6 PETER SAGE
He argues that Organisational leaders are responsible to
play a role of teachers, designers and administrators to facilitate employee
learning. ‘Leaders are responsible for building organisations where its
employees are continually expanding their capabilities to understand its
ALTHOUGH we have Classic learning theories like classical
conditioning and operant conditioning from Pavlov and Skinner, I wont focus on
these theories as I am going to approach my report on modern and organisational
learning theories precisely.
Approach to Learning
Is worth to mention the positive
reinforcement in the work-place can be applied by
positively stimulating the employee after a target is met which according to
Skinner, the frequency of the positive behaviour would increase. Today this
come in form of incentives and bonuses, etc. Same thing but opposite process, negative reinforcement,
when the employee completes a task correctly after a critique by a
manager, the removal of this critique would make the employee to increase the correct
Learning from feedback provided by a manager. Theory claims that
the way that people perceive evaluate and use the information, play an
important role in L.
The Cognitive Approach:
Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Lewin- AKA the
learning process work on
chimpanzees was significant to understand this learning process- K had 3 observations
Once the chimpanzee has solved a problem it
would repeat this behaviour in the same situation. (shows an understanding).
Chimpanzees rarely tried a solution that did not
They solved the problem quite fast, suddenly
Through these observations K conclude that learning involved
insight into the whole problem, such info is retained and there is a ready
reaction to future situations.
In contrast, Edward Thorndike believed that
animals learn gradually through consequences of trial and error, but Kohler did
not think that animals learn incrementally through stimulus.
A suggestion of the ‘insightful learning’ only
occur through a process of mental trial and error: visualize the course of an action, mentally evaluate
its results, compare it logically with alternatives, and choose the option which
leads to decision making. This mental
process LEADS TO learning though feedback that would then be processed.
The Social-Learning Approach Albert Bandura
Based on the work of Albert Bandura- this model claims that human
development is the interaction between internal processes and the external
Learning happens through indirect observation and modelling.
– Individuals learn by observing a that they see as role-model and
knowledgeable. What is learnt is encoded into memory to behave in that same way
afterwards. 4 processes:
Memory- learning a behaviour and not forgetting
Motor activity- Observer may need to practice a
few times before mastering the behaviour
Need to be perfected by
practice hence the importance of HANDS -ON experience