Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram
negative bacillus that acts as an opportunistic human pathogen. It is
considered as one of the nosocomial causative agents and is responsible for the large scale multi-drug resistant
infections. (Pier and Ramphal, 2005) Rarely,
P. aeruginosa infects healthy
individual. However, it is capable of infecting all tissue when the physical
barrier is breached or in individuals whose immune defence is compromised such
as those with cystic fibrosis and cancer. (Morrison and Wenzel, 1984)
Hence, this explains why P. aeruginosa
is a major concern within healthcare settings and their infections are often
severe and life-threatening. (Maschmeyer and Braveny, 2000) Each
year, it is estimated that there are 51,000 cases of hospital acquired P.
infections within the United States. Of that, multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains accounts for
around 13% of the cases, contributing to roughly 400 deaths annually. (Chatterjee et al., 2016)

The increased incidence of antimicrobial resistance has been
one of the pressing problems faced by healthcare services worldwide. Bacteria
are gaining resistance to most of the currently available
antimicrobial agents which results in significant increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. (Sulakvelidze
et al., 2001) It is estimated that these
infections affects 2.5 million people annually and has claimed the lives of at
least 50 000 people across Europe and USA alone. (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2013) The emergence of
multidrug-resistance bacteria has also raised the concern for nosocomial
infections. It is define as infections acquired during hospital stay and was
absence at the point of admission, (Ducel
et al., 2002) as well as potential occupational
infections among staff within the facility. (Benenson, 1995) An
incidence survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) across 14
countries within Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia and Western
Pacific that involved 55 hospitals has shown that an average of 8.7% of
hospitalized patients acquire nosocomial infection. Thus, this means that at
least 1.4 million people worldwide are suffering from complications acquired in
hospital at any point of time. (Tikhomirov, 1987)

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