Myanmar is one of the largest states in South East Asia in footings of its population, which was 48 million harmonizing to 2010 estimations. Myanmar has vast cultural diverseness comprising of 135 different cultural groups. Majority are Bamars nevertheless, Shan, Kachin, Kayin, Kayah, Mon, Rakhine, Chin and others are present all over the state. The people of Myanmar are preponderantly Buddhists ( 89 % Thervada Buddhism ) while an estimated 5 % are Christians and 3.8 % of Muslims.
[ 1 ]The state is divided into seven provinces and seven divisions. Divisions are preponderantly Bamars. States, in kernel, are divisions, which are place to particular cultural minorities. Kyaik Hto is one of the townships from Mon province every bit good as the first come ining gate to province. The country of Kyaik Hto is 947.
04 sq stat mis. Kyaik Hto is composed with 6 ward and 98 small towns under 35 small town Tracts. The entire population of the Kyaik Hto township is 157216 ( urban 33099 and rural 124117 ) together with 77306 males and 79910 females as of township authorization informations and township wellness section informations. It is about 947.04Sq-Km with population denseness of 162.
7 /Sq-Km.[ 2 ]World Concern Myanmar ( WCM ) is a Christian organisation committed to implementing alleviation and development activities to supply Life, Opportunity and Hope, irrespective of race, faith, ethnicity and gender. In Myanmar, there are four execution countries viz. Kachin province, Northern Shan State, Mon State, and Irrawaddy division. Currently, World Concern Myanmar chiefly focuses on capacity edifice of Community Based Organizations ( CBOs ) and Local Partner Organizations ( LPOs ) , Food security and supports, HIV & A ; AIDS bar attention and support, primary wellness attention activities, and H2O and sanitation. WCM is working in Mon province for over 12 old ages since 1999 and Kyaik Hto is the first township of wellness execution. Harmonizing to the demands of the community, WCM integrates more undertakings twelvemonth after twelvemonth and now focused on the environmental and support job. Therefore, this survey chiefly focuses on environmental issues in Mon mark small towns on behalf of WCM.
There are climate change-related jobs and environmental debasement issues go oning in the mark small towns of Mon province, Myanmar. During the summer season, there is deficiency of H2O in most of the small towns peculiarly, small towns in Kyaik Hto Township. Water resources are diminishing and there is rapid dirt eroding because of deforestation. In one case, the writer has personal cognition of some givers who came and distributed H2O to the mentioned townships. On the other manus, many small-scale excavation operations contribute to the addition of deposit in rivers, particularly through the usage of hydraulic pumps and suction dredges.
By blaring hillsides with H2O under high force per unit area, hydraulic pumps leave cicatrixs on the landscape, which may take old ages to recover even the lightest covering of flora. The job of landslides caused by dirt eroding is a beginning of danger to communities.Besides, deforestation lending to eroding and loss of zoology, it is besides associated with unfastened cavity excavation and was aggravated five old ages ago. The gold excavation concern is conducted by local private companies that came into the community after acquiring permission from the local governments. But they are non cognizant of environmental issues and make non pattern accepted safety criterions. Often they move to another location after finishing their concern without trying to minimise the harm made to the bing communities.
Furthermore, the negative impacts on the community with respects to agriculture because husbandmans sold all their land to the gold excavation business communities. They become day-to-day pay earners by working in the gold mine and they besides become migratory workers traveling from mine to mine holding lost their connexion to the small towns. Trees dwindled in Numberss and all the natural resources including lands are going useless because of the unfastened cavity gold excavation.On the other manus, the communities in the township countries besides do non hold authorization to deny gold excavation companies if they are non lawfully registered. Although most of the civil society organisations ( CSO ‘s ) in the townships are willing to take part in the environmental protection activities, they are hesitating to fall in without the understanding of authorised individuals. Furthermore, there is deficiency of consciousness on the legal rights of community in relation to environmental protection, every bit good as limited capacity within CSO ‘s.Therefore, the focal point of the MRR will be to develop schemes for extenuating environmental debasement and to integrate version steps into the bing development plans of World Concern Myanmar in Mon State peculiarly communities who are affected by the gold mine concern by constructing up the capacity of CSO ‘s functioning the communities.
2 ) .
Aims and Purposes of the survey
The survey wants to research and advance coordination between authorities, civil societies, concern universe and communities they represent and for them to collaboratively develop and follow policies stand officially and turn to the job of environmental debasement related with gold excavation in their community. The aims of the survey subject are as follows:( I ) . To place the jobs, restraints, and chances of communities populating in gold excavation countries in Mon State in relation to environmental debasement( two ) . To place strengths, failings, chances and menaces of civil societies in Mon State in turn toing environmental debasement( three ) . To set about scheme preparation with civil society to make networking and organizing with new authorities functionaries and other non-government organisation as good.( four ) . To develop schemes in order to pull off intercessions on environmental preservation and sustainable development through heightening capacity of civil societies
3 ) . Hypothesiss of the MRR
By carry oning educational Sessionss to turn to the environmental job in the small towns of Mon province, the degree of consciousness will increase at small town, township, and province degrees every bit good as at the national degree in order to The bottoms-up procedure of WCM on consciousness raising on environmental concerns will be undertaken in cooperation with United Nation Development Program ( UNDP ) based on Kyaik Hto and likewise is be aftering to carry on and advocacy plan to the upper degree of the authorization in the same township as one of their undertaking.
By join forcesing with other enterprises of non-governmental organisations in implementing environmental protection activities, international giver attending will be focused in turn toing excavation and environmental debasement. Partner implementers who are truly interested in the Myanmar environment issue are willing to work together with WCM for the above issue. Among them are Lover of Myanmar Environment ( LOME ) , Green Memo and Gay Ha Hita. The survey will demo how coaction and partnership will develop consensus in conflict-laden development challenges such as excavation and environmental protection with local communities as direct participants in the procedure.
4 ) . The Research Methodology
The survey will utilize primary and secondary informations to come up with direction schemes on coaction, protagonism, and policy development to turn to excavation and environmental debasement. Secondary informations will come from World Concern Myanmar and other civil society organisations in Mon.
Data will besides be collected from authorities offices.For my primary informations, I will utilize the qualitative methodological analysis through Focus Group Discussion ( FGD ) , Key Informal Interview ( KII ) , in deepness interview and instance surveies, with project staff, community representatives and gold mine concern individuals. The information will be besides collected through semi-structured questionnaires. Information will be collected from township authorities functionaries, ministry of forestry, civil societies, community leaders and cardinal source members which are all stakeholders in the unregulated but booming, environmentally impacting gold excavation industry.
To better understand the state of affairs associating to environmental jobs and the consequence on communities the followers will be undertaken:( I ) . SWOT analysis and Strategy Formulation with the WCM( two ) . Review of pertinent Torahs with respect to environmental protection( three ) . Review and analysis on NGO activities within the Mon country and how it impacts on excavation and environmental protection.( four ) .
Analysis of old attempts made to conserve the environment by the different stakeholder( V ) . Search for the different ways of people done in other states of the universe through cyberspace( six ) . Evaluation Report from three old ages of Mon Integrated Development Initiatives ( MIDI ) Plan
5 ) . Scope and Restriction
The MRR will concentrate on the bing plans of World Concern Myanmar in Mon State. It will non urge a new plan. The countries of survey will be limited to eight small towns under three small town piece of lands in Mon State and it will chiefly concentrate on the excavation affected countries and mobilisation of civil society to protect their environment.
Chapter II: Analysis of The External Environment
1. External Environment Analysis in Mon State of Myanmar
1.1 Mon State Profile
Suwarnabhumi is supposed to be the first land historically evolved in 300 BC around the topographic point of Thahton. Significantly, Mon is the first and earliest cultural group who established their land even before Burma, during 1500 BC.[ 3 ]Mon province is located at the southern portion of Myanmar and to its North is the Bago, Karen on the E, Tanintharyi on the South and Martaban divisions on the Gulf. Its entire land country is 4748 square stat mis variedly organized with 443 wards and small towns.[ 4 ]The Mon State although little but is one of the most beautiful states with its natural lands and rivers. As Mon State is located in the low latitude zone near the sea, the tropical clime is characterized by temperate conditions.
[ 5 ]During July and August, this part receives heavy rain autumn. The population of Mon province as of 2002 was 2.672 million as per the Department of Population, Myanmar.[ 6 ]The province is represented by the bulk cultural group popularly known as Mon, nevertheless, there are a big figure of other cultural groups like Burma, Kayin, Dawei, Shan and Pa-O doing it a multi linguistic province.
[ 7 ]Although Myanmar is the official linguistic communication of the state but the Mons, chiefly uses Mon its cultural linguistic communication and the Karen which is besides good spoken by the Mons. Most of people from the rural country do non understand or talk Burmese fluently. Buddhism is the prevailing faith in Mon province and all the people are strong trusters.
Area Profile of Targeted Villages in Kyaik Hto Township
Kyaik Hto is one of the most celebrated towns among the townships of Mon province and is popular for the aureate tope and the topographic point normally gets excessively crowded during the festival with the people from the whole Myanmar coming to the pagoda every twelvemonth. The people in Kyaik Hto countries are strong Buddhist and most of them are Karen cultural group. The mark small town of Kyaik Hto has eight small towns under two small town piece of lands and the entire population stands at 3019 and entire family of 696 harmonizing to the World Concern Myanmar, Mon plan family study in 2010.Actually, the small towns are situated along the Yangon-Myawaddy high-way linking Myanmar and Thailand, but most of the small towns are far from the town and the lone manner of transit is the bike cab. Not merely is the transit hard but besides the instruction, there are merely primary schools and spiritual establishments in small town degree and the pupils have to travel to the town for higher schooling.
1.2 Political Situation in Mon State
There has been merely small statute law towards the environmental protection ; the state lacks necessary and equal administrative and legal constructions, criterions, and political will to implement such commissariats.
Presently, there are no commissariats in the National jurisprudence that requires carry oning environmental impact appraisals ( EIA ) or naming for the public engagement of the local communities in the decision-making procedures of large-scale development undertakings. In 1995, Community Forest Instructions ( CFI ) , drafted Environmental Law, and the land Acquisition act that reviews the administrative and legal constructions set up to protect the environments. The NCEA has drafted two environmental Torahs: the Environmental Protection Law and the Environmental Impact Assessment Rules, both of which are pending for the blessing by the authorities.As per the 2008 Constitution Chapter 1, Section 45 provinces that, the authorities shall protect and conserve the natural environment. Further the Chapter 4, Section 96 high spots that, the national legislative assembly can ordain Torahs to protect the environment and aid reconstruct countries degraded or damaged by excavation and forestry activities or those that have experienced devastation of workss, wildlife, and home ground. Furthermore, State and Division legislative assemblies besides have the power to modulate environmental protection, but within the boundaries of statute law passed by the National Legislature of Chapter 4, Section 196.
Besides, every citizen has the responsibility to “ help ” the authorities in transporting out environmental preservation in conformity with to Chapter 8, Section 390. In world, there is no specification or elucidation for the activities to be carried out and undertaken. There has besides non much of the enforcement ; it has been really weak although all these Torahs were enacted in Myanmar.The excavation sectors in Myanmar are regulated by the Myanmar Ministry of Mines whose assorted subdivisions investigates possible mineral sedimentations and grant excavation grants to shut spouses including regional commanding officers, the Burmese private sector, and some ceasefire groups. Due to the deficiency of Torahs and ordinances protecting the environment against the impacts of excavation, excavation poses a grave menace to the cragged parts in the mark countries. Therefore, there is no intercession from the township authorization as they themselves are non cognizant of the excavation operations and its impact on the environment.As the Mon province portions its boundary line with Kayin province and Shwe Kyin of Bago Division, most of the remotest countries are unstable and insecure chiefly due to uninterrupted wars between military and Karen National Union ( KNU ) .
During the struggle, villagers in this country were subjected to the ground forces ‘s “ Four Cuts “ counter-insurgency scheme, that were used for destructing the opposition groups by cutting/denying them the nutrient, financess, intelligence, and recruits. Because of those long civil struggles, the people from Mon province suffered the effects of the war and they still live helpless and confused.[ 8 ]With the recent democratic election in Myanmar, the military regulation authorities gave manner to democratic authorities and there has been big history of decentalisation patterns that helped present new policies in Mon province. The new authorities nevertheless is in its effort to accommodate to the present state of affairs of Mon province, it will take clip because the civil struggles could non wholly be uprooted and the armed struggle is still traveling on in smaller Numberss. Further, some parts of the province are still administratively recognized as brown country as being unstable and insecure. Most of the villagers there are the displaced people from their hereditary small towns for the intents of peace and development.
1.3 Legal position of the state and Mon province
The gold excavation is a outstanding excavation activity in the province and to this consequence there have been no specific ordinances or Torahs to protect the environment, the bing jurisprudence for the preservation of the natural resources is general as bash non clearly identifies countries and activities for enforcement. Therefore, the absence of the particular and rigorous ordinances has become an hindrance and no 1 truly knows how to manage the issues in legible manner. Besides, environment policies that are in being are merely enacted and there is no awareness even among the authorities sections while it is excessively far from world of making its consciousness to the communities as good. Although there are several of import environmental jurisprudence enacted in 1990 such as Pesticide Law ( 1990 ) ; the Forest Law ( 1992 ) ; and Torahs to protect biodiversity, wild animate beings and workss, and natural countries ( 1994 ) , they are non being implemented efficaciously and expeditiously, chiefly impacted due to the military regulation which did non needfully care about in reexamining these paperss for its effectivity.The most recent attempt to set up a design for sustainable development is the NCEA ‘s enterprises of Myanmar Agenda 21 ( based on Global Agenda 21 ) in 1997. Although Agenda 21 purposes specifically at conveying environmental factors to bear on governmental policy devising, it has in it more general aim of making environmental consciousness and doing it a portion of the day-to-day lives of all citizens. At present, new authorities is fixing to be a member of Extractives Industries Transparency Initiatives ( EITI ) and started treatment with them.
Therefore, it shows the positive position to be more transparence on excavation issue and more chances for the jurisprudence and ordinances. It is the first measure to open the better environment in Myanmar through the coaction with the international.
1.4 Economic Condition in Mon State
Approximately about 4.5 million estates of land is a cultivable land and extensively used for the cultivation of Paddy/rice and gum elastics as these constitutes the nucleus agribusiness merchandises in Mon State.[ 9 ]Mon State is the top manufacturer of gum elastics in Myanmar which is the secondary agricultural merchandises in the state.
Besides, there are so many groves that are used for turning assorted sorts of fruits such as Garcinia mangostana, rambotan, citrous fruit fruits, coconuts, betel nuts, durions and are exported to the other states.The Mon State is besides really rich in its assorted sorts of minerals and natural resources sedimentation, such as forestry, excavation and gas etc. Therefore, foreign companies ( foreign Direct Investment ) are attracted for the investings in the geographic expedition of those natural resources and is besides coupled by the involvement of the armed groups who besides operates most of the gold excavation concern in the province.
1.4.1 Economic Situation in Target Area
The chief support is the highland agriculture and there are besides other agencies of gaining their support like rewards from labourer at the gum elastic plantation, groves and other uneven occupation.
There are two types of labour occupation state of affairs that is one type working for a day-to-day minimal pay of $ 2.5 to3 a twenty-four hours in the groves, farms and rubber plantation sites and other working for $ 3 to 5 a twenty-four hours depending on skill degree in the gold excavation companies.Further, the merchandises from the labour in the traditional grove witnessed a lessening in output and some of the fruit bearing trees are already drying up chiefly due to contaminated irrigation H2O which has long been in the canals. In the absence of proper inducements from the authorities and deficiency of options to livelihood, the local people find the gold excavation concern more moneymaking and profitable, that is they sell their lands for gold mineworkers which pay them every bit high as up to $ 7,000 and every bit low as $ 700 per acre depending upon the feasibleness of the excavation.On the other manus, the villagers get gilded A? Kyat Thar daily in norm that involvements them to put in the gold excavation concern. Therefore, some households shifted their involvement from agribusiness to working for little graduated table excavation. Therefore, the little gold excavation concern for the community has become more moneymaking than the usual difficult labored agricultural agriculture.
For case, Zee Pyaung ( 1 ) country has already lost their traditional support since they have already migrated into the little graduated table gold excavation activities, their life would hold been hard had there been no gold excavation operations. The, community hence strongly feels that they should go on since the beginnings of H2O supply like watercourses and the Wellss are dried up.From the Focus group treatment initiated amongst 10 small towns with a land country of about 1700 to 2000 estates, the entire land used for the gold excavation operations are about 200 to 250 estates. The tabular array below indicates the consequence from the FGD and depict the land state of affairs of each small town.
ZP ( 1 )
ZP ( 2 )
ZP ( 3 )
ZP ( 4 )
ZP ( 5 )
ZP ( 6 )
5 Social Situation in Mon State
The authorities spends the wellness attention services in Myanmar scopes from 3 % to 5 % 11 thereby doing significantly lower impact on the medical installations and substructures. On the other manus, due to lesser figure of schools an easy entree to instruction has besides become hard, there are 1204 primary schools, 92 center and 66 high schools.[ 10 ]Therefore, most of the kids from distant countries either discontinue after primary school or make non acquire an chance to go to the same.Peoples from Mon community who are really traditional agribusiness workers and due to lesser chance for them continue or prosecute their instruction is forced to look for alternate support for their better hereafter.
Therefore, migration rate from Mon province is really high particularly to Thailand as Mon State is near Thailand-Burma boundary line and people can easy migrate via Karen province. Equally much as it is forced by the trouble of the people to warn their basic support the senior people and kids have besides migrated from the about all the small towns.The UNIAP survey in 2010, it indicated that 50 % of the migratory workers in Thailand are from Myanmar most significantly represented by the people of Mon.[ 11 ]The WCM study for the safe migration undertaking in the mark countries of three townships, reported that 80 % of the communities are either migrated to the Thailand or make the little graduated table gold excavation concern. For the Kyaik Hto township community, internal migration is higher than external. Besides, in-migration is higher than out-migration ensuing to so many societal offenses like drug and HIV/AIDS instances which were seen increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours.[ 12 ]
5.1 Social Impact of the Gold Mining in the Kyaik Hto small towns
Get downing from 2009, private company started purchasing land from the villagers for gold excavation concern in the upper cragged topographic point of the small towns.[ 13 ]Traditionally, the villagers were depended on rivers and forestlands for their supports and cultural patterns now no longer.
These yearss, one can barely witness good cultural patterns that used to be the pride of the small town. On the other custodies, many local people were forced to take up the labourer work in the excavation companies or migrate to go a migratory worker in the nearby states. As mentioned above the people bit by bit sold all their lands for the intent of excavation to the large excavation companies or they themselves converted the land into a little graduated table excavation land. This has besides led to the villagers even traveling to the extent of uncluttering off their groves for the intent of gold excavation.
It was besides observed that owing to climate alteration and other environmental jeopardies from the excavation, the small towns has experienced the addition instances in peculiarly malaria the spread of which is faster than earlier. Due to the deficiency of cognition on malaria and low instruction, many people lost their lives. Harmonizing to the World Health Organization ( WHO ) , Malaria is one of public wellness jobs with around 37.4 million people at hazard in and around the universe, the most vulnerable populationA areA non-immunized migratory workers engaged in excavation, woods, logging, agribusiness and construction.AAs to the migration issue, there are excessively many migratory workers coming into these small towns as there is deficit of adept workers for gold mine concern in the whole Burma. The Numberss of migratory workers from out of the small towns are 75 people in Zee Pyaung ( 1 ) , 10 in Zee Pyaung ( 2 ) , 48 in Zee Pyaung ( 3 ) , 45 in Zee Pyaung ( 4 ) , 40 in Zee Pyaung ( 6 ) , 30 in Sin Dwin and 50 in Paine Nae Gone.
Besides, an addition in chancing and imbibing is besides a job around the excavation small towns as there are so many aliens coming into. Security is one of the issues which are concerned by the villagers as the offense instances like robbery, colza and killing are go oning more frequently during this twelvemonth. Because of the security issue, villagers do non make bold to travel out entirely during the dark clip from small town to village as they are used to make before.The inflow of migratory workers has brought other societal and public wellness jobs. The spread of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV in other mining countries of Burma are good documented, A and the same phenomenon is happening in Kyaik Hto. Harmonizing to the Mon Program, World Concern Myanmar study on HIV, there used to be merely one patient who is affected by HIV and now the Numberss of patient are increasing quickly.
1.6 Environmental Problem in Mon State
Most of the small towns of Mon province have no alternate support chances other than the gold excavation concern and traditional wood coal production. These gold excavation concerns so has non merely encroached the feasible economic chances of the people of Mon, but has besides impacted the environment by cutting down trees and the changeless deforestation jeopardizing the natural home ground and wildlife.Since 2010, Mon State has been sing a singular alteration in its conditions, the yearss in summer season is longer than before there is perceptibly a high rise in the temperature. Which has once more impacted on drying up the H2O beginnings, while some villagers now have to bring the H2O from other small towns there are few who has become the victims of the private persons.
1.6.1 Environmental Impact of the Gold Mining in the Kyaik Hto Villages
Gold excavation in the small towns of Kyaik Hto Township has been highly upseting to the natural environment.
Land, including woods, is randomly cleared for hydraulic and cavity excavation operations. Pit excavation guts the staying dirt, go forthing it pock-markedaˆ¦while hydraulic excavation blasts off dirt, doing eroding on river Bankss. Wastes from the excavation procedure, including quicksilver contaminated stones and dirt, are discarded throughout the dismantled landscape.
Croping evidences and home grounds for animate beings are destroyed every bit good as any works life that could antecedently turn in the countries particularly for the long term plantation or grove. Therefore, most of the plantations were killed by this gold operation and the output is besides diminishing bit by bit every twelvemonth. So, the proprietors no longer want to go on with their heritage plantation. There has besides been seeable addition in dirt eroding and increased deposit degrees in the rivers and watercourses, and some river beds have merely dried up due to the force per unit area caused from the remotion of silt and dirt from the Bankss of the rivers and the bases of riverside trees. At the same clip, the local people chopped the trees for the production of the wood coal as it besides accounts for the secondary income for household endurance.The gold excavation has besides impacted the local environment badly.
Toxic wastes from gilded extraction processes disposes big measures of untreated wastes straight onto land and into waterways, seemingly poisoning the dirt and the H2O quality. Mining operations have drained H2O beginnings, wholly consuming some watercourses and for good and adversely changing few others. The brook and rivers in the small towns wherein the excavation operations are carried out are polluted with the waste and no 1 precisely knows whether there is drosss in the H2O or non as there is no proper survey on the affect of the pollutants from the gold excavation. There has besides been observation on the excavation activity at Shwe Kyin, that the procedure uses extended quicksilver and other chemicals to mix gold. In the absence of the reliable survey on the gold excavation, it can non readily be ascertained whether the mineworkers really use other chemicals or non because the people there normally deny it. Other type of environmental pollutants is diesel and oil leaks from the excavation equipments and the pumps which go straight into the river.The H2O was used for the intent of the irrigation can no longer be used chiefly because of high toxic content from the waste disposal in those watercourses.
The watercourse and the brook which were one time the support for angling have now become a topographic point for waste disposal from the excavation activities. The excavation operation besides brings several landslides during the rainy season which drives the river H2O through the agricultural Fieldss doing the land infertile and toxic. Furthermore, there has been no specific legal rights on the land which led local people to infringe upon forest resources, badly encroaching on communities nutrient and forestland sustainability..During rating field visit, it was found that over 20 families portion one tubing good. Community people from Kyaik Hto said that, by and large many tubing Wellss dried up in every summer and watercourse H2O used to be the alternate beginning for domestic ingestions. Besides, four Wellss and five brooks in ZP ( 1 ) , three out of four brook in ZP ( 3 ) can no longer be used as they dry up in the summer and polluted with the waste from the gold operation in the rainy season. The gold excavation operations have besides impacted the belowground H2O beginnings.
Due to increased in the figure of the gold excavation activities in the vicinity the community has experienced that many tubing Wellss dried up. Harmonizing to the focal point group treatment, cardinal informant interview and face to confront interview, there are round about 200 out of 2300 estates of agribusiness lands including grove are destroyed by gold mine in 10 small towns. Specifically, there are 75 estates and 10 estates in ZP ( 1 ) and ( 3 ) severally.
These images Show Destroyed Well and fresh land in Zee Pyaung ( ZP ) country
2. The History of Open Pit Gold Mining in Kyaik Hto Township
In 1997, the SPDC began to give gold excavation grants to Burmese business communities in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division. By 2005 there were over 40 excavation companies in the Shwegyin country.
Land was frequently confiscated and villagers were denied entree to upland farms. The country was to a great extent militarized to protect the companies. Villagers so had no alternate beginning of support instead than organizing into little groups and selling their lands and puting into the machinery to prosecute in the gold excavation concern. Earlier, mining operations were comparatively little in graduated table and caused minimum impacts to the environment.
Traditional methods of excavation for gold rely largely on shovels, choices, pans and screen. Nowadays, there has been a displacement towards big scale extraction and excavation by utilizing heavy excavation equipments which are more environmentally destructive. Traditionally, the villagers were dependent on the rivers and forestlands for their supports and cultural patterns.
Now these cultural patterns and cognition of small-scale excavation techniques is at the brink of extinction. Till this clip, the SPDC, the KNU and the companies are the major donees of the gold excavation concern in the country.At present, there are two large companies of Shwe Than Lwin and Htet Wai Yan and 22 little graduated table concern operating in and around the eight small towns harmonizing to the World Concern Myanmar, Mon plan informations study. The Numberss of established little graduated table excavation are as follows ;
No. of gold mine
Zee Pyaung ( 1 )5Businessmens from out of small townZee Pyaung ( 2 )2Local people from the small townZee Pyaung ( 3 )2Local people from the small townZee Pyaung ( 5 )2Local people from the small townZee Pyaung ( 6 )6Both business communities and villagersLulay1Local people from the small townSin Dwin1Local people from the small townPaine Nae Gone3Both business communities and villagersIt has now become more popular among the villagers and most of the villagers changed their support from traditional agribusiness to day-to-day rewards earners in the gold excavation operations and they even take enterprise on their ain seeking to run little graduated table excavation without utilizing any chemical.
3. The Role and Present Situation of Civil Societies in Kyaik Hto
Although there are many Numberss of civil societies in Kyaik Hto, they are chiefly two types of organisation ; local NGOs such as MWAF, MMCWA and MRCS are formed by authorities and on the other side, spiritual and youth groups organized by themselves.
The differences between these two sorts of formation are that the groups which are formed by authorities has nil to make and merely for demoing bundle or box whenever there is jubilation and they have no clear function and duties. If there is no direction from the upper degree, they are non working anything in the community. For the spiritual and young person groups, they are really good working for the specific undertaking related with the spiritual matter and societal matter. They are really active in the community but their range is really limited.The demand for transparent and more humanistic attack for development is increasing. This state of affairs provides a room for civil society to lend to the development procedure.
Therefore, one more community based organisation called small town development commission was formed by the non-government organisation ; World ‘s Concern Myanmar, Mon plan ‘s facilitation for the intent of taking community for the development. The civil society motion groups normally use the “ authorization ” construct to increase single entree and control on the alterations in the development procedure. This is based on the belief that establishments within the community are able to lend and supply solutions to the development issues through the active engagement of the community and extreme good in the enterprise, although they were controlled purely by the authorities. However, the function of the voluntary formed groups is lost in Myanmar so that the voice of the community can non make to the upper degree. No 1 tries to raise the state of affairs of what is go oning related with development in the community harmonizing to the civilization of the villagers every bit good as deficiency of assurances on their capacity.In the current epoch, critical group ; Paung Khu is now known as Civil Society Organization ( CSO ) and they worked for the authorization of the community by coaction with the present organisation in the country like World Concern. Besides, there is core group formation among the community based organisation and heightening capacity of the community to take sustainable support every bit good as their community development.
Stakeholder Analysis in Kyaik Hto Township
Impact ( + / – )
Degree of Influence ( 1 – 5 )
Resource at Disposal ( 1 – 5 )
Township AuthorityThey are located in the town and non excessively much interested in the small town degree if there is no ailment from the field. Besides, there is merely a few companies who are working in there with acquiring permission and the remainder are little graduated table excavation. Therefore, the authorization does non hold informations for all the household little graduated table excavation concern and non concern about it as they are making in their ain land without inquiring permission and restriction of cognition on it.
55Forestry DepartmentThis section has Torahs and ordinance upon the forestry but they are non working good as they have no authorization to make anything related with it although their involvement is high on the issue of forest land. They have to follow the determination of the township authorization harmonizing to the civilization of governing authorities in Myanmar.
33Agriculture DepartmentThis section is besides really interested in this issue as the irrigation system is destroyed the whole agribusiness of the community and the agribusiness merchandises are diminishing bit by bit. Even though they are against to this issue, they do non hold full power to travel this activity from the community harmonizing to the authorities civilization of Myanmar.
33Religious GroupThey are interested in this issue as they have to assist the affected community and saw the present state of affairs of the small towns. They besides are the most powerful 1s in the local community.
54CommunityAmong the communities, they are divided into two groups who may somewhat differ in the involvement of back uping and traveling against the excavation operation: straight affected 1s and the community who are affecting in the operation.
44UNDPThey are extremely interested in the country of environmental protection as their present scheme and aims are focus on this issue. And they are besides be aftering to step in through recommending authorities in the national, province and township degree so that they are possible stakeholder to work together.
22Civil Societies ( VDC & A ; CBOs )Their involvement is high as they are taking the community development activities.
Then, they have more cognition than other community members because they ever have opportunities to go to preparation and consciousness session by the assorted organisation and authorities.
33Mining CompaniesThey did non truly involvement in the undertaking as there is no benefit to them and their concern will be stopped or there will be more restraints to run in the countries.
Forces to the Undertaking
Against to the Project intercession
Empowering Community to protect their environment and land
Community3Forestry Department5Mining Companies5Agriculture Department4Religious Group5Community5UNDP5Civil Societies ( VDC & A ; CBOs )5
There are three sorts of stakeholders in the mark country. Gold excavation business communities and companies are the 1s who recommended go oning and non truly willing to take part in the reformation for environmental protection as they do non hold any positive benefit because of it and it will impact their operation. They are more afraid to be restricted in their concern than earlier as they have limited cognition on the regulations and ordinance every bit good as jurisprudence on excavation.
Although they are interested in the undertaking intercession as a personally, they are disquieted for the activities which can be affected to their concern or operation.Based on the analysing the stakeholders, the governments are taking in the first of import function to alter the state of affairs as they have authorization in any sorts of activities for the whole township. They are volitionally to get down the environmental undertaking as the issue is lifting up by the grass root degree community.
The most powerful stakeholder after authorization is faith based organisations and they can act upon even to the authorization most of the times harmonizing to the civilization and strong belief in spiritual. Almost all the issues are decided by the monastics who are consulted by the local villagers and they ever go and ask aid from the monastics of the monasteries for their job. Furthermore, they listen and obey the direction of the spiritual leaders for any issue related with the community as this is the traditional civilization and patterns of the cultural groups in Myanmar.
This is the relationship within the spiritual individuals and community. The other authorities sections such as forestry and agribusiness are non excessively much powerful and less involvement in this issue as the nature of the work is merely emphasized on their day-to-day achievement although this issue is straight related with their sections ‘ aims and restraint to accomplish their end. The local non authorities organisations are merely the name and they ne’er have many activities.
They are merely formed by the authorities so that they are used merely the clip of jubilation for show instance with the same uniforms.There are two types of community that is accept to the excavation operation and against 1s who are straight affected and indirectly affected by gold mine operation. Direct affected 1s are confronting with H2O deficit as all the H2O beginnings are gone and even their land are non used for traditional agribusiness any longer as the operation is in their small towns. Although the Indirect affected small towns are non affecting in the excavation operation themselves but they are confronting with the H2O job as all the watercourses are unserviceable through polluting from the waste of the operation. Besides, their groves are besides deceasing while they used to water like earlier. On the other manus, two communities do non desire the gold mine concern to be disappeared from their small towns as they are depending on them for their employment and household life. Civil society in the community like community based organisation ; small town development commissions are besides keenly interested in this undertaking to be healthy environment for their small town ‘s coevals.
However, the communities, themselves are the important participant of the environmental protection as they are direct donees of the undertaking and they are the most of import to alter their present state of affairs.UNDP is besides interested in the issue as they besides have planned and mark to implement in the community harmonizing to their new scheme and authorizations. They are volitionally to join forces with any stakeholder and their scheme is advocate to assorted degree of authorization and urge for the statute law to make on jurisprudence on mining issue.In the small towns, the involvements of the stakeholders depend on their authorization and chance to act upon to community. Therefore, local authorities and community are the cardinal participants in these functions. If they do non take part or affect in this issue, everything will be wiped off. The 2nd 1 is cooperation with spiritual group, authorities section, civil societies and other spouses who are interested in this issue.
At last, coordination with the gold mine business communities and company for healthy environment by pulling a scheme for the whole community is necessary as they all are front line combatants.
5. Decision of External Analysis
To reason the whole analysis, the position of civil society motion is more unfastened than earlier because of the new authorities and they seems that they are traveling down to the underside to undertake chief cause of raising jobs. It is great strengths for protagonism in environmental protection and exposing the state of affairs in the grass root degree to make the top administration. The function of the civil society are really of import to raise their voice as the new authorization is started listening to them. As there are so many natural mineral in Mon Area, gold excavation concern is distributing in Kyaik Hto township and many impacts non merely societal but besides environment are confronting really severely in the community. This continues botching the whole community ‘s buttocks and good spirit bit by bit.
In a short tally, all the bing communities will be cleared by the gold excavation concern. Therefore, one span will necessitate to link the spread between the positive impact of economic betterment and negative impact on environment every bit good as societal.
Chapter III: Internal Environment Analysis on WCM Organization
1. History of World Concern Myanmar
Since 1995, World Concern is started with the wellness undertaking in Kachin province of Myanmar based on Yangon chief office.
Later on, organisation extended to Mon and Shan province with wellness Mobile squad undertaking. In 2005, there are Nargis storm shot to the lower portion of Myanmar and thousand of people ‘s lives are lost and a Numberss of people are incapacitated. During that clip, many non authorities organisations are seeking to assist the affected country and World Concern Myanmar is besides one of them. Therefore, World Concern is implementing four plans in different parts of Myanmar by acquiring memoranda of apprehension ( MOU ) with section of societal public assistance, agribusiness section and wellness.When organisation tried to make the demand of the undertaking country as a development plan, the sustainable support undertaking, capacity edifice of community based organisations ; micro finance and wellness undertaking including primary wellness attention, HIV/AIDS, malaria and WASH undertaking are extended. The undertakings are located chiefly in the Kachin, Shan, Mon provinces and Ayaryarwadi Division.
Altogether there are 186 full clip employees for the whole organisation in Myanmar.
Figure ( 1 ) is Myanmar Map demoing the WCM ‘s execution countries
2. Vision and Mission of World Concern Myanmar
In 2011, World Concern Myanmar reviewed the current mission and value including state scheme and put up the most relevant 1s with the present state of affairs of Myanmar and organisation. The vision of World Concern Myanmar is communities live copiously and accomplish their ain sustainable development. World Concern Myanmar ‘s mission is “ We will enable and work together with communities and spouses organisations to carry through the basic demands of the households and communities through alleviation and development plan ” .In order to carry through these vision and mission, WCM has several back uping plans and co-ordinates their work with assorted organisations every bit good as spouses. Presently, World Concern Myanmar is taking the taking function of the nutrient security working group for the Myanmar community and finished study for nutrient security scheme in plan degree.
Then, the procedure is on traveling to come out for the organisational degree.
3. Model of the World Concern Myanmar ( 7s ) and Mon Program
For clear image on the internal parts for the organisation ‘s present state of affairs, utilizing the Mackinsey ‘s 7 ‘S ‘ theoretical account model is the best manner to analyse how the organisation is working to make its ultimate vision.
World Concern Myanmar has been working in Mon State since 1999, when it initiated the Mon Community Health ( MCH ) undertaking. That first stage of the Program in Mon State, implemented in Thaton, Belin and Kyaikhto townships from October 1999 to September 2002, could be considered as alleviation proviso to communities that were merely emerging from the civil war that raged in the country for decennaries. This was followed by a 2nd stage ( Mon Community Health Development Project ) , implemented in the same undertaking country from 2003 to 2006, which continued the wellness focal point and worked to construct a house foundation for integrated community development work.
To turn to identified demands in the country of nutrient security, support activities were added to the on-going wellness work of the MCHD undertaking and the Mon Agriculture Pilot Project ( MAPP ) ran from January 2005 to June 2006, assisting to put the foundation for more extended support development attempts in the current MIDI undertaking.As such, the MIDI undertaking is the integrating of MCHD and MAPP, whereby the wellness and support attempts were approached in a more incorporate and co-ordinated mode, and where increased accent has been placed on support development throughout the undertaking country. MIDI undertaking represents the 3rd stage of work in the same undertaking country, and its completion marks 9 old ages of uninterrupted work in the mark communities.
Two old ages ago, World Concern Myanmar reviewed all the state schemes and strengthened most of them every bit good as some are freshly developed for following five old ages execution. There are 13 nucleus schemes in the organisation such as Funding scheme, Human Resource Development Strategy, Information and communicating scheme, Health Strategy, Food Security and Livelihoods Strategy, Women and Child Empowerment Strategy, Partnership Strategy, Program Cycle Strategy including New Entry and Exit scheme, Community Organizing scheme, Disaster Preparedness and Relief Strategy, Program Sector Expansion Strategy/Criteria, Geographical Expansion Strategy/Criteria and FIA Strategy/ Code of Conduct. The six aims of upgrading the schemes are as follows ;( I ) . To better wellness position, support and nutrient security by implementing high quality plans for quality scheduling.
( two ) . To construct the capacity and ownership of communities and local organisations to run into the physical, societal, mental and religious demands within society and to continuously heighten the capacity of our staff to be able to take, program, implement and reappraisal quality alleviation and development plans for which we are committed for capacity edifice.( three ) . To make chances that enable kids, adult females and work forces to actively take part in community development plans for inclusiveness.( four ) .
To spouse and web with stakeholder organisations to help in run intoing the assorted demands of communities.( V ) . To supply exigency alleviation for communities every bit good as help them to be more resilient for catastrophes.( six ) . To foster supportive relationships, where our values are demonstrated and communicated which can transform single lives and societies for our values in patterns.Furthermore, there are many specific schemes for each nucleus 1s like scheme for rice bank, carnal bank, self help group and husbandman field school under support scheme and environmental friendly behaviour is adjusted in each scheme as one of the cross cutting subjects harmonizing to the organisation ‘s value figure six. Particularly in Mon Program, environmental related issues have besides been discussed and implemented as the mark small towns are truly really bad experiences of environmental debasement state of affairs. Sustainable environment was emphasized to see during the procedure of execution so that any possible bad impact on environment that may be caused by the execution of any undertaking activity can be measured and considered so that the hazards can be controlled.
All the schemes are besides drawn through consideration for friendly environment as this is the chief spoilage issue to the community development.Under the plan operation scheme, there are five ( 5 ) phases which are represented as growing of a tree and every plan is following all these stairss as follows ;Seed – come ining a small town and set uping community administrationsGrowth – capacity edifice and undertaking actions for developmentConsolidation – betterments to accomplishments and more actions for developmentFruiting – accomplishing wellness and support benefits ( by themselves? )Multiplying – self-sustaining and developing the ‘next coevals ‘ that can guarantee benefits can go on into the futurestTree with 5stages
This figure represents the plan rhythm stages scheme like a tree
In footings of the mentioned theories of alteration, the plan rhythm incorporates:( I ) . Raising accomplishment of cardinal persons to take alteration in communities ( and theoretical account behavior/ pattern alteration to others ) .
Some alteration is due to the influence of early pioneers and people following their illustrations.( two ) . Modeling positive behaviours and relationships, by respected persons and staff. Our behaviour can be a positive theoretical account and informant towards our values. Good relationships are indispensable for this theory of alteration to work.( three ) . Establishing community constructions that can supply a footing for participatory determination devising and sustainable development.
Structures include community based organisations and small town voluntaries, that can go on in their communities good after World Concern has withdrawn.( four ) . Enabling ‘ acquisition by making ‘ ( Experiential larning ) – so that communities can see project direction and so larn how to make them by themselves ( with less external inputs and doing better usage of their ain community resources ) . This can besides assist to take duty and ownership for actions. Equally far as possible we encourage a Plan-Do-Reflect theoretical account ( sometimes known as Plan – Implement – Monitor – Evaluate ) , as portion of this experiential acquisition. Regular reappraisals and planning is designed to guarantee that lessons are learned and subsequent programs are improved.
The freshly developed organisational construction is more comprehensive and hierarchy control system but there is so many decentalisation channels except for funding as there is non adequate capacity for each degree. However, the policy, process and codification of behavior scene are centralized by state office. Then, WCM chiefly divided for five sections with many units under each section in state degree. The names of the chief sections are administrative and logistics, finance, information engineering, plan operation and human resource and monthly coordination meeting is held for the intents of effectual operation and back uping to plan execution by coaction with each other. Besides, strategic direction meeting is held quarterly by engagement of the plan representatives for state strategic program and direction issue.Then, there are four support units such as finance, disposal, proficient and monitoring in plan degree and monthly plan direction meeting is held to back up field operation and staff coordination meeting every bit good.
Harmonizing to the new organisation construction and updated organisation strategic way, it leads to more integrating attack and there are several meetings and treatments to understand the new way of the organisation. In the field degree, there is no more sector broad attack and all the staffs are taking facilitators functions of field execution activities. All the proficient supports are given by the proficient individual through the facilitators. Furthermore, each section besides try to accommodate the alterations within organisation and assorted communicating via mail every bit good as phone conversation are unfastened for every staff from the underside to the upper degree.
Figure ( 2 ) is World Concern Myanmar, Mon Program Organizational Structure
Figure ( 3 ) is Organizational Structure of Mon, World Concern Myanmar
In World Concern Myanmar, the chief prima squad is strategic direction squad for the whole state and state coordination squad is taking the function for back uping effectual plan execution. Strategic direction squad was formed by the caput of the sections from state office and plan office with Country Director, Program Director, Program Managers, Technical Advisors, Administration Manager, Finance Manager, HR Manager/Coordinator, IT Officer, and Program Coordinators.
This squad is maneuvering the whole organisation to run on the right path and giving determinations for critical issue of organisation by run intoing twice a twelvemonth and every bit necessary as good for the exigency instances.For the coverage system, undertaking advancement can be accessed through undertaking paperss: monthly undertaking study, quarterly undertaking study, bi-annual undertaking study, and one-year undertaking progress study. Undertakings are monitored on a monthly, quarterly and one-year footing. Monthly Field Team Report ( MFTR ) and Annual Review Step1 format are used to supervise the monthly activity. Annual Review Step2 format and Output Monitoring matrix are checked against the Outputs indexs and Annual Review Step3 is applied yearly to reexamine nonsubjective and higher degree accomplishments.For the plan degree, every plan has plan direction squad for back uping plan director for the intent of the balance execution for assorted undertakings and systematising undertaking direction. The meeting discusses program, accomplishment, undertaking impact, budget, staff issue and proficient issue monthly earlier traveling to the staff coordination meeting.
Still now, WCM is seeking to modify the bing processs and policies for all staff as they are non relevant with the current state of affairs. Emergency Operation process and staff policy manual are already revised in 2011 and the remainder will be finished in 2012. All the revised policy and processs are shared through giving orientation to every staff by concerned section to do certain for good understanding and patterns in the organisation.Each plan has their informations and information maintaining system as monitoring and rating unit is merely started in the state office during last twelvemonth. WCM still need to beef up soft and difficult transcripts data maintaining system. There is no proper standardized informations based system in state office and they are seeking to develop for the monitoring information system as the organisation broad. Mon plan developed for the database entree for all the baseline informations, hebdomadal and monthly informations with the aid of one appointed resource individual together with M & A ; E officer in the plan degree.
At the same clip, plan initiated for the soft ware informations reassigning for coverage and assemblage informations based on the Microsoft buttocks edifice as a pilot system.
Figure ( 4 ) is data maintaining system of Mon Program, World Concern Myanmar
Program ratings ever conduct at the terminal of each plan stage tentatively in every three old ages to mensurate the result indexs and the end indexs. By carry oning the rating with external adviser, the organisation creates bias free for the plan. The M & A ; E director and operation director of CO will oversee the rating to run into the criterions and guidelines of WC. Both qualitative and quantitative informations will be collected to mensurate the accomplishment of the programme. Secondary informations aggregation and analysis, primary informations aggregation through FGD Sessionss and direct observation, reexamining studies and programme paperss will be used as rating methodological analysiss.
The plan staff, community development voluntaries, and community members will be included in the procedure as helpers to the adviser as the portion of capacity edifice every bit good as transparence and answerability.The rating study will be produced and shared with the spouses, givers and WC Seattle. Evaluation paperss such as rating TOR, rating design, primary informations aggregation instruments, rating study will be stored in the information system for farther mentions.
Figure ( 5 ) is Monitoring and Evaluation Working Documents of Organization
3.4 Shared Value
In 2010, WCM revised values and there are seven nucleus values which are aligned with Seattle and Asia office and MDG ends every bit good. They are as follows ;( I ) . We value each human life( two ) .
We are committed to work in a manner that shows love, as shown by the illustration of Jesus( three ) . We value caring relationships( four ) . In all we do, we give high precedence to the demands of mark communities( V ) . We believe that kids, adult females and work forces are all of import histrions in community development procedures( six ) . We value nature and environment and ( seven ) .
We are accountable to our spouses.WCM is a Christian organisation and its values are Christ Centeredness and there is hebdomadal devotedness with all staff every Monday. There is prayer pattern with the staff before start working or going and it gives strength, encouragement and assurance to frontward twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activity. Although there is diverseness of trusters in assorted spiritual groups, all the staffs of WCM are committed individuals and sharing love and experiences interdependently with each other within the working community.
The manner of leading in WCM is servant leading that is adopted by the old leaders as they have sacrificed their ain concerns and have appointed to function the communities foremost as a manner of functioning God. Most of them have features of hearing, empathy, patient, persuasion, foresight, stewardship and committedness to the growing of organisation and people every bit good. On the other custodies, some leaders are appointed harmonizing to the academic making so that they have to take clip to understand and catch up the leading manner of organisation. However, the nature of the on the job manner is making the happy working environment to accomplish the end in twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours direction and even in the difficult clip.Furthermore, every office is working like a household manner so that there is more openly treatment for feeling, ideas and vision. The leaders of the WCM are carefully considered for the communicating line to be balance between underside up and exceed down.
Almost all the staffs are friendly and extremely committed to function the grass root degree harmonizing to the organisation ‘s mission and vision. The staffs ne’er hesitate to work in any clip and everyplace even in bad conditions. The construct of the organisation is in the bosom of the staff an