Should The Harris Superquarry Go Ahead? Essay, Research PaperShould The Harris Superquarry Go Ahead?Rural Economic DevelopmentKenneth Mercer BScRural Resources III16th December 1994Table OF FIGURESFIGURE 1 LOCATION OF THE SUPERQUARRY31 SummaryThere is considerable environmental resistance to the development of the Harrissuperquarry. This is improbable to halt the development on its ain, but if theScots Office decides that the undertaking can travel in front environmentallimitations are likely to be imposed on the operation to understate, every bit far aspossible, the impact. The grounds for the development Centre round the demandfor economic development to convey occupations and prosperity to this distant country.
Thelife of the prey is expected to be around 60 old ages and supply an initial 30occupations, lifting to 80 as the prey reaches peak production. The inquiry is ifa superquarry is the best solution to the jobs of a distant rural country.What will go on when the occupations come to an terminal and would another signifier ofinvesting non be more appropriate to their demands? Would the presence of aprey restrict the pick for farther development? Could an integratedattack be adopted and a 2nd coevals prey planned? The determination ofwhether or non to travel in front can non be delayed indefinitely as Norway and Spainare looking at developing their ain. If it is to travel in front so an early startwill give Harris a stronger place in the market.
2 IntroductionThis study examines the contention and cardinal issues environing the superquarryat Rodel, Lingerbay on the southern seashore of the Isle of Harris ( Figure 1 ) andefforts to happen an acceptable solution. The prey will excavate out the bosomof the mountain but leave plenty of a shell to go forth the skyline mostlyunaffected. The whole inquiry of whether or non it should travel in front or non isthe topic of the current public question in Stornaway.
A determination must bemade shortly. The market for sums is limited, Norway and Spain ( Section 3.1,1991 ) have their ain sites and are besides looking at the potency for developingthem.
FIGURE 1 LOCATION OF THE SUPERQUARRY( Glasgow Herald, 20/10/94 )3 THE ISSUES SURROUNDING THE Argument3.1 History1927A elaborate geological study identified the sedimentation of anorthosite.1965Planning permission was given in rule to quarry the stone.
Theremit covered a larger site than is planned today.1966Some little graduated table quarrying took topographic point but found an on site stone oppressingworks and a deep seaport were necessary for economic viability.74-76Outline planning permission was given for quarrying, transportation andlading installations but this was ne’er acted on.1977The Scots Office issued National Planning Guidelines.
Harris wasidentified as one of 9 possible sites. ( The Scotsman 18/7/93 )1980Ian Wilson, a Scots enterpriser specializing in minerals, persuadedRalph Verney, the adviser to the environmental secretary, to urge a biggraduated table survey on the potency of superquarrys in Scotland. The Scots Officecommissioned Dalradian Mineral Services & # 8211 ; Wilson and Colin Gribble & # 8211 ; to compose astudy on the chances. It was published in 1980 and listed 16 possiblesites including 5 cardinal sites, one of which was Rodel.
Many of the mineral riteswere bought by Wilson before he published the study, the remainder he acquiredsubsequently. He sold his thought for the Harris superquarry at Rodel ( Figure 1 ) toRedland Aggregates, and if the prey goes in front, he will have a royalty foreach metric ton of stone removed. ( New Scientist 1994 )1981Outline planning permission was given for quarrying but it was non on abig plenty graduated table to be economically feasible.1988The Scots Office asked the Western Islands Island Council to developa policy on mineral extraction. This has still non been done.1989Government Planing Guidance Notes predicted a demand for crushed stone.
1991Consultants Ove Arup surveyed the potency for sites and identified 12in Norway, 1 & # 8211 ; 2 in the North of Spain and less than 4 in Scotland.Redland Aggregates submitted a new planning application to the Western IslesIsland Council.1992The Scots Office issued a bill of exchange study which recognised the possiblefor Rodel but found that socio-economic benefits needed to be balanced withenvironmental effects. ( The Scotsman 18/7/93 )1993A canvass was sent out to 1822 island-dwellers inquiring them to vote on the issue.1109 replied, which amounted to a 60.
9 % response. The consequences showed that thebulk of the Islanders were in favor of the prey. The ballots cast were asfollows: For, 682 ( 62.1 % ) and Against, 417 ( 37.
9 % ) . There was a strongregional fluctuation though, the farther from the site the people were, the morein favor they tended to be. ( Glasgow Herald 17/6/93 ) A hebdomad subsequently this canvassresulted in the Western Islands Council vote in favor of the planningapplication by 24 ballots to 3. ( Glasgow Herald 25/6/93 ) Western Isles IslandCouncil held a Particular meeting in Tarbet. ( The Scotsman 18/7/93 ) TheDepartment of the Environment concluded that England could non run into its aindemands for sums. ( New Scientist 1994 )1994A Royal committee study concluded that the demand for sums forroute building would be well cut by cut downing our current dependanceon route conveyance.
It recommended that if coastal superquarries were to begranted be aftering permission so it should be a legal demand that thequarried stone should be transported by sea. It further concluded that therecycling of building stuffs would take the demand for superquarries andcut down the distance over which sums would necessitate to be transported. ( RoyalCommission 1994 ) By September the Highlands and Islands Enterprise had givenits general support to the undertaking and the Highlands and Islands DevelopmentBoard had approved a grant and loan totalling? 250,000 to the company set upby Ian Wilson, Harris Minerals Ltd.
( Glasgow Herald 30/9/94 )3.2 The grounds for the choice of LingerbayThe grounds for the choice of the site were chiefly economic:*The mountain consists of an estimated potency of 6 million metric tons ofanorthosite. Equally far as the sum industry is concerned this stone is a topquality merchandise, suited for a bring forthing a broad scope of sums, crushed rocksand littorals.*The mountain is situated by a deep glacial sea loch which is requiredfor the entree of the 30,000 metric ton ships which will take the stone. Unlessthe stone can be straight loaded from the site to the ships the prey will nonbe economically feasible. The loch is deep plenty to suit the deepseaport ( 24 metres ) required.3.
3 The demand for economic development& lt ;< p>Lack of employment thrusts people out of the countryside. This creates jobsas it consequences in an aging population and a higher dependent to worker ratio.This has a dramatic consequence on the hard currency flow of the country & # 8211 ; As pensionaries haveless to pass than a paid worker, there is less money spent in the local storesand saloon. This means in a cut in services & # 8211 ; Less net incomes result in lessproviso. This is the downward spiral of rural depopulation and want.Want exists if public assistance drops below an in agreement criterion. This definitiongoes farther than the job of finance. Education, public conveyance,health care, lodging and recreational services are all covered by the abovedefinition.
In distant rural countries the general degree of these services areclearly lower than the national norm. ( Midwinter, A and Monaghan 1990 )Harris now has a population of 2,200 which represents a diminution of 41 % over thelast 40 old ages, for those who remain 33 % of families have no grownup in work.( The Guardian 8/11/94 ) Ian Wilson claims that the creative activity of thesuperquarry will convey prosperity to the dieting corners of the Highlands andIslands and is the economic development necessary to change by reversal this diminution.3.4 Other inducementsRedland Aggregates has conceded one-year contributions to a local trust fund if theprey goes in front.
This would lift to a amount of? 100,000 as the prey reachedfull production. ( Glasgow Herald 16/6/94 )Ships could supply a inexpensive piggyback for administering local green goods. ( NewScientist 1994 )3.5 The environmental concerns*Ships ballast H2O could present foreign species of sea life. Thisis a concern because without marauding biological control any introducedspecies could multiply quickly and put the local Marine ecosystem at hazard.( New Scientist 1994 ) There is peculiar concern over the debut oftoxic phytoplankton species. ( SNH 1994 )*The country is home to otters. They are protected by the 1981 Wildlife andCountryside Act and some would be displaced by the development.
( ScotsField 1993 )*The potency for a hit with oil oilers will be greatly increaseddue to the excess traffic involved. ( Friends of the Earth )*Although non a SSSI the site beats the measure uping grade of 300 points andis the place of 149 species of bryophite ( Mosses and hepatics ) 7 of which arerare. ( The Scotsman 10/10/94 ) These are peculiarly vulnerable to dust.Heather and bog mosses, an built-in portion of the ecosystem, could be sensitiveto additions in Ca and dirt pH degrees. ( SNH 1994 )*Harris is designated as a National Scenic Area and should be preserved.( The Scotsman 10/10/94 )*Development of a prey could besides curtail some types of otherdevelopment. Harris has an exceeding plus of a pollution free environment.
This is recognised by Scotia Pharmaceuticals who plan the development of an amicro-algae farm on Harris. This development is under menace because theycould non put on the line any opportunity of taint to a merchandise destined for themedical industry. ( The Scotsman 3/10/94 )3.6 Making the prey more toothsomeRedland Aggregates has indicated that non resident workers would hold to go forththe island at weekends to understate any struggle with the locals. This would bewritten into their contract of employment. ( The Scotsman 13/10/94 )A 2nd coevals superquarry would hold a double intent, it would supply stonefor quarrying but this would be portion of a building programme.
The terminalconsequence would non be merely a hole in the land but could be designed to make fullsome other usage, for illustration produce HEP.4 Decision4.1 The instance for developmentThe Scots Office approves. ( Section 3.1 ) Rodel is the best site ingeological footings. ( Section 3.
2 ) The quarrying and transportation would be severelyneeded economic accelerators to the country. ( Section 3.3 and 3.4 ) There is alimited demand for sums and Spain and Norway are developing their ainprograms. If the Harris prey is delayed excessively long so it will hold to confront thisexcess competition.
4.2 The instance against developmentThe country is an NSA and development would do environmental concerns. ( Section3.5 ) There are other options & # 8211 ; particularly the recycling of buildingstuffs. ( Section 3.
1 )4.3 The likely resultThere is no uncertainty that Harris could profit from economic development, but whatwould go of it when the stone runs out or if demand falls? My personalfeeling is that the stone should be left entirely. The taint of a pristineenvironment is excessively high a cost to pay.
Clean Industry which could profit fromthis resource would be a more appropriate development but due to the support ofboth cardinal and local authorities, the island-dwellers and Ian Wilson I feel be afteringpermission will most likely be given.4.4 A suited via mediaIf the development is to travel in front so I would wish to see a 2nd coevalsdevelopment. ( Section 3.
6 ) This would give the prey a secondary usage andcould supply long term benefit to the community when it has reached the terminal ofits productive life. The operation should besides hold rigorous ordinances onextraction process to cut down, every bit far as possible, any environmental impact.The Western Islands Island Council should be ordered to develop a policy onmineral extraction and include programs to phase in other development as theprey nears the terminal of its life.
The last thing Harris needs is to be left inan economic vacuity when the stone runs out.MentionsFriends of the Earth, Superquarries versus sustainability, Recruitment cuspGlasgow Herald, ( 17/6/93 ) , Harris bulk dorsums superquarryGlasgow Herald, ( 25/6/93 ) , Isles & # 8217 ; ? 50 Million prey eventually given go in frontGlasgow Herald, ( 16/6/94 ) , Quarry house to plight? 100,000 to Island trustGlasgow Herald, ( 30/9/94 ) , Enterprise at odds with heritageGlasgow Herald, ( 20/10/94 ) , First shootings fired in prey enquiryThe Guardian, ( 8/11/94 ) Native captain brings thaumaturgy of the rocks across theAtlantic to assist Hebrides see away menace to soften mountain into splinterings, Page6Midwinter, A and Monaghan, ( 1990 ) , The measuring and analysis of ruralwant, Report for COSLA, February 1990New Scientist, ( 1994 ) , Rush for stone in the Highlands, 8/1/94Royal Commission, ( 1994 ) , Transport and the environment-18th Report, HMSO,LondonThe Scotsman, ( 18/7/93 ) , Traveling mountains to see how the land liesThe Scotsman, ( 3/10/94 ) , Drug house says prey could hit enlargementThe Scotsman, ( 10/10/94 ) , The cruel quandary for the people of HarrisThe Scotsman, ( 13/10/94 ) , Island curbs on superquarry contract staffScots Field, ( 1993 ) , Otter break, October 1993SNH, ( 1994 ) , Lingerbay imperativeness battalion