Romantic Virtuosity Essay, Research Paper
As the many socio-political revolutions of the late eighteenth-century established new societal orders and new ways of life and thought ; composers of the clip period broke new musical land by adding a new emotional deepness to the predominating classical signifiers.
This period is known as the Romantic period. It accured about from 1820 to 1920. Artists became purpose in showing their subjective, personal emotions. & # 8220 ; Romanticism & # 8221 ; derives its name from the love affairs of medieval times & # 8212 ; long verse forms stating narratives of heroes and gallantry, of distant lands and far off topographic points, and frequently of unachievable love. The romantic creative persons are the first in history to give to themselves the name by which they are identified.
The Romantic Movement in music co-insides with a general Romantic motion in all humanistic disciplines. At this period, the humanistic disciplines of literature and picture began to act upon music. In the Romantic epoch, music acquired poetic or philosophical significance. Antiquity, folklore, history and alien civilizations were examined as possible beginnings of inspiration. Romanticism in literature appears to predate the first marks of Romantic music ( for illustration Goethe [ 1749-1832 ] and Wordsworth [ 1770-1850 ] ) . The Romantic Movement was fostered particularly by a figure of German authors and poets. Their influence on instrumentalists was permeant and digesting. Weber and Wagner were attracted by the fables of Northern Europe ; Schumann by the pseudo-philosophic romantic literature of his twenty-four hours ; Chopin by his national poet Mickiewicz ; Berlioz by the earlier romantic poet Shakespeare ; Liszt by the modern-day Gallic romantic poet Lamartine and by assorted Gallic romantic painters, and so on. Thus, an detonation of music by poesy, fiction, doctrine and picture took topographic point, and with it was associated a farther detonation by the spirit of patriotism. Weber, Schumann, Wagner showing the German spirit ; Chopin, Poland ; Listz, Hungary ; Dvorak, Bohemia ; Grieg, Norway, and so on.
Ace: A individual of noteworthy achievement ; a instrumentalist of extraordinary proficient accomplishment. In its original Italian use ( peculiarly in the 16th and 17th centuries ) & # 8216 ; virtuoso & # 8217 ; was a term of award reserved for a individual distinguished in any rational or artistic field: a poet, designer, scholar etc. A ace in music might be a adept performing artist, but more significantly, he was a composer, a theoretician or at least a celebrated master di cappella. In the late 17th and 18th centuries a great figure of Italian instrumentalists carried the term & # 8216 ; virtuoso & # 8217 ; to the tribunals and theatres of northern Europe, on a regular basis using it to themselves whether non they merited such differentiation in the traditional Italian sense.
IMPORTANT VIRTUOSO/A OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
Born: Raiding, near Odenburg, October 22, 1811
Died: Bayreuth, July 31, 1886
Magyar composer Franz Liszt began his calling as the outstanding concert piano player of the century, who, along with the colossal fiddler Nicola Paganini ( 1782-1840 ) , created the cult of the modern instrumental ace. To demo off his phenomenal and unprecedented technique, Liszt composed a great trade of music designed specifically for this intent, ensuing in a huge sum of piano literature laden with eye-popping graduated tables, shakes, arpeggios, springs, and other proficient wonders. In this vena, Liszt composed a series of consummate rhapsodies on Magyar itinerant tunes, the best-known being the all excessively familiar Hungarian Rhapsody no. 2. his sort of music is worlds apart from the by and large more introverted, poetic music of pianist-composer Frederic Chopin.
Liszt is frequently credited with the creative activity of the symphonic verse form: extended, single-movement plants for orchestra, inspired by pictures, dramas, verse forms or other literary or ocular plants, and trying to convey the thoughts expressed in those media through music. Such a work is Les Preludes, based on a verse form in which life is expressed as a series of battles, passions, and enigmas, wholly functioning as a mere preliminary to. . .what? The Romantic genre of the symphonic verse form, every bit good as its cousin the concert overture, became really attractive to many ulterior composers, including Saint-saens, Tchaikovsky, Dvorak, Sibelius, and Richard Strauss ( 1864-1949 ) .
Born: Oct. 27, 1782, Genoa, democracy of Genoa [ Italy ]
Died: May 27, 1840, Nice, Fr.
Italian composer and chief fiddle ace of the nineteenth century. A popular graven image, he inspired the Romantic mystique of the ace and revolutionized fiddle technique.
After initial survey with his male parent, Paganini studied with a local fiddler, G. Servetto, and so with the famed Giacomo Costa. He made his first visual aspect in 1793 and so studied with Alessandro Rolla and Gaspare Ghiretti at Parma. In 1797, accompanied by his male parent, he toured Lombardy, where with each concert his repute grew. Deriving his independency shortly after, he indulged overly in chancing and romantic love personal businesss. At one point, he pawned his fiddle because of chancing debts ; a Gallic merchandiser lent him a Guarneri fiddle to play a concert and, after hearing him, gave him the instrument.
Between 1801 and 1807, he wrote the 24 Capricci for unaccompanied fiddle, exposing the fresh characteristics of his technique, and the two sets of six sonatas for fiddle and guitar. He reappeared in Italy as a fiddler in 1805 and was appointed manager of m
usic at Piombino by Napoleon’s sister, Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi. He subsequently gave narrations of his ain composings in many towns in Italy and in 1815 formed his long fond regard with the terpsichorean Antonia Bianchi.
In 1828, Paganini experienced great success in Vienna, and his visual aspects in Paris and London in 1831 were every bit sensational. His circuit of England and Scotland in 1832 made him a affluent adult male. In 1833 he settled in Paris, where he commissioned Hector Berlioz to compose his symphonic music Harold nut Italie. Paganini thought that the challenge of its viola solo was excessively little, nevertheless, and he ne’er played it
Paganini & # 8217 ; s romantic personality and escapades created in his ain twenty-four hours the fable of a Devilish figure. Narratives circulated that he was in conference with the Satan and that he had been imprisoned for slaying ; his entombment in dedicated land was delayed for five old ages. He was long regarded as a miser, but a more accurate portrayal would see his desire to be free from a train of dependent followings and their urgencies for his largesse. His gift of 20,000 francs to the fighting composer Berlioz was an act of generousness apparently uncharacteristic ; perchance Paganini, acknowledging in & # 8220 ; Beethoven & # 8217 ; s replacement & # 8221 ; a worthy endowment, thought it was his responsibility to come to the composer & # 8217 ; s assistance.
His fiddle technique, based on that of his plants, chiefly the Capricci, the fiddle concertos, and the sets of fluctuations, demanded a broad usage of harmonics and pizzicato effects, new methods of fingering and even of tuning. In public presentation, he improvised brightly. He was besides a showy showman who used trick effects such as break uping one or two violin strings and go oning the piece on the staying strings. Later ace, notably Pablo Sarasate and Eugene Ysaye, imitated his proficient inventions. His other plants include 6 violin concertos, of which the first, in D major, is particularly popular ; 12 sonatas for fiddle and guitar ; and 6 fours for fiddle, viola, cello and guitar. The influence of his virtuosity extended to orchestral every bit good as to piano music. His influence on Franz Liszt was huge. Subjects from the Capricci inspired plants by Liszt, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms and Sergey Rachmaninoff.
Birth: April 8, 1692, Pirano, Istria, democracy of Venice [ Italy ]
Death: Feb. 26, 1770, Padua, democracy of Venice
Italian fiddler, composer and theoretician who helped set up the modern manner of fiddle obeisance and formulated rules of musical ornamentation and harmoniousness.
Tartini studied deity and jurisprudence at Padua and at the same clip established a repute as a swordsman. Before the age of 20, he in secret married a prot? g? vitamin E of the archbishop of Padua, ensuing finally in his apprehension. Disguised as a monastic, he fled from Padua and took safety in a monastery at Assisi. There his fiddle playing attracted attending and finally influenced the archbishop to let Tartini to return to his married woman at Padua. In 1716, he went to Venice, subsequently went to Ancona and finally returned to Padua, where he was appointed chief fiddler at the Church of San Antonio in 1721. He directed the orchestra of the Chancellor of the Exchequer of Bohemia in Prague ( 1723-25 ) , and so returned one time once more to Padua, where he founded ( 1728 ) a school of fiddle playing and composing. He made a concert circuit of Italy in 1740.
Tartini & # 8217 ; s playing was said to be singular for its combination of proficient and poetic qualities, and his obeisance became a theoretical account for ulterior schools of fiddlers. His composings include more than 100 violin concertos ; legion sonatas, including the Trillo del Diavolo ( Devil & # 8217 ; s Trill ) , written after 1735 ; fours ; threes ; symphonic musics ; and spiritual plants, including a five-part Miserere and a four-part Salve Regina.
He contributed to the scientific discipline of acoustics by his find of the difference tone, besides called the Tartini tone, a 3rd note heard when two notes are played steadily and with strength. He besides devised a theory of harmoniousness based on affinities with algebra and geometry, set Forth in his Trattato di musica ( 1754 ; & # 8220 ; Treatise on Music & # 8221 ; ) and expanded into Dissertazione dei principi dingle & # 8217 ; armonia musicale ( 1767 ; & # 8220 ; Dissertation on the Principles of Musical Harmony & # 8221 ; ) . His theoretical plants besides include Trattato delle grace note ( & # 8221 ; Treatise on Ornamentation & # 8221 ; ) .
These are but of few of those to be considered & # 8220 ; Romantic Virtuosos. & # 8221 ; They were the musical & # 8220 ; super stars & # 8221 ; of their clip and possibly ours as good. Their influence on the music universe is good known they were superb at what they did. No 1 could deny that they were and are aces.
& # 8220 ; Music History 102: The Romantic Era & # 8221 ; Internet Public Library
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ipl.org/exhibit/mushist/rom/index.htm # Liszt
& # 8220 ; Paganini, Nicolo & # 8221 ; Encyclopedia Encarta Reference
hypertext transfer protocol: //encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp? z=1 & A ; pg=2 & A ; ti=04E33000
Sachs, Harvey & # 8220 ; Virtuoso: the life and art of Niccolo Paganini, Franz Liszt, Anton Rubinstein, Ignance Janpaderweski, Fritz Kreisler, Pablo Casals, Wanda Landowska, Vladimir Horowitz. & # 8221 ;
Thames and Hudson, New York 1982
Sadie, Stanley. & # 8220 ; The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians & # 8221 ;
Macmillan Publishers Limited, London 2001 Volume 26 P 789
Schonberg, Harld C. & # 8220 ; The lives of the great Composers & # 8221 ;
W.W. Norton, New York 1997
& # 8220 ; The Romantic Period & # 8221 ; George Town Prep. School.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gprep.org/~music/musikbok/chap14.html