Random Dies Essay, Research PaperDies IraeProbably the composing of Thomas of Celano ( ? ) 1200? & # 8211 ; 1255? & # 8211 ; a indigen of Abruzzi, Dies irae, dies illa, solvet saeclum in favilla, teste David semen Sybilla. Quantus shudder est futurus, quando judex est venturus, cuncta stricte discussurus. Day of wrath! On that twenty-four hours Heaven and earth shall run off David and the Sibyl say Fright work forces & # 8217 ; s Black Marias impolitely rends, when from heaven the Judge descends on whose sentence each depends. Tuba mirim spargens sonum, per sepulchra regionum, coget omnes ante thronum.
Mors stubebit et natura, semen resurget creatura, judicanti reponsura. Fantastic sound the cornet cracks, Through Earth & # 8217 ; s sepulchres it rings, All before the throne it brings. Death and nature hesitating, All creative activity raising, To its Judge an reply devising.
Liber scriptus proferetur, in quo totum continetur, unde mundus judicetur. Judex ergo cum sedebit, quidquid latet apparebit, nil ilnultum remanebit. Before Him the Book, precisely worded wherein each title is recorded whence the universe is rewarded. When the Judge His place shall derive, all that & # 8217 ; s conceal shall be field, nil unavenged remain. Quid sum miser tunc dicturus, quem patronum rogaturus, semen vix justus sit securus? Wretched adult male, what can I plead, whom to inquire to mediate, when the merely much clemencies need? Rex tremendae majestatis, qui salvandos salvas gratis, salva me, fons pietatis, Majestic King enormous Who free redemption grants us, Font of clemency, save us. Recordare Jesu pie, quod sum lawsuit tuae viae, ne me perdas illa dice.
Quaerens me sedisti lassus, redemisti crucem passus, tantus labour non sit causus. Juste judex ultinonis, donum fac remissionis ante diem rationis. Jesus, sanctum in remembrance Caused by fantastic embodiment ; On that twenty-four hours salvage me from devastation. Faint and weary You sought me, On the cross of enduring redeemed me ; Shall such grace be in vain brought me? Righteous Judge revenging Grant thy gift all-forgiving, Before the twenty-four hours of thinking. Ingemisco tanquam reus, culpa rubet vultus meus ; supplicanti parce, Deus. Qui Mariam absolvisti et latronem exaudisti, mihi quoque spem dedisti ; Guilty now I pour my moaning, All my shame with anguish owning ; Spare, O God, thy petitioner groaning! By whom Mariam was forgiven ; and the stealer & # 8217 ; s entreaty did listen ; And to me a hope now given. Preces meae non sunt dignae, sed tu, fillip, fac benigne, ne perenni cremer igne.
Inter oves locum praesta et Bachelor of Arts haedis me sequestra statuens in parte dextra ; Worthless are my supplications and sighing, Yet, good Lord, in grace complying, Rescue me from fires undying. With thy favoured sheep O topographic point me, Nor among the caprine animals abase me ; But to thy right manus resurrect me! Confutatis maledictis, flammis acribus addictis, voca me cum benedictis. Oro supplex et acclinis, cor contritum quasi cinis, gere curam Japanese apricot stopping point.
While the wicked are confounded, Doomed to fires of suffering boundless, Name me, with thy saints surrounded. Low I kneel, with heart-submission ; See, like ashes, my attrition ; Help me in my last status. Lacrimosa dies illa, qua resurget ex favilla judicandus gay reus & # 8212 ; huic ergo parce, Deus, Pie Jesu dominus, dona eis dirge. Ah, that twenty-four hours of cryings and mourning! From the dust of Earth returning, Man for judgement must fix him ; Spare, O God, in clemency trim him Lord, all-pitying, Jesu blest, Grant us thine ageless remainder! Dies Irae [ Day of Wrath ] Latin Grammar Aid and Wordlist A COLLECTION OF HYMNS, FOR THE USE OF THE PEOPLE CALLED METHODISTS. BY THE REV. JOHN WESLEY SONNET ON HEARING THE DIES IRAE SUNG IN THE SISTINE CHAPEL Oscar Wilde & # 8211 ; 1881Dies Irae This name by which the sequence in dirge Masses is normally known.
They are the gap words of the first poetry: Dies Ir, dies illa. The rubrics af the Roman Missal prescribe the recitation of the sequence by the celebrator on the undermentioned occasions: ( 1 ) in the Mass of All Souls & # 8217 ; Day ( In commemoratione Omnium Fidelium Defunctorum ) ; ( 2 ) in funeral Masses ( In dice obitus seu depositionis defuncti ) ; and ( 3 ) whensoever in dirge Multitudes, merely one oratio, or collect, is to be said, viz. in the anniversary Mass, and when Mass is solemnly celebrated on the 3rd, the 7th, or the thirtieth ( month & # 8217 ; s head ) twenty-four hours after decease or entombment. Its recitation in other dirge Masses ( In Missis quotidianis defunctorum ) is optional with the celebrator. It should be noted here that the edict of the Congregation of Sacred Rites ( 12 August, 1854 ) allowing the choir to exclude such stanzas as bash non incorporate a supplication is non included in the new edition of the & # 8220 ; Decreta Authentica S.
R. C & # 8221 ; ( Rome, 1898-1900 ) . From this fact may be inferred that the more ancient regulation is now in force and that the whole sequence must either be sung by the choir or be & # 8220 ; recited & # 8221 ; in a high and clear voice with organ concomitant ( californium. American Ecclesiastical Review, August, 1907, p. 201 ) . As found in the Roman Missal, the Dies Ir is a Latin verse form of 57 lines in accentual ( non-quantitative ) , rhymed, trochaic meter. It comprises 19 stanza, of which the first 17 follow the type of the first stanza: 1. Dies Ir, dies illa, Solvet s clum in favilla: Teste David semen Sibyll.
The staying stanzas discard the strategy of ternary rimes in favor of rhyming pairs, while the last two lines use vowel rhyme alternatively of rime and are, furthermore, catalectic: 18. Lacrimosa dies illa, Qu resurget antique favillft, Judicandus gay reus. 19. Huic ergo parce Deus: Pie Jesu Domine, Dona eis dirge. Amen. Thus the last two stanzas are printed in the typical 1900 ) edition of the Missal, and in the Ratisbon edition of the plain-chant scene. The Vatican edition ( 1907 ) of the plain-chant tune nevertheless, seemingly takes history of the fact that the last six lines did non, in all chance, originally belong tothe sequence, and divides them into three pairs.
This Missal text of the sequence is found, with light verbal fluctuations, in a thirteenth-century manuscript in the Biblioteca. Nazionale at Naples ( californium. Haberl, Magister Choralis, Ratisbon, 1900, pp. 237-238 ) .
Father Eusebius Clop, O.F.M. , in the & # 8220 ; Revue du chant Gr gorien & # 8221 ; ( November-December, 1907, p.
49 ) argues a day of the month between 1253-1255 for the MS. & # 8211 ; a. Franciscan Missal whose calendar does non incorporate the name of St.
Clare, who was canonized in 1255, and whose name would hold been inserted if the MS. were subsequently day of the month. The same author would delegate ( pp. 48, 49 ) a still earlier day of the month ( 1250 ) to a transcript of the Dies Ir inserted at the terminal of a alleged & # 8220 ; Breviary of St. Clare & # 8221 ; dating about 1228. Into his statements it is non necessary to come in here ; but it is of import to detect that these day of the months are much anterior to the day of the months of the MSS. which, until late, hymnologists had awareness of when they attempted to repair the likely writing of the sequence. Thus Mone found none anterior to the 15th century ; Chevalier references merely a Magdeburg Missal of 1480 and a MS.
Franciscan Misssal of 1477 ; the first edition of Julian & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Dictionary of Hymnology & # 8221 ; ( 1892 ) declared the & # 8220 ; oldest signifier known to the present clip & # 8221 ; to be found in a Dominican Missal & # 8220 ; written at the terminal of the 14th century and seemingly for usage at Pisa & # 8221 ; ; Warren, in his & # 8220 ; Dies Irae & # 8221 ; (London, 1902, p. 5 ) , knows no earlier MS. The 2nd edition of Julian ( 1907 ) mentions the Naples MS. in its addendum ( p. 1629 ) , but non the “Breviary of St. Clare” . Father Clop describes besides a 3rd modern-day MS.
( p. 49 ) , Italian, like the others: “Toutes trois enfin appartenant galement La liturgie diethylstilbestrols Fr res Mineurs” . All this renders really likely the speculation by and large entertained by hym nologists, that the Dies Ir was composed by a Franciscan in the 13th century. Its writing has been most by and large ascribed to Thomas of Celano, the friend, fellow-friar, and biographer of St. Francis.
Reasons for this specialness of attribution are given by Keyser ( Beitr ge zur Geschichte und Erkl round der alten Kirchenhymnen, Paderborn und M nster, 1886, II, 194-196 and 230-235 ) ; besides by Duffield ( Latin Hymn Writers and Their Hymns, New York, 1889, 245-247 ) , an fervent title-holder of the attribution to Thomas ; besides in “The Dolphin” ( Nov. , 1904, 514-516 ) which corrects a cardinal mistake in one of Duffield’s chief statements. Ten other names have been suggested by assorted authors as the likely writer of the Dies Ir: ( 1 ) St. Gregory the Great ( d. 604 ) ; ( 2 ) St. Bernard of Clairvaux ( d. 1153 ) ; ( 3 ) St.
Bonaventure ( d. 1274 ) ; ( 4 ) Cardinal Matthew d’Acquasparta ( d. 1302 ) ; ( 5 ) Innocent III ( d. 1216 ) ( 6 ) Thurstan, Archbishop of York ( d. 1140 ) ; ( 7 ) Cardinal Latino Orsini, or Frangipani, a Dominican ( d. 1296 ) ; ( 8 ) Humbert, a general of the Dominicans ( d.
1277 ) ; ( 9 ) Agostino Biella, an Augustinian ( d. 1491 ) ; ( 10 ) Felix Haemmerlein, a priest of Zurich ( d. 1457 ) . The attribution to Haemmerlein was due to the find, after his decease, of a variant text of the sequence among his documents. Its eighteenth and 19th stanzas are: 18. Latcrimosa dies illa, Cum resurget ex favill Tamquam ignis ex scintill, 19. Judicandus gay reus: Huic ergo parce, Deus ; Esto semper adjutor meus. To these are added five stanzas of the same signifier.
This Haemmerlein text is given by Keyser ( op. cit. , 211 ) , Warren ( op.
cit. , 11 ) , and by others. Still another text, known as Tho “Mantuan Marble” text ( first printed in 1594 ) , prefaces the Dies Ir with four similar stanzas, and replaces stanzas 17-19 with the individual stanza: Ut consors beatitatis Vivam semen justificatis In vum ternitatis. Daniel gives both texts in his “Thesaurus Hymnologicus” ( II, 103-106 ) , except the two reasoning stanzas of the Haemmerlein text. Coles ( Dies Irae in Thirteen Original Versions, New York, 1868 ) gives ( xv-xxi ) both texts together with versified English interlingual rendition. All of these extra stanzas instead detract from the vigorous beauty of the original anthem, whose oldest known signifier is, with little verbal alterations, that which is found in the Roman Missal. It appears most likely that this text originally ended with the 17th stanza, the first four of the reasoning six lines holding been found among a series of poetries on the responsory “Libera me, Domine” in a MS.
of the terminal of the twelfth or the beginning of the 13th century ( californium. Mone, Lateinische Hymnen des Mittelalters, Freiburg im Br. , 1863, I, 406 ) . It is rather likely that the sequence was foremost intended for private devotedness and that later the six lines were added to it in order to accommodate it to liturgical usage.
The composer found his Biblical text in Soph. ( one. 15, 16 ) : “Dies ir dies illa. … dies tub et clangoris” ; and it may be that he obtained a suggestion for his fantastic beat ( californium.
Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, 3rd ed. , London, 1874, P, 302, foot-note ) from a tenth-century judgement anthem ( given in two signifiers by Dreves, Analecta Hymnica, Leipzig, 1896, XXIII, pp. 53, 54 ) incorporating this rhythmized text of Sophonias: Dies Ir, dies illa, Dies nebul et turbinis, Dies tub et clangoris, Dies nebulosa, valde, Quando tenebrarum pondus Cadet super peccatores. The sequence has been translated many times in assorted linguas, the largest recorded figure ( 234 ) being English renditions. Among the names of those who have given complete or fragmental interlingual renditions are those of Crashaw ( 1646 ) ; Dryden ( 1696 ) ; Scott ( 1805 ) ; Macaulay ( 1819 ) ; Father Caswall ( 1849 ) . Amongst American transcribers we find Dr. Abraham Coles, a doctor of Newark, credited with 18 versions ; W. W.
Nevin, with nine ; and Rev. Dr. Samuel W. Duffield, with six. Space will non allow here an analysis of the Dies Ir or any citation of the wealth of eulogium passed upon it by hymnologists of every shadiness of spiritual strong belief, save fragment from the grasps of Daniel: “Sacr poeseos summum decus et Ecclesi Latin keimelion est pretiosissimum” ( It is the main glorification of sacred poety and the most cherished hoarded wealth of the Latin Church ) ; of Orby Shipley, in the “Dublin Review” of Jan. , 1883, who, after reciting some anthem “which are merely non inspired, or which, more genuinely, are in their grade inspired” , says: “But beyond them all, and before them all, and above them all may, possibly be placed Dies irae, by Thomas of Celano” ; of Kales: “Among gems it is the diamond. It is lone in its excellence “ ; of Dr.
Schaff: “This fantastic anthem is the acknowledged chef-d’oeuvre of Latin poesy and the most empyreal of all uninspired hymns” ; of Dr. Neale: “ . . . the Dies Ir in its unapproached glory” .
JULIAN, Dictionary of Hymnology ( Revised ed. , London, 1907 ) , 295-301, 1551, 1629, gives really serviceable mentions, but queerly omits WARREN, Dies Ir ( London. 1902 ) , who devotes 170 pages to his subject, preceding it with mentions under the header of Literature of the Dies Ir. To their lists should be added: SHIPLEY, Annus Sanctus ( London, 1884 ) ; ANON. , The Seven Great Hymns of the Medi val Church ( New York, 1868 ) ; HENRY in The Amer. Ecclesiastical Review ( April, 1890 ) , 247-261 ; IDEM in The Dolphin ( November, 1904, to May 1905 ) , an extended series of articles ( 144 pages ) on the history, literary utilizations, and interlingual renditions of the Dies Ir: Clip-clop in Revue du Chant Gr gorien ( Nov.-Dec.
, 1907 ) , 48-53, who discusses the writing and the plain-song tune of the sequence ; JOHNER, A New School of Gregorian Chant ( New York, 1906 ) , 116. H.T. HENRY Transcribed by Wm Stuart French, Jr. In Memoriam Wm Stuart French, Sr.
From the Catholic Encyclopedia, right of first publication 1913 by the Encyclopedia Press, Inc. Electronic version right of first publication 1996 by New Advent, Inc. , P.O. Box 281096, Denver, Colorado, USA, 80228. ( knight @ knight.
org ) Taken from the New Advent Web Page ( www.knight.org/advent ) . This article is portion of the Catholic Encyclopedia Project, an attempt aimed at puting the full Catholic Encyclopedia 1913 edition on the World Wide Web. The coordinator is Kevin Knight, editor of the New Advent Catholic Website. If you would wish to lend to this worthwhile undertaking, you can reach him by e- mail at ( knight @ knight.
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