Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gramnegative bacillus that acts as an opportunistic human pathogen. It isconsidered as one of the nosocomial causative agents and is responsible for the large scale multi-drug resistantinfections.
(Pier and Ramphal, 2005) Rarely,P. aeruginosa infects healthyindividual. However, it is capable of infecting all tissue when the physicalbarrier is breached or in individuals whose immune defence is compromised suchas those with cystic fibrosis and cancer. (Morrison and Wenzel, 1984)Hence, this explains why P. aeruginosais a major concern within healthcare settings and their infections are oftensevere and life-threatening.
(Maschmeyer and Braveny, 2000) Eachyear, it is estimated that there are 51,000 cases of hospital acquired P.aeruginosainfections within the United States. Of that, multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains accounts foraround 13% of the cases, contributing to roughly 400 deaths annually.
(Chatterjee et al., 2016)The increased incidence of antimicrobial resistance has beenone of the pressing problems faced by healthcare services worldwide. Bacteriaare gaining resistance to most of the currently availableantimicrobial agents which results in significant increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. (Sulakvelidzeet al., 2001) It is estimated that theseinfections affects 2.5 million people annually and has claimed the lives of atleast 50 000 people across Europe and USA alone.
(Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, 2013) The emergence ofmultidrug-resistance bacteria has also raised the concern for nosocomialinfections. It is define as infections acquired during hospital stay and wasabsence at the point of admission, (Ducelet al., 2002) as well as potential occupationalinfections among staff within the facility. (Benenson, 1995) Anincidence survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) across 14countries within Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia and WesternPacific that involved 55 hospitals has shown that an average of 8.
7% ofhospitalized patients acquire nosocomial infection. Thus, this means that atleast 1.4 million people worldwide are suffering from complications acquired inhospital at any point of time. (Tikhomirov, 1987)