Robert E. Lee Essay, Research PaperIntroductionFew episodes in history are more painful to Americans than the CivilWar, fought between the North and the South. This life, GreatAmerican Generals & # 8211 ; Robert E. Lee, by Ian Hogg, takes the reader throughthe life of one of the greatest heroes of that war, Robert E.

Lee. It is athorough, in deepness record of the life of Lee and begins with a elaborate historyof his household history and his birth, through his college old ages, militaryexperience and his work in ulterior life to his decease on October 12, 1870. Theforemost few pages set the scene by naming a significant sum of facts about thenames and backgrounds of his parents Harry and Ann and Lee & # 8217 ; s married woman, MaryCustis, with some mention to his male parent & # 8217 ; s ground forces calling and political life.After Lee & # 8217 ; s early old ages, the reader will larn of his schooling at the MilitaryAcademy, West Point, followed by his life in the Army before and after theCivil War.

The life ends in the latter pages with an history of hiswork after his military calling came to an terminal, and eventually, with his decease aftera drawn-out period of ill-health, thought to be stress induced.Writer Ian Hogg is a fecund author in the field of defence and militaryengineering. He is a arms expert, holding written many books on all typesof rifles, scatterguns and little weaponries, such as Modern Rifles, Shotguns andPistols, and Modern Small Arms. He is an acknowledged expert on footarms and is thought to be the universe & # 8217 ; s taking expert on this and heavy weaponschemes.

He is a good known writer of military history, and works as aarms judge in add-on to his authorship.Robert E. Lee was born in Stratford, Virginia on January 19, 1807.His male parent, Henry Lee, had achieved celebrity with Washington & # 8217 ; s ground forces as& # 8220 ; Lighthorse Harry, & # 8221 ; and it was a celebrity that rested non merely on his horsefeats but upon sound strategic and tactical ability. A important part ofhis celebrity was credited to him for crushing off a surprise British onslaught at SpreadEagle Tavern in January, 1778. Unfortunately Harry was narcissisticand had a high sentiment of his ain abilities. Although he achieved the rank oflieutenant-colonel, he felt that he deserved more. When the war ended and hehad non advanced in rank he resigned from the ground forces to prosecute a calling inpolitical relations.

Henry decided to run for the place of governor. He was electedGovernor of Virginia for three footings. Retiring, as was so customary inVirginia, on the termination of his 3rd term, Henry Lee was plenty in thepublic oculus to be considered as a possible replacement to Washington. He was,nevertheless, a hapless director of his personal businesss, and was invariably dodging hiscreditors, supplying really small of substance for his household. He was a wastrel,with no idea for their public assistance. A adult male with no sense of duty tohis personal businesss, Henry Lee finally ended up in gaol for a twelvemonth for non-paymentof his debts. Upon his release, he spent every waking minute composing hismemoirs, with no respect for his household at all.

Lee & # 8217 ; s female parent was Ann Carter Lee, girl of Charles Carter. She wasan invalid, but possessed a strong and beautiful character, and Robert grewup with a acute sense of award and duty. Robert was named after hisfemale parent & # 8217 ; s brothers, Edward and Robert Carter.Lee & # 8217 ; s male parent, Henry, was separated from the household when Robert wasmerely four old ages old. Lee & # 8217 ; s female parent left Henry due to his deficiency of proviso forthem, and Lee assumed the duty of the family at a really early age.Henry later died when Lee was merely eleven, but Lee & # 8217 ; s battle tokeep the family without the presence of a male parent, and with smallmoney, taught him valuable lessons in self-denial, lessons whichsupported him good in his military calling.Since there was no money for college, Robert entered the U.S.

MilitaryAcademy in 1825 to prosecute a calling in the armed forces. He was fortunate ingoing a Cadet at the Institution at a clip when the Superintendent wasMajor Sylvanus Thayer, the adult male who started West Point on its manner to fameas a military preparation school. He was the 2nd to graduate in a category of 46.Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in theEngineering Corps, a division of the Army which at that clip received merelythe best Cadets.

Unfortunately his pleasance and success diminished when hereturned place to Arlington to happen his female parent in the last phases of her unwellness,and he diligently nursed her at that place until she died in July of 1829.Soon after Lee received orders stating that he was to describe toCockspur Island to assist with the building of Fort Pulaski. While there hecorresponded with Mary Custis, the girl of Martha Washington & # 8217 ; sgrandson. She was besides girl of the affluent George Washington ParkeCustus, who upon his decease left her two beautiful Virginia estates, Arlingtonand Whitehouse. In 1831, although against Mr. Custis & # 8217 ; s wants, he marriedMary Custus.

The first topographic point the Lees went after their matrimony was Fort Monroe.Mary Custis despised Fort Monroe. During a Christmas visit back toArlington, she made the determination to stay at that place. In the Spring, Robert rodeback to inquire her to return, which she did. By this clip she was pregnant andgave birth to their first kid, George Washington Parke Custis Lee.

The Leesshad four girls and three boies. All three of their boies served in theConfederate Army. Lee & # 8217 ; s married woman ne’er adjusted to the asperities of ground forces stations andshe and the kids lived at Arlington until the war between the provinces, whentheir place fell into the custodies of federal forces. Arlington was taken by theU.S. Government and was ne’er restored to the Lee household, although one clipthe household had sued to acquire it back and was granted an insurance.On the eruption of the Mexican War, in 1846, Lee was appointed toGeneral Winfield Scott & # 8217 ; s personal staff.

He proceeded to Brazos on January16, 1847. The General was deep in readyings for the conflict at Vera Cruz.This was to be Lee & # 8217 ; s first experience under existent fire. Because of hissuperb leading and accomplishment in scheme, he won the congratulations of General Scott.Scott called Lee & # 8220 ; the greatest military mastermind in America & # 8221 ; , and & # 8220 ; the bestsoldier I of all time saw in the field. & # 8221 ; Lee was at that place to see the resignation of theMexicans on March 29th. He survived many more brushs with theenemy in the war with Mexico. He arrived back in Washington on June 29,1848, holding been off for one twelvemonth and 10 months.

When Lee entered the war, he was a captain. He emerged with therank of Colonel. His following responsibility was in Baltimore where he supervised thebuilding of Fort Carroll. This was to be his last technology undertakingbecause his following halt, in August 1852, was The United States MilitaryAcademy. He became Superintendent at West Point in 1852. In his threeold ages of service at that place, Lee established some extremely successful processswhich contributed to the repute of the Academy.On April 12, 1855, Lee was sent to Louisville, Kentucky to takebid of the 2nd.

Cavalry. As Colonel of Cavalry, Lee spent most of thefollowing six old ages in Texas. In 1859, while sing Arlington, he received a notefrom Colonel Drinkard telling him to describe to the Secretary of Warinstantly.

At Harper & # 8217 ; s Ferry trains had been stopped ; firing had beenheard ; rumour had it that many aliens had arrived and were motivating slavesto rioting. It was reported to Lee that the leader of the pack was called JohnBrown, a ill-famed antislavery overzealous from Kansas, who had been unable torally the slaves to rebellion and was eventually besieged in a fire-house. Lee wasto take the United States Marines, to stamp down John Brown & # 8217 ; s Raid at Harper & # 8217 ; sFerry.

He asked Brown for his resignation, expecting that this would nonhappen. When Brown refused to give up, Lee ordered the door of thefire station, in which Brown & # 8217 ; s set had taken safety, to be battered down. Themilitary personnels had rigorous orders to assail merely with bayonets, non to fire a individual shooting,in instance any of the sureties would be wounded. The whole operation wasover in three proceedingss.In the beginning of the war between the provinces, Lee found himselfconfronting the most hard determination of his life. He believed in the abolishment ofbondage, but non by force. He believed in a united state, but non one thatcould be maintained merely by blades and bayonets.

When President Lincolnasked him to take bid of the Federal military personnels in the field, Lee replied thathe could non take portion in an invasion of his native province. He offered hissurrender and within a few yearss, he was commissioned to General in theConfederate Army. He served as military adviser to Jefferson Davis, asCommanding officer of the Army of Northern Virginia and so as General-in-chief ofall Confederate Armies.The history of Lee & # 8217 ; s behavior in the Confederate run is a narrative ofa epic battle against overpowering odds.

In the first two old ages of thewar, the South made considerable headroom, successfully defying GeneralMcClellan & # 8217 ; s try to take Richmond. But there were ne’er adequate work forces,nutrient, or guns. The transit job became increasingly worse, andthe Armies were continually at the clemency of political pillagers.

Against thesuperior forces of the Union, Lee pitted all the scheme of a maestro soldierand he was able to present shattering blows at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, andChancellorville. All of this was to come to an terminal with the reaching of theconflict at Gettysburg. This was to be the turning point of the whole war. OnJuly 1st, Lee rode towards Gettysburg, hearing the sound of gunshot in thedistance. A few yearss subsequently, holding sustained enormous casualties, Lee wasbe aftering his retreat.With the licking of Lee & # 8217 ; s ground forces at Gettysburg, nevertheless, in July, 1863,the tide turned against the South. That was the last clip Lee was able to derivean violative place.

On April 9, 1865, recognizing that farther opposition wasa waste of clip, he surrendered his close starvation, depleted ground forces to GeneralUlysses S. Grant, the Union commanding officer in head, at Appomattox CourtHouse, Virginia. He penned a farewell reference to his work forces and put off the followingtwenty-four hours to Richmond, where his household had been populating since they had abandonedArlington.His place confiscated, his household impoverished, and his bosom heavy,with the load of defeated South, Lee turned to the undertaking of rapprochement.He applied instantly foR forgiveness and Restoration to citizenship, experiencing thatthis illustration might take other Confederates to make the same. He tried everymanner to mend the breach between the North and the South.Positions of great award and wage were offered to Lee, both inhis ain state and abroad, but he had no desire to come in into politicallycontroversial activities.

In the Summer of 1865 he was offered thePresidency of Washington College ( renamed Washington & A ; Lee Universityafter his decease ) , in Lexington, VA. The college was virtually in ruins, but Leeaccepted the place after he was ensured his connexion with the collegewould non wound it in any manner. Lee & # 8217 ; s friends and relations were shocked atthe thought that Lee would accept a place at such a little school.

He hadreceived offers from many bigger and wealthier topographic points. Lee, on the othermanus, saw far beyond the rubric and looked on this as an chance to assistreconstruct the South by educating it & # 8217 ; s young person. Lee genuinely felt his great intent inlife was to assist do a united state and to this terminal he set approximately to educateSouthern young person into a renewed spirit of trueness.

Lee accepted the station andheaded for the college campus in Lexington. Once at that place, Lee found that asgood as being President of the college, he was besides Dean, Bursar, Registrar,Head Gardener, and general factotum. His wage was $ 125 per month, andhe had one secretary to help him. However, Lee set to his undertaking and begancomposing to other establishments imploring for money.Once the President & # 8217 ; s house was ready, Lee & # 8217 ; s married woman and girls joinedhim at that place. Lee & # 8217 ; s boies were busy trying to salve the household estates,although Arlington was gone everlastingly, forfeited for default of revenue enhancementsduring the war, when Union governments insisted that delinquent taxpayershad to do payment in individual, and it was by this clip surrounded by amilitary graveyard & # 8211 ; as it still is ( pg. 75 ) .

Under Lee & # 8217 ; s counsel, Washington College prospered. The pupilorganic structure increased to four-hundred. The course of study was widened, new edificeswere bit by bit added, and as the celebrity of the college spread, pupils camefrom all over the United States.As the months went by, Lee & # 8217 ; s wellness began to neglect.

He was treated frorheumatism, lumbar pain, and other ailments, but the field fact was his bosomwas have oning out. In the Spring of 1869, Lee visited Baltimore in an attempt toraise money for a railway undertaking. From there he went on to Washington,where he visited his old friend, General Grant, who was now President of theUnited States.When Lee returned from Washington, he began to doubt his ability tocontinue as President of the college.

He stated that the occupation needed a fitteradult male than he. His talk of surrender was dismissed, and the module, early in1870, suggested that he should travel south for a holiday to assist recover hiswellness. In the Summer of 1870, it was remarkably hot, and Lee tired easy. Hewas no longer able to sit Equus caballus. On September 28, it rained and Lee had togo to a church vestryman & # 8217 ; s meeting, where he sat in his moisture apparels andlistened to the curate complain about his rewards. When Lee eventually returnedplace, he entered his house, stood soundless, and so collapsed in a chair.

Hismarried woman quickly sent for a physician.The physicians conferred and sent Lee to bed. For the following two yearss Leeslept most of the clip. After that, he seemed to better and began to eat.But when he was offered medical specialty, he refused stating & # 8220 ; it was no usage & # 8221 ; . For thefollowing two hebdomads he stayed in bed. On October 10, Lee & # 8217 ; s pulsation and external respirationsped up and he suffered shuddering enchantments.

On the undermentioned twenty-four hours, Lee becamehallucinating, and his head wandered to the yesteryear. He on occasion called out somelong disregarded names. & # 8220 ; Tell Hill he must come up, & # 8221 ; he cried. His married woman satkeeping his manus the whole dark, until merely after 9:00 am of October 12, 1870,Lee sat up, cried out & # 8220 ; strike the collapsible shelter & # 8221 ; , fell back in bed and died. He wasburied beneath the college chapel, and the full state mourned his passing.By his bravery in war and self-respect in licking, he had won the esteem andregard of Northerners and Southerners likewise.DrumheadRobert E.

Lee was born in Stratford, Virginia on January 19, 1807.His male parent, Henry Lee, had achieved celebrity with Washington & # 8217 ; s ground forces as& # 8220 ; Lighthorse Harry. & # 8221 ;Lee & # 8217 ; s female parent was Ann Carter Lee, girl of Charles Carter.

She leftHenry when Robert was merely four old ages old, and Lee assumed theduty of the family at a really early age. Lee & # 8217 ; s battle to keepthe family without the presence of a male parent, and with small money, taughthim valuable lessons in self-denial, lessons which supported him good inhis military calling.Robert entered the U.

S. Military Academy in 1825 to prosecute a callingin the armed forces. He was the 2nd to graduate in a category of 46. Upongraduation, he was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in the TechnologyCorps.In 1831, he married Mary Custus, Martha Washington & # 8217 ; sgreat-grandaughter.

The first topographic point the Lees went after their matrimony wasFort Monroe. They were at that place for three old ages, traveling on to Arlington in1834. The Lees had four girls and three boies. Lee & # 8217 ; s married woman ne’er adjustedto the asperities of ground forces stations and she and the kids lived at Arlington untilthe war between the provinces, when their place fell into the custodies of federalforces.On the eruption of the Mexican War, in 1846, Lee was appointed toGeneral Winfield Scott & # 8217 ; s personal staff.

Because of his superb leadingand accomplishment in scheme, he won the congratulations of General Scott. He survived manymore brushs with the enemy in the war with Mexico. He arrived back inWashington on June 29, 1848, holding been off for one twelvemonth and tenmonths.When Lee entered the war, he was a captain.

He emerged with therank of Colonel. His following responsibility was in Baltimore where he supervised thebuilding of Fort Carroll. He became Superintendent at West Point in1852. In his three old ages of service at that place, Lee established some extremelysuccessful processs which contributed to the repute of the Academy.

On April 12, 1855, Lee was sent to Louisville, Kentucky to takebid of the 2nd. Cavalry. As Colonel of Cavalry, Lee spent most of thefollowing six old ages in Texas. Lee was so sent to take the United States Marinesto stamp down John Brown & # 8217 ; s Raid at Harper & # 8217 ; s Ferry. When Lee arrived atHarper & # 8217 ; s Ferry, he ordered the door of the fire station, in which Brown & # 8217 ; s bandhad taken safety, to be battered down. The whole operation was over inthree proceedingss.In the beginning of the war between the provinces, Lee found himselfconfronting the most hard determination of his life.

He believed in the abolishment ofbondage, but non by force. He believed in a united state, but non one thatcould be maintained merely by blades and bayonets. When President Lincolnasked him to take bid of the Federal military personnels in the field, Lee refused.Lee resigned from the Army a few yearss subsequently. He was commissioned toGeneral in the Confederate Army.

He served as military adviser to JeffersonDavis, as Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia and so asGeneral-in-chief of all Confederate Armies.In the first two old ages of the war, the South made considerableheadroom, successfully defying General McClellan & # 8217 ; s try to takeCapital of virginia. But there were ne’er adequate work forces, nutrient, or guns.

Thetransit job became increasingly worse, and the Armies werecontinually at the clemency of political pillagers. Against the superior forces ofthe Union, Lee pitted all the scheme of a maestro soldier and he was able todeliver shattering blows at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorville. Allof this was to come to an terminal with the reaching of the conflict at Gettysburg.This was to be the turning point of the whole war.With the licking of Lee & # 8217 ; s ground forces at Gettysburg, nevertheless, in July, 1863,the tide turned against the South. That was the last clip Lee was able to derivean violative place. On April 9, 1865, he surrendered his close starvation,depleted ground forces to General Ulysses S.

Grant, the Union commanding officer in head, atAppomattox Court House, Virginia. He set off the following twenty-four hours to Richmond,where his household had been populating since they had abandoned Arlington. Afterthe war he applied instantly for forgiveness and Restoration to citizenship,experiencing that this illustration might take other Confederates to make the same. Hetried every manner to mend the breach between the North and the South.In the Summer of 1865 he was offered the Presidency of WashingtonCollege in Lexington, VA. The college was virtually in ruins, but Leeaccepted the place after he was ensured his connexion with the collegewould non wound it in any manner. Lee accepted the station and headed for thecollege campus in Lexington. The strain of seting the poorness strickencollege back on its pess and the jobs of Reconstruction took its toll, andLee & # 8217 ; s wellness began to neglect.

He died on October 12, 1870, and was buriedbeneath the college chapel.AnalysisGreat American Generals & # 8211 ; Robert E. Lee, by Ian Hogg, is an in-depthrelation of the life and decease of Robert E. Lee, one of America & # 8217 ; s greatheroes.

It begins with an history of Lee & # 8217 ; s household history, that of his parents,and the fortunes into which he was born on January 19, 1807, and terminalswith his decease on October 12, 1870.Hogg relates the intervening old ages in an highly interesting manner,supplying many fascinating and elaborate pieces of information. The narrative ispresented in a manner that keeps the involvement of the reader, and is non deadening,even when giving statistics of the assorted runs that Lee undertook. Thebook entreaties non merely to Lee fans, but to all history pupils.The pages are filled with legion elaborate maps, and colourful imagesthat enhance the position of Lee and his life. Military pupils will please in thedescriptions of the war, while pupils of Lee & # 8217 ; s character are rewarded byintriguing facts of his and his parent & # 8217 ; s lives.

Hogg presents this painful episode in America & # 8217 ; s history in a balanced,non-judgemental manner. He portrays Lee as a adult male of great unity and award,a true Southern gentleman, and casts no slurs refering the fact that Leewas on the losing side of a war in which there were no victors.This is an exciting and enlightening book and is one of the moregratifying books which are required reading for this class.

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