. S. Monopoly of atomic arms. The U. S began to construct atomic reserves and to carry on trials on the Bikini Islands in the Pacific. By 1950. as a scientific advisor observed. the U. S. “Has a stockpile capable of slightly more than reproducing World War II in a individual twenty-four hours. ”
The U. S. Military analysts estimated it would take the Soviet Union three to ten old ages to bring forth an atomic bomb. In August 1949. the Soviet Union proved them incorrect by proving it’s ain atomic bomb. “There is merely one thing worse than one state holding the atomic bomb. ” Baronial prize-winning scientist Harold C. Urey said. “that’s two nation’s holding it. ”
The United States and Soviet Union were now steadfastly locked into the Cold War. The atomic weaponries race imperiled their hereafters. diverted their economic systems. and fostered frights of impending day of reckoning. Prospects for planetary peace had dissipated. and despite the Allied triumph in World War II. the universe had once more divided into hostile cantonments.