– Are societal buildings ( non biological worlds )

– Form footing for categorization systems

– Based on sensed similarities

– Often hierarchal ( one valued over the other )

– Specific topographic point in ranking is related to wealth. power and length of service in topographic point

– Neither are based in biology/genetic difference


Cultural Groups-Groups within society that show alone cultural traits: linguistic communication.

faith. culinary art. etc.

Panethnic Groups: Class or grouping of related cultural groups: Euro-Americans ;

Latino American. Asiatic Americans. etc.

What are minorities?

– More or less wealth determines minorities. Groups who are singled out for

differential intervention. They exert less power and have fewer resources.

– They have worse life opportunities

– Minorities include:



oPeople with disablements

oRace/ethnic group


– Euro- American Protestants

– Euro-American Catholics. Jews and many Asian-Americans

– “Racialized” groups. including African-Americans. Hispanics. And some Asiatic


Bases of Hierachy

– Economic

– Political

– Discrimination ( how the authorities treats you ) /Prejudice ( single dainties

you )

Measures of integrating

– Integration ( abode. instruction. exogamy )

Income ( money you are doing and non old money ) . and wealth ( the value of your

assets minus the value of your debt )

Broader Context

– US has 5 % of the world’s population and 25 % of the world’s inmates

– In the 198-s. US became more punitory ( Crime rates did NOT rise )

– Why?

oPolitical political orientation ( “tough on crime’ )

oLegislative alterations ( three work stoppages. compulsory condemning guidelines.

‘war on drugs’

oPrivatization ( private industry is about net income ) of the prison industry


-Vary by province

Kentucky has the strictest. Most punitory Torahs

( requires the governor to reconstruct the right to vote on a instance by instance footing )

Disenfranchising weakens democracy

Low income and minorities disproportionately lose voting right.

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