1. Introduction
This assignment entails the information of procurance procedures and the comparing of three different organisations that we have chosen – the Minimart. Online store and Pet point industries. Although they are all micro administrations and retail merchants in the supply concatenation. they encompass single demands and choice standards of their procurance processes.

In this assignment. we will place what are the similarities and differences in their Procurement-to-Pay procedure. their ‘What if” hazard factors and the extenuation attack in get the better ofing the hazards.

2. Brief DESCRIPTION OF ORGANISATIONS
The three micro administrations selected are viz. the Mini-mart. Online Apparel Shop and the Pet Shop. First. the mini-mart act as a “convenient store” located around lodging estates. It takes advantage of the propinquity and vicinity and targets the forenoon haste hr crowd such as the pupils and working grownups. The mini-mart offers merchandises like canned nutrient. drinks. choice morsels. newspapers. ready-to-go nutrients like jammed rice. finger nutrient and sweets.

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As the mini-mart trades with extremely perishable goods. the procurement process will be particular to the industry. as they have limited shelf lives. Next. a recent tendency in the manner industry is the online store. The online store sells dresss and accoutrements that the proprietor beginning from around the universe bleeding on majority price reductions.

The online store marks female consumers that enjoy the convenience of on-line shopping. Last. the pet store sells pets and their related points such as coops. nutrient and dainties. preparing kits and playthings. The chief consumers will be the people who are looking for pets and bing pet proprietors who will necessitate to buy the pet’s necessities often.

3. Position OF ORGANISATIONS AND TWO MAJOR PRODUCTS IDENTIFIED All three administrations act as retail merchants where consumers purchase merchandises from them straight. They straight import the merchandises themselves from abroad or purchase from local jobbers who import them in majority. The focal point for these three micro administrations chosen in their procurance procedure will be on the schemes that they make due to the limited infinite operating in Singapore.

In add-on. the mini-mart and favored store have limited shelf life for some of the merchandises that they carry. The two major merchandises we identified for minimart are the newspapers and the ready-packed nutrient. As mentioned. the consumers are chiefly working grownups and pupils that patronize during first-come-first-serve hr. Items like local newspapers and ready-packed nutrient are in high demand. The shelf life of these merchandises are short. therefore one time unsold will hold the newspaper obsolete and nutrient stale. Next. the two major merchandises for the online store are dressing and accoutrements.

The online store needs to convey in new dresss invariably. They need to catch up with the turning demands and altering gustatory sensation of the clients. A factor that contributes to these is the seasonal manner that changes every clip. Therefore. seasonal demand should be included into calculating for stock lists as this would maintain the company competitory.

Finally. favored point consumers would chiefly look frontward to daily demand such as pet canned nutrients and preparing merchandises. They are two major merchandises that petshop need to constantly maintain them in sufficient sum of stock list required when they affect the sale rates. As mentioned earlier. they are imported overseas.

4. Procure TO PAY PROCESS COMPARISON

Appendix A

The three administrations that we have chose have all followed this Procure to Pay procedure. nevertheless they have their differences in finding these procedures. For calculating. the online store and the pet store has less frequent degree of calculating their demands due to its abnormality gross revenues of goods which depends on seasonal demand. However. the mini-mart really requires day-to-day prediction and is more volatile in their prognosis. The shopkeeper return into considerations like public and school vacations before he really see how much to secure for the twenty-four hours worth of nutrient and newspapers to sell.

For illustration. during weekends in the forenoon. crowds tend to be lesser and therefore. lower in demand. For the clarification/requisition and supplier choice procedure. the online store had done their elucidations virtually through on-line electronic mails and phone calls as most of their providers are all overseas. The mini-mart and the pet store really do face-to-face run into up with providers to look at the existent merchandises. whether they can fit their demands before corroborating the order and bringing. The blessing and contract procedure is rather similar for both the mini-mart and the pet store as it is done locally.

After placing a provider. they will direct purchase order harmonizing to demand. The online store procedure is somewhat different as the providers are chiefly from abroad. Once the owner has identified their provider. she will go to the state to see the provider to find the product’s quality. and to set up a resonance with the provider before giving the blessing. After discoursing with these three administrations. we have discovered that monetary value is one of the cardinal factors on how these three administrations measures the public presentation of their providers.

They will non desire to see a sudden addition of their cost of merchandises. However. there is a difference in their choice standards. The mini-mart factors in the seasonableness of goods. the petshop factors in the trade name of merchandises that consumers prefer. and the online store focuses in the design. quality and bulk purchase price reductions.

5. SUPPLIER IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION
The similarity in demand for choosing providers is the timely bringing. All three administrations. particularly the mini-mart requires punctual bringing of newspapers and ready-packed nutrient daily. They rely on the supplier’s promptness to stock up right stock lists to do points available at the right clip and topographic point for consumers. With the Fedex Strategic sourcing procedure ( Annex B ) . we are able to demo their differences in designation and choice of providers.

Minimart
Online store
Pet Shop
Profile the Sourcing Group
– Requires volatile alterations of good supplies depending on the day-to-day demand. Therefore. while puting the profile. the proprietor will prioritize acquaintance and dependability with the provider. – Requires volume price reduction.



– Seasonably bringing affects forecast for seasonal demands and therefore. will impact their gross revenues. – Requires volumes price reductions for pets related point.
– Requires credibleness and repute of the provider.
Choice Sourcing Strategy
– Has no bargaining power over the merchandises from the current providers. – Have small options over providers as providers are niche and limited. – Has bargaining power when telling goods in majority.


– An alternate manner when current provider is unable to run into the demands. online store proprietors in Singapore can travel for abroad Hunts to look for direct providers alternatively of normal jobbers in Singapore. For illustration. Bangkok is one of neighboring states who is the direct provider for dresss sold locally. – Has bargaining power due to bulk purchase ability and due to the big provider base. it is easy to happen alternate beginnings that can supply similar/better services. Generate Supplier Portfolio

– Has merely one beginning for acquiring the newspapers due to the limited publishing house in Singapore. – However. for the nutrient supplies. the proprietor will look into the value added services such as packaging of the nutrient points. This helps to salvage the clip of re-packaging and selling to the clients.

– Every piece of dress is packed neatly in packaging and proprietors do non hold to re-package themselves once more. They are besides delivered to owner’s doorsill from abroad. This adds value to the supplier’s service. – Selects and place providers with no value added capablenesss. However. chief choice standards are bulk price reduction and monetary value.

Choice execution way
– Very small accommodation to be done on the sourcing due to the basic concern theoretical account. – Many on-line stores sells similar points so they look for providers who can supply self-manufacture services and besides bulk price reductions. For illustration. providers follow designs as given from on-line shop’s purchase order. – Increase majority price reduction standards to shrivel the list qualified provider. Major merchandise like canned nutrients can be stored longer. therefore. storage will non present as a job. Negotiate and choice providers

– Due to the lone bing publishing house in Singapore. negociating power is really limited. However. for the nutrient supplies. decrease of monetary value and efficiency is feasible with addition in order measure. – Base on shortlisted providers. they will look into the 1 who can compromise the most and fulfill their demands. – With the sourcing scheme established. they will seek to dicker for more bulk price reduction with the providers. Operationalize supplier integrating

– Link their providers as a portion of their operating procedure as seasonableness is an issue for gross revenues of goods for the mini-mart. – Long-run coaction ensures quality and efficiency when there is common trust. – Will set up relationship with the provider and besides assure trueness if the provider maintains their quality service and price reductions. However. they do non associate the providers to their cardinal procedures. Benchmark the supply market

– Mini-marts tend to prioritize in majority price reductions and timely bringing in choice of providers. – By comparing selected providers. they will contract down the providers who can supply the most efficient services and bulk price reductions. – Does market comparing with other favored stores and besides providers. They look out for cheaper providers and latest pet merchandises.

6. STRESS TESTING AND RISKS MITIGATION APPROACHES
6. 1 Four classs of hazards identified in each organisation A ) Minimart

Supplier-Related
Customer-Related
Hazard Mitigation Approach
Breaks
– Supplier who delivers ready-to-go nutrient suddenly stops their supply.



– Excess stock list due to calculate mistake. seasonal demand. wastage in nutrient. – Lose possible consumers who prefer nutrient green goods by original provider.

– Sudden addition or lessening in demand.
– Acquire surrogate beginning of provider.

– Proper prognosis to maintain the right stock list degree required. Delaies
– Traffic jam delays the bringing of forenoon orders.

– Supplier delivers to incorrect reference.
– Miss and disappoints the forenoon crowds.

– Delay in exposing all the ready-food to sell.
– Increase reactivity of Supplier.

– Look for jobber who can provide last minute.
Procurement
– Supplier is forced to increase the monetary value of natural stuffs. – Increase in Transport costs.
– Force to increase monetary value due the spike of cost of goods or conveyance cost. – Having a excess pool of providers to benchmark.
Systems
– Supplier’s order tracking system interruptions down.
-Suppliers nutrient processing machine dislocation





– Telephone line interrupt down and clients can non order via phone.

– Increase flexibleness in other agencies of contact.
For illustration. electronic mails. nomadic phones. telecommunicating for pressing orders. – Alternate beginning of provider.

For the Minimart. we have identified two cardinal extenuation schemes to get alternate/redundant beginning of providers and increase reactivity. Geting excess providers helps to cut down breaks. procurance and stock list hazard. However. as we discuss farther. the mini-mart might confront the hazard that alternate supplier capacity might non be sufficient to run into their demands. This will in bend. present as a hazard to their stock list. To cut down the hazard of hold. we have proposed to increase the reactivity of the provider due to short life rhythm of nutrient merchandises. It besides helps to cut down both prognosis and stock list hazard.

B ) Online stores

Supplier-Related
Customer- Related
Hazard Mitigation Approach
Breaks
– Natural catastrophes like haze. tsunami happen and cause cargo hold.



– Sudden deficit production of cotton cloth and natural stuff for doing dresss. – Excess stock list due to incorrect stock count.
– Demand additions.

– Increase in monetary values when demand is high and low in productiveness.

– Have alternate excess beginning of providers to trust on.

– Increasing stock list degree.

– Better prognosis stock list due to seasonal demands.
Delaies
– Stock holds that resulted from deficit of of import natural stuff e. g. fabric etc.

– Distribution takes longer when hold from transporting companies. – Customer order fulfilment gets delayed
– Stocking up more predictable and lower cost merchandise.

– Look for direct surrogate providers overseas. shortens waiting clip for transporting and salvage cost. Procurement
– Increase in production costs from supplier due to shortage in natural stuffs or labours.

– Transportation costs increases that was incurred from transit companies.

– Need to increase selling monetary value while unable to cut down waiting clip required. or even higher waiting prognosis.

– Customer orders gets assorted up and resulted in hapless client service. – Acquire redundant providers for benchmark.

– Increasing responsiveness attack to run into client demand.

Systems
– System dislocation at abroad provider side.

– Online shopping web site breakdown locally and proficient fix takes some clip – Website gets infected and non able to have clients order.

– Increase stock list degree to extenuate provider system hazard.

– Increase in flexibleness of point of contact.

For Online store. the chief focal point was to acquire supplies ready when needed. Having alternate providers is necessary when there is hold or failure in the possible provider. Accurate prognosis is of import when consumer demand is different every season. Leftover points from extra stock list could hold trouble in run intoing purchasers and cause wastage.

C ) Pet Shop

Supplier-Related
Customer- Related
Hazard Mitigation Approach
Breaks
– Local provider has stopped providing a hot merchandising merchandise.



– Health production examined a major pet canned nutrient merchandise contains chemical that is non suited for ingestion. – Consumers forced to travel for other alternate supplies.

– Retailers forced to absorb losingss for bing stock lists. – Increase in stock list.

– Have excess providers.

Delaies
– Supplier hold bringing of promotional point by a twenty-four hours.

– Supplier present incorrect type of points and causes
re-delivery holds.
– Inadequate supplies to run into expected demand.

– Severe deficit on peculiar points affected.
– Increase in inventory degree.
Procurement
– Supplier refuses the majority price reduction of a certain merchandise due to drop in buying volume.


– Supplier addition in monetary value when production can non catch up with demand. – Forced to increase monetary value due to lesser gross revenues of a merchandise.

– Consumer still enjoys usual merchandising rates due to competitiveness at retailer side. – Having excess provider so that they can benchmark their providers to acquire the best competitory monetary value. Systems

– E-order system broke down.

– Overseas provider lose path of all orders due to system breakdown – Online web page is down and clients are non able to acquire information and order online. – Increase flexibleness in holding other beginning of communicating like telephone or backup transcript of customer’s orders.

As for the pet store. we concluded that to derive fight in pricing. they require the providers to publish bulk price reduction. Therefore. they will hold a few redundant providers to let them to pull strings the monetary values between the providers. giving them a lower monetary value. In making so. it besides mitigates on jobs like break and holds as if any of the providers will neglect on such a secondary will take the occupation extenuating these issues. We must understand that when they engage any provider. they will stock in more than adequate stock puting buffer and bleeding on the majority price reduction.

6. 2 Risks Mitigation

For the above different classs of hazard. there are a few similar extenuation schemes for each hazard for the three organisations studied. For the hazard of break. the cardinal scheme for the organisations is to get alternative/redundant providers. This scheme will assist to extenuate the hazard of sudden arrest of supplies. Besides. it helps to cut down the procurance and hold hazard.

However. we have besides concluded that as these administrations are retail merchants. which are subjected to the provider capacity to supply the stock list needed. As such. if break from provider were to go on. the administrations might confront stock list hazard. Coming to hazard of hold. the pet store and online store are able to extinguish this hazard by increasing stock list degree as canned nutrient and apparels can be stored. This will besides assist to take down breaks and procurement hazards to the administration.

However. for the mini-mart. the attack is different due to the short life rhythm of nutrient merchandises and the timely bringing demand due to day-to-day demand. As such. it requires an addition in the reactivity of the providers to guarantee quality of merchandises. For hazard of procurance. we are able to reason that all three administrations require holding redundant providers. Largely. for these administrations faces hazard in an addition of the cost of goods and transit cost.

As such. they require different providers so that they are able to benchmark their providers against others to acquire an overall competitory border in cost economy. Last. for the hazard of system. the administrations are confronting largely on issues like buying system dislocation or the organisation system failure. Therefore. they need to increase their flexibleness in holding other beginning of communicating like telephone. nomadic phones or backup transcript of their ain orders.

7. Decision

In decision. the above analysis on the three administrations helps us better understand the procurance procedure and the importance of sing such procedures when it comes to cut downing costs. hazards and choice of providers. It is besides concluded that all the three administrations rely in a manner or another procurance strategies to guarantee normal concern map in functioning targeted consumer demands. doing them available in the right clip. right topographic point and location.

In add-on. the providers and the three organisation’s relationship in the bing market play an of import function in footings that affects the bringing to stop consumers. Besides. we have concluded that for micro administrations. the three most of import extenuation schemes is in holding excess providers. and maintaining and calculating the right stock list degree and holding flexibleness in their administrations. This will assist in the administrations smooth runing procedure.

8. Mention

1. Chopra. S. . Shodhi. M. S. ( 2004 ) . Pull offing Risks to avoid Supply-Chain Breakdown MIT Sloan Management Review. 46. 1.

2. Monczka. R. . Trent. R. . and Handfield. R. ( 2005 ) . Buying and Supply Chain Management. Thomson-South-Western. Third/Fourth Edition

3. Interview: Junction 168 Minimart – Mr. Tan. C. T. ( 2013 ) – Understanding the Organisation and its Procurement procedures.

4. Interview: Kwong Fatt Pet Centre – Mr. Wong. K. F. ( 2013 ) – Understanding the Organisation and its Procurement procedures.

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