Contentss

Introduction

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I. Who Was Saint Valentine?

II. The History of Saint Valentine ‘s Day

III.Valentine Traditions

IV.Early Valentine Customs

V. Valentine Symbols:

5.1 Cupid

5.2 Heartss and Arrows

5.3 Budgerigars

5.4 Valentine & # 8217 ; s Card games

5.5 Roses

5.6 Daisies, Violets and Bachelor Buttons

5.7 Say It With Flowers…

5.8 Sweetheart, Sugar Pie, Honey etc.

5.9 Cocoa

5.10 Love Knots

5.11 Paper Handss

5.12 Valentine Lace

VI.Saint Valentine & # 8217 ; s Poems

Introduction

St. Valentine & # 8217 ; s twenty-four hours is the vacation of all the sweeties.

It & # 8217 ; s celebrated on February 14 all around the universe. It is the traditional twenty-four hours on which lovers express their love for each other by directing Valentine & # 8217 ; s cards, different nowadayss, Sweets, flowers, or offering confectionary.

Ever since St. Valentine died on February 14, 269 AD, people have been giving their loved 1s Valentines and roses and other things to demo their feelings toward them. They do that because of what Valentine did. Some people believe that when Valentine died, he left a note to the gaol keeper ‘s girl which was signed, “ Your Valentine. ” Peoples have been making that since so — one time they knew that St. Valentine had done it.

I.
Who Was Saint Valentine?

St. Valentine was a great Christian who worked as a priest and a baronial adult male. When St. Valentine was alive, the Roman Emperor, Claudius II, would collar the Christians. If the Christians did n’t alter their faith, they would either be crucified, thrown to king of beastss, or beheaded. One fable says that St. Valentine would see the gaol every twenty-four hours to taIk and to pray with the captives to assist them to acquire out safely.

After a period of clip, the gaol keepers got leery and asked him a few inquiries. That is when they found out that St. Valentine was a Christian soo they threw him in prison where he stayed without altering his faith. Finally he was beheaded on February 14, 269 A.D. After St Valentine ‘s decease, a church was named after him, which was a hiding topographic point under his grave for Christians, and a public metropolis gate, Porta Valetini ( now called Porta del Popolo ) , was besides named after him.

II. The History of Saint Valentine ‘s Day

Valentine ‘s Day started in the clip of the Roman Empire. In ancient Rome, February 14th was a vacation to honor Juno. Juno was the Queen of the Roman Gods and Goddesses. The Romans besides knew her as the Goddess of adult females and matrimony. The undermentioned twenty-four hours, February 15th, began the Feast of Lupercalia.

The lives of immature male childs and misss were purely separate. However, one of the imposts of the immature people was name pulling. On the Eve of the festival of Lupercalia the names of Roman misss were written on faux pass of paper and placed into jars. Each immature adult male would pull a miss ‘s name from the jar and would so be spouses for the continuance of the festival with the miss whom he chose. Sometimes the coupling of the kids lasted an full twelvemonth, and frequently, they would fall in love and would subsequently get married.

Under the regulation of Emperor Claudius II Rome was involved in many bloody and unpopular runs. Claudius the Cruel was holding a hard clip acquiring soldiers to fall in his military conferences. He believed that the ground was that Roman work forces did non desire to go forth their loves or households. As a consequence, Claudius cancelled all matrimonies and battles in Rome. The good Saint Valentine was a priest at Rome in the yearss of Claudius II. He and Saint Marius aided the Christian sufferer and in secret married twosomes, and for this sort deed Saint Valentine was apprehended and dragged before the Prefect of Rome, who condemned him to be beaten to decease with nines and to hold his caput cut away. He suffered martyrdom on the fourteenth twenty-four hours of February, about the twelvemonth 270. At that clip it was the usage in Rome, a really ancient usage, so, to observe in the month of February the Lupercalia, feasts in honor of a pagan God. On these occasions, amidst a assortment of heathen ceremonials, the names of immature adult females were placed in a box, from which they were drawn by the work forces as opportunity directed.

The curates of the early Christian Church in Rome endeavoured to make off with the heathen component in these banquets by replacing the names of saints for those of maidens. And as the Lupercalia began about the center of February, the curates appear to hold chosen Saint Valentine ‘s Day for the jubilation of this new banquet. So it seems that the usage of immature work forces taking maidens for valentines, or saints as frequenters for the coming twelvemonth, arose in this manner.

III. Valentine Traditions

1. Hundreds of old ages ago in England, many kids dressed up as grownups on Valentine ‘s Day. They went singing from place to place. One poetry they sang was: Good forenoon to you, valentine ; Curl your locks as I do mine. Two before and three behind. Good forenoon to you, valentine.

2. In Wales wooden love spoons were carved and given as gifts on February 14th. Heartss, keys and keyholes were favorite ornaments on the spoons. The ornament meant, “ You unlock my bosom! ”

3. In the Middle Ages, immature work forces and adult females drew names from a bowl to see who their valentines would be. They would have on these names on their arms for one hebdomad. To have on your bosom on your arm now means that it is easy for other people to cognize how you are experiencing.

4. In some states, a immature adult female may have a gift of vesture from a immature adult male. If she keeps the gift, it means she will get married him.

5. Some people used to believe that if a adult female saw a redbreast winging overhead on Valentine ‘s Day, it meant she would get married a crewman. If she saw a sparrow, she would get married a hapless adult male and be really happy. If she saw a yellowbird, she would get married a millionaire.

6. A love place is a broad chair. It was foremost made to sit one adult female and her broad frock. Subsequently, the love place or wooing place had two subdivisions, frequently in an S-shape. In this manner, a twosome could sit together & # 8211 ; but non excessively closely!

7. Think of five or six names of male childs or misss you might get married, As you twist the root of an apple, recite the names until the root comes off. You will get married the individual whose name you were stating when the root fell off.

8. Pick a blowball that has gone to seed. Take a deep breath and blow the seeds into the air current. Count the seeds that remain on the root. That is the figure of kids you will hold.

9. If you cut an apple in half and number how many seeds are indoors, you will besides cognize how many kids you will hold.

IV. Early Valentine Customss

Peoples in England likely celebrated Valentine ‘s Day every bit early as the 1400 ‘s. Some historiographers trace the usage of directing poetries on Valentine ‘s Day to a Frenchman named Charles, Duke of Orleans. Charles was captured by the English during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. He was taken to England and put in prison. On Valentine ‘s Day, he sent his married woman a rhymed love missive from his cell in the Tower of London.

Many Valentine ‘s Day imposts involved ways that individual adult females could larn who their hereafter hubbies would be. Englishwomans of the 1700 ‘s wrote work forces ‘s names on garbages of paper, rolled each in a small piece of clay, and dropped them all into H2O. The first paper that rose to the surface purportedly had the name of a adult female ‘s true love.

Besides in the 1700 ‘s, single adult females pinned five bay foliages to their pillows on the Eve of Valentine ‘s Day. They pinned one foliage to the centre of the pillow and one to each corner. If the appeal worked, they saw their future hubbies in their dreams.

In Derbyshire, a county in cardinal England, immature adult females circled the church 3 or 12 times at midnight and repeated such poetries as:

I sow hempseed. Hempseed I sow. He that loves me best, Come after me now.

Their true loves so purportedly appeared.

One of the oldest imposts was the pattern of composing adult females ‘s names on faux pass of paper and pulling them from a jar. The adult female whose name was drawn by a adult male became his valentine, and he paid particular attending to her. Many work forces gave gifts to their valentines. In some countries, a immature adult male gave his valentine a brace of baseball mitts. Affluent work forces gave fancy balls to honour their valentines.

One description of Valentine ‘s Day during the 1700 ‘s Tells how groups of friends met to pull names. For several yearss, each adult male wore his valentine ‘s name on his arm. The stating have oning his bosom on his arm likely came from this pattern.

The usage of directing romantic messages bit by bit replaced that of giving gifts. In the 1700 ‘s and 1800 ‘s, many shops sold enchiridions called valentine authors. These books included poetries to copy and assorted suggestions about composing valentines.

Commercial valentines were foremost made in the early 1800 ‘s. Many of them were clean indoors, with infinite for the transmitter to compose a message. The British creative person Kate Greenaway became celebrated for her valentines in the late 1800 ‘s. Many of her cards featured capturing images of happy kids and lovely gardens.

Esther A. Howland, of Worcester, Massachusetts, became one of the first U.S. makers of valentines. In 1847, after seeing a British valentine, she decided to do some of her ain. She made samples and took orders from shops. Then she hired a staff of immature adult females and put up an assembly line to bring forth the cards. One adult female glued on paper flowers, another added lacing, and another painted foliages. Howland shortly expanded her concern into a $ 100,000-a-year endeavor.

Many valentines of the 1800 ‘s were manus painted. Some featured a fat Cupid or showed pointers piercing a bosom. Many cards had satin, thread, or lacing trim. Others were decorated with dried flowers, plumes, imitation gems, nacre, sea shells, or tassels. Some cards cost every bit much as $ 10.

From the mid-1800 ‘s to the early 1900 ‘s, many people sent amusing valentines called penny dreadfuls. These cards sold for a penny and featured such contemptuous poetries as:

‘T is all in vain your smirking expressions, You ne’er can tend, With all your hustles, corsets, and coils, To happen a valentine.

Many penny dreadfuls and other old valentines have become aggregators ‘ points.

Valentine, Saint, is the name associated with two sufferers of the early Christian church. Little is known about them. The Roman history of martyrs lists two Saint Valentines as holding been martyred on February 14 by being beheaded. One purportedly died in Rome and the other at Interamna, now Terni, 60 stat mis ( 97 kilometres ) from Rome. Scholars have had great trouble in happening historical fact among the Saint Valentine legends.

The Saint Valentine who died in Rome seems to hold been a priest who suffered decease during the persecution of Claudius the Goth about A.D. 269. A basilica was built in his award in Rome in A.D. 350, and a catacomb incorporating his remains was found on this location.

Another history of sufferer references a Saint Valentine who was bishop of Interamna and who may hold been martyred in Rome. By being remembered both in Rome and in Interamna, he may hold come to be considered as two people, but this is non wholly certain.

The usage of interchanging valentines on February 14 can be traced to the English poet, Geoffrey Chaucer. He mentioned that birds began to partner off off on that twenty-four hours. ”

V. Valentine Symbols

5.1. Cupid

Cupid is the Roman God of Love and the most popular symbol for Valentne ‘s Day. Originally he was shown as a immature adult male with a bow and pointers. But over the old ages, Cupid went from a fine-looking adult male to a pudgey babe? The ground is that the Romans had Cupid as the boy of Venus ( Goddess of Love and Beauty ) and a symbol for passion, playful and stamp love.

His pointers were unseeable and his victims ( which could besides include other Gods btw every bit good as worlds ) would non be cognizant that they were shot until they fell in love. But, the Victorian epoch privation to assist do Valentine ‘s Day more proper for adult females and kids. So they tossed out this fine-looking Roman Adonis cat and made Cupids more of a chubby babe. In other words, it ‘s all on how you want to whirl the narrative from PG-rated to R-Rated!

5.2 Heartss and Arrows

A bosom ( ruddy or pink ) with an pointer piercing through it is the most common form and expression for a Valentines, and even tapers, confects, cookies, bars, statuettes, stuffed images, etc. The bosom is a symbol both of love and besides exposure.

When you send person a Valentine, you take a hazard of being rejected and your feelings hurt. So a piercing pointer is a symbol of decease and the exposure of love. On the other manus, the bosom and pointer besides symbolize the meeting of the male and female as one. In the twelfth century, physicians believed that the bosom was the place of love and fondness in the human organic structure. But the existent biologicial form of the human bosom does non look like the bosom as we see it today. Why? Well, some people are thinking ( and it is amusing! ) that the Valentine heart-shape as we know it today was done by a doodler to stand for the human female natess or a female trunk with bosomy chests or the imprint of lips ( have oning lip rouge ) made upon a piece of paper. Once once more, it ‘s all on how you want to whirl the narrative!

5.3 Budgerigars

As I mentioned above, it was believed that birds chose their couples on February 14. And so the dove was chosen to be the bird representative because it was sacred to the Roman Goddess Venus because it chose a womb-to-tomb mate. They besides make a cooing sound, which farther proved they were the love twosome. The dove was besides a sacred bird to the Goddess, Venus ( and other Love Deities ) . And Noah had considered the dove to be his messanger. In the Song of Solomon, the word “ Turtle ” is truly mentioning to the “ Stictopelia cuneata. ” The Stictopelia cuneata is common in Asia and Europe, but it is non found in N. America at all. Since all doves are portion of the pigeon household, they mate for life, and the male and female both portion in the lovingness of their immature. Their bcooing sounds are frequently considered “ love sounds ” and today it is frequently said that when people in love talk instead sugary and baby-like it is “ cooing ” with each other.

Dove superstitious notions are that they were charming and were frequently used to divine the hereafter. The bosom of a dove was frequently an ingredient in love potions. If you saw a white dove fly overhead it was suppose to be good fortune. If you dreamt of a dove it was a mark that you had a promise of felicity. And, if you saw the first dove in Springtime, made a wish, that wish would come true ( much like wishing upon a falling star. )

But during the old ages, love birds have changed from Doves to hummingbirds to birds of Edens. Today, love birds depcited on Valentines are bantam parrots brilliant in colour because genetically they truly are in the parrot household. They frequently act like immature lovers besides. How? They are known for life in braces and maintaining to themselves, much like immature lovers want their privateness today. As pets they are considered lovable, easy to chasten and react to fondness. Some can even be taught to talk.

The bad side of budgerigars is that they can transport a disease harmful to worlds. And so, there are rigorous regulations sing importing them into the United States.

5.4 Valentine & # 8217 ; s Card games

The usage of interchanging love notes goes back to the Roman Lupercalia festival with the names being drawn. But the British were the 1s who popularized directing your feelings to person via a printed card. The first Valentine card was created by Chrles, Duke of Orleans, imprisoned in the tower of London for several old ages following the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. he sent Valentine verse forms to his

married woman in France from his gaol cell. Commercial Valentines did n’t apepar until 1800 ( In England ) and although handmade cards had been around for old ages. Inthe nineteenth century a new sort of Valentine emerged called “ penny dreadfuls ” that were contemptuous and cruel instead than loving and blandishing. They were largely sent annonymously excessively.

In America, hand-made Valentines appeared around 1740 and were sealed with ruddy wax and left in secret on a lover ‘s doorsill ( or sent in the mail ) . Commerical cards for the most portion took over around 1880 ‘s. But people still ( and will ever ) make homemade 1s excessively. Some included bangles, some locks of hair and in some instances there were cheques that were drawn against “ The Bank of Love ” and valentines printed to look like money. One was so realistic to a 5 lb note it was rapidly recalled!

Valentine poetries were romantic, capricious and critical. As I mentioned above, postage was expensive. And during the English Victorian times the usage was that the receiver paid for the mail they got ( non the transmitter as we do it today ) . So you can conceive of what a dual abuse it was to pay for a Valentine merely to open it up and detect it is critical aka “ Vinegar Valentine.

Walter Crane and Kate Greenaway were celebrated kids ‘s book illustrators of their clip. At the age of 22, Kate sold her first Valentine design for $ 15. Within hebdomads, over 25,000 transcripts were sold. For a few old ages after, she kept planing Valentines, but was ne’er paid a penny more. Today, Kate Greenaway Valentine ‘s are considered collectible points, every bit good as those designed by Walter Crane.

When Valentine Cards got to America, they besides got more originative. The first known to come to the US is a note written by John Winthrop in 1629 to his married woman before go forthing England for the New World. It ended with “ My sweet married woman, Thou must be my valentine for none chapeau challenged me. ” He subsequently became governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Valentines were non merely done in delicate pen and ink, but besides water-color and the script besides became a thing of beauty for the card every bit good, as good calligraphy was considered a signifier of art, every bit good as the quality of a individual.

Acrostic Valentines – had poetries in which the first missive of the lines spelled out the loved 1 ‘s name.

Example of the name Amanda.

A – Another minute without you isM – more hurting than I can bear.A- And no other love will of all time beN – nearer to my bosom than yours.D – Dayss pass easy until we shall meetA -again and our lives everlastingly portion.

Cutout Valentines ( which most kids do in school today besides ) were merely made by turn uping paper several times and so cutting out little countries to do lacy designs.

Pinprick Valentines were made by pricking bantam paper holes with a pin or needled into the paper into a lovely design.

Theorem or Poonah Valentines had designs that were painted through a stencil cut in oil paper ( manner originated in the Orient ) with a coat of gum Arabic to maintain the pigment from running.

Rebus Valentines had poetries in which bantam images took the topographic point of some of the words.

An illustration is:

Puzzle Valentines – Had a mystifier to read and refold, in which scattered among their many creases were poetries that had to be read in a certain order. I remember doing these in school in which they ended up like a pyramid in which you put your your index finger and pollex of both custodies on both sides and moved the mystifier valentine North to South and East To West intoning some cockamamie rime until you stopped and could take a flap to open and read.

Fraktur Valentines – had cosmetic inscription in the stle of lighted manuscripts of the Middle Ages.

But, Valentines did non ever come via paper and lacing.

Many crewmans would return from their ocean trips conveying silk scarves ( or other points ) to their married womans or girlfriends that had designs of Black Marias, flowers and other romantic images or words. And, in return many of the married womans or girlfriends of those crewmans ( before they took off to sea ) made them stronger packages decorated with loving images and ideas ( and filled with points ) to take with them on their ocean trips to believe of them.

And during the Civil War some of the Valentines were more similar paper dolls that were really dressed with fabric ( or paper ) to seek to resemble the individual directing it.

And during the Roaring Twenties, some valentines were really shaped like tomatoes. At that clip, tomatoes merely grew in flower gardens and were considered “ love apples. ” ( Kinda makes you wonder what they considered catsup to be so! ) .

5.5 Roses

Flowers were considered love items before there even was a St. Valentines. The Roman God, Bacchus ( God of Wine and Joy ) and Venus ( Goddes of Love and Beauty ) both considered the beauty and aroma of flowers to be tied with love affair and love. But since the clip of Solomon, the primary flower linked to woo was ever the rose. Cleopatra of Egypt covered the floor with roses before having Mark Anthony.

A Roman myth is that Cupid was transporting a vase of sweet nectar to the Gods on Mt. Olympus and spilled it on the land. From that topographic point of spilled nectar, roses grew!

But if roses are so symbolic of love affair and love, so why the irritants? Well, another narrative goes like this: The soft West air current named Sephyr one twenty-four hours opened a lovely rose and Cupid set over to snog the elegant petals. When he did, he ws stung by an irate bee concealing indoors. Venus got so angry she told Cupid to hit some bees and threading them up on one of his pointers. She so planted this twine of dead bees on the rose roots, and the stings became the rose ‘s irritants and of all time since roses had irritants.

The antediluvian Romans besides believed that anything discussed under a rose ( I mean how low can you travel to speak? ) was considered sub Rosa and to be kept secret. Today the Latin term is still used today to show something that is to be kept confidential.

Another Roman theory is that the Rose reminded the Roman Catholic Church of watching Christians devoured by king of beastss. Subsequently on, the Virgin Mary was called “ The Rose of Heaven. ”

5.6 Daisies, Violets and Bachelor Buttons

There are a few other flowers considered to be romantic besides.

The Romans believed that the daisy was one time a wood nymph. One twenty-four hours, while dancing in a field she was seen by Vertumnus, the God of Spring ( who fell in love with her of class ) . But when he reached for her she got scared. So, out of commiseration the other Gods allow her sink into the Earth and she became a daisy.

I do non cognize how the game of keeping a daisy and tweaking off it ‘s petals stating “ He loves me ” or “ He loves me non ” got started.

Equally far as Violets go… .one twenty-four hours it is said that Venus got covetous of a group of beautiful maidens. And when Cpid refused to state that his female parent ‘s beauty was better than theirs, Venus go ferocious, so she beat her challengers ( these maidens ) until they were bluish and she watched them shrivel into violets.

In the Science of Botany, the strawflower is known as Kyanus, named after a Grecian young person who was born in a field one twenty-four hours, doing Garlands of the blue flowers for the communion table of Flora, Goddess of Flowers. He died, unfortnately, go forthing some of the Garlands undone and so this touched Flora ‘s bosom and so in his award she named the flowers after him.

5.7 Say It With Flowers…

This is most normally known as FTD ‘s slogan today. But what to state and with what flower? Here are some traditional significances for some other flowers frequently sent for Valentine ‘s Day or other affecting minutes:

Shed blooding Heart = Hopeless, but non heartless.

Gardenia = I love you in secret.

Gladiolus = You pierce my bosom.

Lily-of-the-Valley = Let us do up.

Rose – I love you passionately.

Sweet William = You are gallant, debonair and perfect.

Violet = I return your love.

Green foliages represented hope in a love matter. ( Frequently rumored to be the ground why British misss sprinkled bay foliages with rose H2O and set them on their pillows on Valentine ‘s Day Eve. They wanted to see their loved one in their dreams. )

5.8 Sweetheart, Sugar Pie, Honey etc.

When people are in love they merely seem to automatically develop this type of duologue. But why? We frequently refer to person we care about as sweetie or honey. Research workers have found that when we fall in love, a chemical called phenylethylamine or phenylalanine is produced.

This drug is responsible for that fickle, psychotic love high that we all feel. When phenylethylamine or phenylalanine is fluxing through our venas it ‘s as if we are on pep pills. We can remain up all dark and work all twenty-four hours the following twenty-four hours. And a pheromone called androstenol is besides released, which heightens our sexual attractive forces. Therefore, we besides end up bring forthing what is called a sweet gustatory sensation in our oral cavities and we start spurting off phrases like “ juicy ” and “ sweet ” and “ honey ” and other things that we like such as “ gem ” or “ cupcake ” or ” pudding. ”

However, there is nil every bit bad as love gone incorrect! And so so we all of a sudden start spurting off words that have to make with being disgusted, depressed, angry, acrimonious etc. These are like, “ a rancid gustatory sensation in my oral cavity ” or “ disgusting temper ” or even being a small “ rotter. ”

5.9 Cocoa

Believe it or non, cocoa contains the same chemical mentioned above called phenylethylamine or phenylaline that is produced in our encephalons when falling in love, and that gives the same emotional high related to pep pills.

Many psychologist feel that cocoa is an instant “ love supporter ” and an automatic Sweet gustatory sensation in our oral cavities. And with some people, both cocoa and love can be habit-forming.

Anyhow, the thought of giving cocoa to person we care about is a manner to stir up the same emotions in them ( merely unnaturally if they do n’t truly experience the same manner emotionally back ) every bit good. As with all drugs, the phenylethylamine will have on off if it ‘s non produced due to existent emotions. Some besides say that “ Sweets for my Sweet ” is a wordplay for giving any confect to person you care about.

5.10 Love Knots

It has no beginning and no terminal and consists of graceful cringles ( sometimes organizing Black Marias ) in which messages of love are either affiliated and knotted in ( or written on the thread or rope ) and read by turning the knot about and about. And, if you could n’t do a existent love knot, so many Valentines included a design of one.

A immature adult male frequently hung this love knot on his true love ‘s doorhandle, stealing a missive under besides. ( Some feel this began with the crewmans since many were skilled at doing fishing nets and so making knots or macrame were their accomplishment. Others say it is a Celtic usage and design. While others say it is Norse. )

5.11 Paper Handss

By the nineteenth Century another symbol of love became the paper manus. It was considered a symbol of wooing because of the usage of a adult male “ inquiring for a lady ‘s manus ” in matrimony. And finally bantam paper baseball mitts became a valentine card symbol every bit good… .evolving into baseball mitts ( clairvoyance. silk ) going a popular gift to for a adult male to give his sweetie. Finally, a adult female kind of expected a brace of good baseball mitts as a gift ( in she was in certain societal circles ) . Eventually ( I guess it depended on how good you knew the adult female? ) a adult male would besides give shoelaces, silk stockings, supporters and jewlery to his sweetie for Valentines.

5.12 Valentine Lace

Expensive Valentines today have existent lacing, possibly gold appeals, existent flowers ( or dried ) and even made with ruddy velvet and non paper. For 1000s of old ages, certain “ pretty things ” have frequently been associated with love affair. In the yearss of olde, knights frequently rode into conflict with his lady love ‘s scarf or thread tied someplace on him. Lace, because of it ‘s delicate nature, has come to stand for something lovely to look at and therefore stand for love ( because lacing truly is n’t practical every bit far as a cloth. ) So lace every bit long as 400 old ages ago because a popular trimming for vesture… particularly dressing associated with love = nuptials dresses!

How lace paper got made was strictly inadvertent. Joseph Addenbrooke in 1834 was working for a London paper when by accident a file brushed over a sheet of paper embossed with a raised design. The high points of this brocaded design therefore got filed off go forthing little holes, and giving a lacey expression to the paper.

This led into the concern of doing paper lacings and shortly others followed — – competitively to the point where some of these paper lacings are of museum quality today.

VI. Saint Valentine & # 8217 ; s Poems

How Do I Love Thee?

Elizabeth Barrett Browning ( 1806-1861 )

How do I love thee? Let me number the ways.

I love thee to the deepness and comprehensiveness and tallness

My psyche can make, when experiencing out of sight

For the terminals of Being and ideal Grace.

I love thee to the degree of every twenty-four hours ‘s

Most quiet demand, by Sun and candle-light.

I love thee freely, as work forces strive for Right ;

I love thee strictly, as they turn from Praise.

I love thee with the passion put to utilize

In my old heartache, and with my childhood ‘s religion.

I love thee with a love I seem to lose

With my lost saints, — -I love thee with the breath,

Smiles, cryings, of all my life! — -and if God choose,

I shall but love thee better after decease.

False though She Be to Me and Love

William Congreve ( 1670-1729 )

False though she be to me and love,

I ‘ll ne’er pursue retaliation ;

For still the smoothie I approve,

Though I deplore her alteration.

In hours of cloud nine we oft have met ;

They could non ever last ;

And though the present I regret,

I ‘m thankful for the yesteryear.

Love ‘s Secret

William Blake ( 1757-1827 )

Never seek to state thy love,

Love that ne’er told can be ;

For the soft air current doth move

Mutely, invisibly.

I told my love, I told my love,

I told her all my bosom,

Shaking, cold, in ghastly frights.

Ah! she did depart!

A Red, Red Rose

Robert Burns ( 1759-1796 )

O, my luve is like a ruddy, ruddy rose,

That ‘s freshly sprung in June.

O, my luve is like the melodie,

That ‘s sweetly play ‘d in melody.

As far art throu, my bonny young girl,

So deep in luve am I,

And I will luve thee still, my beloved,

Till a ‘ the seas gang dry.

Till a ‘ the seas gang dry, my beloved,

And the stones melt Wisconsin ‘ the Sun!

And I will luve thee still, my beloved,

While the littorals o’life shall run.

And menu thee weel, my lone luve,

And menu thee weel a piece!

And I will come once more, my luve,

Tho ‘ it were 10 thousand stat mi!

She dwelt among the pathless ways

William Woodsworth ( 1770-1850 )

She dwelt among the pathless ways

Beside the springs of Dove,

A Maid whom there were none to praise

And really few to love:

A violet by a mossy rock

Half hidden from the oculus!

— Fair as a star, when merely one

Is reflecting in the sky.

She lived unknown and few could cognize

When Lucy ceased to be ;

But she is in her grave, and, oh,

The difference to me!

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