Review of literature

Tal et. Al (2008)

This paper suggests a
modal that may serve to explain what we term e empowerment and the effect that
can be observed at each of 4 levels comprising (1) the personal, (2) the
interpersonal, (3) group, (4) citizenship levels. This article focuses on the
concept of empowerment and the ways in which the internet is being utilised as
an empowerment tool. E empowerment can lead to behaviour change and shifts in
attitudes, the strengthening of existing relationships, and formation of new
ones. Several unique aspects of the internet can serve as catalysts for the E
empowerment processes.

and Mohammadi

Empowerment is the key
for benefiting from all capacities of human resources in organisation.
Organisations can benefit from empowerment strategies to improve their
employee’s performance and achieve their goals at a more desirable level. In
this study 115 employee were selected randomly and questionnaires were
distributed among them and the result shows that there is no significance
difference among employee points of view about effective factors of
psychological empowerment

et. Al (2013)

The study shows that
flexible working arrangements have a positive effect on women’s quality of life
in terms of household empowerment and their autonomy and capability of making
decisions. Flexible working arrangements has an impact on women’s empowerment
but not on their lifestyle. The paper attempts to understand that how
workplaces designed with family friendly policies and other long term measures
might have an effect on women’s continued participation in the labour market.

and Stone

The article examined that
empowerment via training and autonomy led to higher service employee
satisfaction. Greater customer satisfaction following a failure was created by
higher employee responsiveness and empathy during a service recovery. In the
paper the author investigates the effects of employee empowerment in a service
recovery situation and also consumer responses to the service recovery effort
(consumer satisfaction).

et. Al (2011)

This research aims to
explain psychological empowerment based on organisational learning. Findings of
the study shows that there is a significant relation between empowerment
dimensions and elements with organisational learning.

and George (2003)

The article aims to study
new management techniques that are necessary for all organisations to deliver
highest quality services and products in global challenging circumstances.
Employee empowerment is emerged as a new technique utilised by organisations. It
has considered a dynamic and complex phenomenon. It states that an individual’s
assessment of how high his or feelings are concerning these assessments is
positively related to feelings of empowerment. Employee empowerment considered
as one of the key components of providing better customer service in
hospitality industry, produces an increase in the overall effectiveness of the
organisation toward both its customers and employees.


This paper presents
results of surveys administered to attempt to assess opinions concerning
employee empowerment by managers and supervisors from organisation in china. It
states that service failure recovery is closely related to employee empowerment
practises. Empowerment has been considered an act the act of granting power
being empowered. In the study data were collected from managers and supervisors
in two international chain hotels.





To find out the influence of empowerment
on job performance

To examine that employees, have a positive
attitude towards empowerment.



Empowerment is a
fundamental and important aspect for successful achievement, productivity and
growth. By increasing the opportunities of involvement and participation of
employees in organisational decision making, it aims to increase the
performance of employees.

As reported in the review
of literature the employee empowerment contribution and many authors observed
the influence of empowerment on performance of employees.

Jalal hanaysha (2016)
examines that employee empowerment has a significant positive effect on
employee commitment and employee empowerment provides the possible
opportunities to show their values and contribution to their organisation’s
survival, growth and possibility to face tougher challenges through employee

li-yun sun, zhen zhang’s
article states that empowerment positively correlated with creativity. By
increase in creativity, there by increase in job performance and study offers
insights on how to enhance employee creativity in performance from the various
empowerment perspective.

Findings of faranak
mokhtarian suggests that to improve their employee’s performance and to achieve
their goals and missions at a more upgraded level, organisations can benefit
from empowerment strategies. So, hence it influences job performance and employee
do have a favourable attitude towards empowerment.

Internet offers so many
means through which individuals can empower themselves as reported in the
article by ‘yair amichai hamburger’. It states that greater employment will not
occur unless and until the individual employee takes full advantage of them,
this shows that employees do have a positive attitude towards empowerment.
Empowerment also shows up positive significant relationship with financial
management effectiveness. As reported in the literature the most important
motivation for women to mobilise the economic initiative to gain and promote
women’s empowerment. Providing these opportunities enhance technical skills and
greater access to decision making.

So, by examining the
different research article it is hence find out that providing empowerment
opportunities enhanced the job performance and employees have a positive
attitude towards empowerment.



Azran Tal, Samuel;
Hamburger, Yair Amichai (2008) “E-Empowerment: Empowerment by the Internet”
Computer in human behaviour,24,1776-1789

Mokhtarian, Faranak; Mohammadi,
Reza (2011) “effective factors on psychological aspects of employee
empowerment. Case study: employee’s point of views in one of the
sub-organisations of Iranian ministry of science, research and technology”
Procedia- social and behavioural sciences, 30,786-790

Subramaniam, Geetha; Leong,
Tan Peck; Maniam, Balasndram and Ali Ershad (2013) “workplace flexibility,
Empowerment and quality of life” Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences,

Hocutt, Mary Ann;
Stone, Thomas H. (1998) “The impact of employee empowerment on the quality of a
service recovery effort” journal of quality management, 3(1), 117-132


Littrell, Romie
F.(2007) “Influences on employee preferences for empowerment practices by the
“ideal manager” in China” International Journal of Intercultural
Relations, 31(1), 87-110


Hancer, M; George,
R. Thomas (2003) “Psychological empowerment of non-supervisoryemployees
working in full-service restaurants” Int J Hosp Manag, 22(1), 3-16


Rahmatollah; Shahbazi, Behzad; Mirkamali, Seyed Mohamad; Kharazi, Kamal (2011)
“Survey of relationship between the psychological empowerment of employees with
organizational learning” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30,





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