Robert E. Lee Essay, Research Paper
Lee, Robert E ( dward ) ( 1807-70 ) , superb Confederate general, whose military mastermind was likely the greatest individual factor in maintaining the Confederacy alive through the four old ages of the American Civil War.
Lee was born on January 19, 1807, in Stratford, Virginia, the boy of Lighthorse Harry Lee, and was educated at the U.S. Military Academy. He graduated 2nd in his category in 1829, having a committee as 2nd lieutenant in the applied scientists. He became first lieutenant in 1836, and captain in 1838. He distinguished himself in the conflicts of the Mexican War and was wounded in the storming of Chapultepec in 1847 ; for his meritable service he received his 3rd brevet publicity in rank. He became overseer of the U.S. Military Academy and subsequently was appointed colonel of horse. He was in bid of the Department of Texas in 1860, and, early the undermentioned twelvemonth, was summoned to Washington, D.C. , when war between the provinces seemed at hand. President Abraham Lincoln offered him the field bid of the Union forces, but Lee declined. On April 20, three yearss after Virginia seceded from the Union, he submitted his surrender from the U.S. Army. On April 23 he became commanding officer in head of the military and naval forces of Virginia. For a twelvemonth he was military advisor to Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, and was so placed in bid of the ground forces in northern Virginia. In February 1865 Lee was made commanding officer in head of all Confederate ground forcess ; two months subsequently the war was virtually ended by his resignation to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House. His great conflicts included Tho
Se of Antietam, Chancellorsville, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg. see Civil War, American ; see besides separate articles on the conflicts mentioned.
The consummate scheme of Lee was overcome merely by the superior resources and troop strength of the Union. His runs are about universally studied in military schools as theoretical accounts of scheme and tactics. He had a capacity for expecting the actions of his oppositions and for groking their failings. He made adept usage of interior lines of communicating and kept a bulging forepart toward the enemy, so that his supports, transportations, and supplies could make their finish over short, direct paths. His greatest part to military pattern, nevertheless, was his usage of field munitions as AIDSs to steering. He recognized that a little organic structure of soldiers, protected by intrenchments, can keep an enemy force of many times their figure, while the chief organic structure outflanks the enemy or attacks a smaller force elsewhere. In his application of this rule Lee was old ages in front of his clip ; the maneuver was non to the full understood or by and large adopted until the twentieth century.
Lee applied for but was ne’er granted the official postwar amnesty. He accepted the presidential term of Washington College, now Washington and Lee University, in the autumn of 1865 ; within a few old ages it had become an outstanding establishment. He died there on October 12, 1870. Lee has long been revered as an ideal by Southerners and as a hero by all Americans. His antebellum place is now known as Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial, and is a national commemoration. In 1975 Lee & # 8217 ; s citizenship was restored posthumously by an act of the U.S. Congress.