Ramesses II also known as Ramses the Great is one of the greatly known Egyptian pharaohs. Under his rule, Egypt prospered. He created great monuments, won battles and even created the first peace treaty in history. His rule was the second largest in Egypt, ruling for about sixty-six years.  He was a great warrior and like all Egyptian pharaohs, he was said to be the living God. Ramses is also said to be the pharaoh of the biblical book Exodus.Ramses was born to Queen Tuya and Pharaoh Seti I in 1292 BCE. He was the third pharaoh of the nineteenth dynasty. He was married to Nefertari who was said to be his favorite wife she was the queen of Egypt. He had two hundred other wives and had more than one-hundred-sixty kids. ninety-six of them sons and sixty of them daughters. Surprisingly Ramses outlived the majority of his wives and children. Ramses died in 1213 BCE at the age of ninety.Ramses family were not royals until the fall of the eighteenth dynasty where Ramses I became the first pharaoh of the nineteenth dynasty. Ramses became crown prince at a very young age. He held a special status that allowed him to go with his father to military campaigns and gave him a ” Kingly household and harem.” This gave him background knowledge of war and being a king. He also ranked captain of the military at only age ten. Though this was a great honor some believe he was still going through military training at the time of this ranking. This background knowledge he had of kingship contributed to the success and prosperity that Egypt went through during his reign.Ramses was a great warrior and that is shown in the Battle of Kadesh. This battle was between Ramses II of Egypt and Muwatalli II of the Hittite Empire. They were battling over the Syrian territory, especially Kadesh which was a very prosperous city and popular with the trade. This battle with the Hittites had been existing for a while. Ramses had taken with him 4 military divisions with him Amun, Ra, Seth, and Ptah with a total of twenty thousand infantry and two thousand chariots. The army of Muwatalli had forty thousand-foot soldiers and three thousand chariots. When Ramses was on his way to Kadesh the Egyptians captured two Hittites who were sent to spy on the Egyptian army. The Egyptian soldiers took them to the pharaoh. There Ramses questioned them, not knowing that these men were very loyal to the Hittite king Ramses received false information. The informants said that the Hittite army had fled because the king was scared of the pharaoh. Believing this Ramses continued with his men. The Hittites were actually hiding in the area and they were prepared to attack. They did, they attacked the division Amun where the pharaoh was. Ramses and his division were very ahead of the others and that caused them to be by themselves against the Hittites. Muwatalli thinking that he defeated Ramses and his army, let his guard down. Big mistake because Ramesses got his men back up and counter-attacked. The Egyptian chariots were way easier to maneuver than the chariots of the Hittites. Ramses was able to not get defeated but didn’t get victory either. Instead, he just retreated honorably. Yet when he got back to Egypt he claimed victory and the city of Kadesh. Ramses held celebrations and festival for his “victory” on the Hittites. The Hittites also claimed victory in the battle of Kadesh.Since the Hittites and the Egyptians couldn’t agree who won they decided to meet in Kadesh fifteen years after the war in 1259 BCE. The Hittites and the Egyptians made a peace treaty since the outcome of the war wasn’t decided. The peace treaty ended the war between Egypt and the Hittites that had lasted for eighty years. That peace treaty between the Egyptians and Hittites was the world’s first peace treaty.Ramses also had a conflict with the Sherden Sea Pirates according to the writings he left. These pirates were a group of naval radars that harassed the coast towns of the Mediterranean, mostly on Egypt. According to Ramses these “Sea Peoples” were allied with the Hittites, but he also allowed them to work as his mercenaries in his army. It was said that he defeated the Sea Peoples in a naval battle at the coast of Egypt. According to the story Ramses left, he told the Sea Peoples that they were allowed to take their warships, supply and cargo vessels to the mouth of the Nile. This wasn’t any friendly plan, what Ramses was actually thinking of doing was to attack the Sea Peoples. He hid a small Egyptian army ready to defend. Ramses decided he was going to let them attack making them think they were just going to fight this small group. Then he launched his attack at them. They sank their ships and defeated the army. After the battle the pirates that survived the battle were forced into Ramses army, others were even made his bodyguard. As stated by Ramses in the records he left behind he had stopped the threat of the Sea Peoples, but his successors tell a different story about the Sea Peoples.Ramses had achieved great things during his reign with being a great warrior and also being a great architect. He built marvelous monuments which include Abu Simbel, Luxor Temple, Ramesseum and his city Pi- Ramses. Abu Simbel was constructed from 1264 BCE to 1244 BCE, the construction lasted for twenty years. Abu Simbel are two massive rock temples The Great Temple was dedicated to the Gods Amun, Ra-Horakhty, Ptah and himself. The Small Temple was dedicated to his Queen Nefertari and the goddess Hathor.  Abu Simbel has written on its walls the Battle of Kadesh. Telling the story of how Ramses and his army headed to the city of Kadesh against the Hittite Army.Ramses also built the Ramesseum. The Ramesseum was the funerary temple of Ramses, It was located in the West bank of the Nile in what would have been Upper Egypt. The temple is dedicated to the god Amun and himself with a 57 feet statues of Ramses II sitting. Inside the temple, there are records of the Battle of Kadesh, the Festival of Min (celebrating the god Min who was the god of fertility, virility, and reproduction) and the Syrian Wars. Ramses moved the Capital of Egypt and built a new city called Pi-Ramesses meaning the “House of Ramesses”. It was located near the old city of Avaris and was the greatest city at that time was even greater the Thebes the largest city and the old capital of Egypt. The thought that Pi-Ramesses was close to the old city made the new capital even greater. Avaris was very respected by the Ancient Egyptians, it was a site of trade. It was also the capital of the Hyksos or “rules of the foreign land.” This new city was intended to show all the glory of Egypt and Ramses reign. It was supposed to set a good impression on the Egyptians and it did. Pi-Ramesses was the first city you would see when you went to Egypt and it was a very beautiful prosperous city leaving all visitors amazed. The four quarters of the city had its own ruling god. In the west it was Amon. In the south it was Seth(also called Set). In the north, it was the goddess Wadjet. Finally, in the east, it was the Syrian goddess Astarte. After Ramses death the city continued to be the capital of Egypt, the only problem was that after Ramesses there were no strong leaders like him. The only one that came close was Ramesses III, after that they all were weaker and continued getting weaker as new leaders came. The city had to be abandoned because the Nile had changed route affecting the lives of the Egyptians. They moved south to the city of Tanis.  Some of Ramses temples and statues were moved down to Tanis. Pi-Ramesses is now underground, under the village of Qantir. All that people can see is the top of the Temple of Set and Ramses statue.Ramses has been said to be the Pharaoh in the book of “Exodus”, movies like The Ten Commandments(1959) and The Prince of Egypt. Some people believe this theory since the Bible mentions that the Israelites had built the city of Ramses, Ramses had built the city Pi-Ramses (house of Ramses). Some historians believe that Ramses wasn’t the pharaoh of the book “Exodus”, they say that there isn’t any evidence supporting that Ramses had chased the Israelites, or that the city of Pi-Ramses was built by slaves. Ramses was also left with an heir and had a very prosperous reign all the way to his death, therefore some historians believe that it wasn’t Ramses II but Thutmose II.Ramses died in 1213 BCE after a sixty-seven-year reign. He was about ninety years old. Ramses had outlived a lot of his wives and children, which was uncommon in Egypt. Ramses left a legacy of making Egypt prosperous. He had left Egypt stronger and richer than it was at the beginning of his reign. He also left great monuments like Abu Simbel, the Ramesseum, and the Luxor Temple.Ramses the Great was one of the best rulers of ancient Egypt. Building great monument and winning wars like the Battle of Kadesh. Ramses is also remembered for being in the world’s first peace treaty. He had a long prosperous reign outliving many of his wives and children. His reign was so long and great that when he died the Egyptians thought it was the end of the world since he was the only king the knew.

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