Postmodernism could have never existed without modernism. Art and culture are reflected only in social life. So the next generation of social evolution has created new patterns in art and culture, and postmodernism has become a new style to challenge modernity. There are many factors that influence the emergence and development of modernity. In the European society, the 18th century has become a century of innovation and technological progress. During this period, the concept of human-nature relationship changed naturally and the form of art and culture changed.
During the Enlightenment, the separation between man and nature appeared. This cloning has been applied to many human living areas. Scientific advances make people more independent creatures and promote understanding of human experience and the power of nature. The philosophy presented a new direction during this period. Dialectic thinking and conscious thinking have made rational aspects a hegemony.
Since then the main tone has been replaced by rationality. This has given a new impetus to rational and rational attempts on reality, generous and human material and things. During this period, man became the center of the universe. The rational approach has created a separation from nature in order to make man a central figure in history. “With this freedom and centrality comes a powerful measure of responsibility and duty to protect and promote the independence of all reasonable persons.” All these changes were reflected in contemporary art and modernity, which gave artists the possibility to create new relationships with reality.
Authenticity has become one of the main features of the new flow of art and culture. The tone of this originality has focused attention on artists. Artistic genius and originality are highly praised in contemporary art. During this period, art became an independent area of ??human existence, and the personal freedom of expression became the highest value. After two world wars added new advantages to modernity, social unrest, the threat of nuclear war and the collapse of spirit.
People began to question all truths found in Enlightenment. Criticism of all previous values ??became alien to later modernism and eventually transformed into postmodernism.Postmodernism is a kind of art that emerged in the mid 1980s. It is not always clear when defining difficulties and starting postmoderns in this area or in the region, because it provides architecture, sociology, art, music, film, technology and other areas. The identification and analysis of postmodernism must begin with modernity, since postmodernism occurs precisely from it. Modernity emerges early and can be defined in two ways.
According to the first aspect, modernity derives from the aesthetic movements of the 20th century and resembles the Western idea of ??art. Eliot, Joyce, Stevens, Kafka, Relic, Prost and Malarm are the founders of modernity in the 20th century. Modernism is movement in literature, art, music and drama.
He rejects the old Victorian standards for different kinds of art. Introduce new concepts about art and its functions. The period from 1910 to 1930 is the age of “modernity” that changes the meaning and function of poetry and imagination.The postmodern modern order follows most of these trends, and the main features are as follows: distinction between distinct species, not between boundaries between “low” and “high” art, and parody focusing on irony, and Albastih . “Reflection of art and postmodern favors focuses on the lack of self-awareness, division and (especially in narrative structure) suspension, mystery, synchronization, and title and destruction of Mufsch humanity” (Bartz 157).Although these two movements are rather similar they also have a number of distinctions.
For example, modernism presents human life and human subjectivity in fragments and as something tragic and mournful. The idea of fragmentation of the life prevails and this idea is depicted with sadness and grief. According to modernism works of art can present the world in unity, while this unity is lost in the real life. In contrast, postmodernism depict the idea of world fragmentation with enthusiasm and optimism, the world is meaningless and the art can do nothing to change this, the only thing that is left is to depict this world with irony and satire.Postmodernists define subjectivism of modernism literature as existential crisis and try to avoid it. Narrators deconstruct themselves and they do it consciously. Self-reflection and deconstruction becomes the main themes in the works of Vladimir Nabokov, Vladimir Sorokin,, John Fowles, John Barth and Julian Barnes.
Postmodernism has influenced public administration and governance in various ways. Most importantly because it brought forward new perspective on public administration and governance and therewith inspired the construction of new models. Models that conversely affected the practices of public administration as description and prescription always tend to get mixed. Understanding governance as network instead of as hierarchies for example has stimulated many approaches that aim to develop and manage networks.
In this sense new ways of understanding public administration, especially when captured in a model, can have a performative power. In relation to economics the book by MacKenzie et al. (Do economists make markets) is an interesting read. Postmodernism also brought attention to the constructed and contingent nature of public administration models and therewith it increased the awareness of possible alternative models. Additionally postmodernist reflections where often used to show limitations, shortcomings or even failures of particular models and therewith they also stimulated the debates about alternative models (such as new public management to increase the effectiveness or new governance to enhance the democratic values).
Modernism is a movement in art, music, architecture, literature and technique in the United states and Europe in the 19th- 20th century, which appeared as a protest to the traditional esthetic culture. Modernism gave people a new way to contact with the reality and man became the master of this reality. Art became more subjective and individual and so artists were in the center of attention. The last half of the 20th century is characterized by the failure of modernist tendencies. Modernism has been replaced by postmodernism. Any movement in literature, art or music is the reflection of social, economic and political sphere of the society and postmodernism is the reflection of our epoch.