Social media is todays tendency. It exceeds traditional bargainer and connects with clients. Every concern from big companies like Starbucks and IBM to smaller 1s is researching societal media marketing enterprises ( Neti, 2011 ) . Previously, many concerns were diffident with the success of SM but now they are following more of societal media selling ( SMM ) .
SMM is marketing utilizing on-line communities, web log selling, societal webs among others ( Neti, 2011 ) . India was among the first boosters of SMM. Nowadays, organizational construction has been replaced by societal cause since concerns prefer to cover straight with their targeted audience through online platforms.
SMM tools aid enterprisers to construct a strong relationship with clients and make public consciousness. In Mauritius, SMM was introduced for concern to better incorporate selling communicating programs with mark markets. Similarly, with the debut of Web 2.0, cyberspace users can build concern contacts by sharing concern information to team up with on-line undertakings ( Andharia, 2012 ) .
Employees who are involved in little and average endeavor ( SME ) use informal word-of-mouth ( WOM ) selling techniques to pass on in concern and socially. Equally, it is of import for SMEs to stay near to their clients to pattern web selling in relation to their staff and clients.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Internet has become portion of mundane life. People communicate, read electronic mails, hunt for information, contact friends and do concern at independent clip and topographic point ( Flinck, 2011 ) . Hence, SM plays an indispensable function leting the interaction with people. Firms are reacting positively to societal media services among clients.
Furthermore, on-line selling has become a popular selling tool among enterprisers. Similarly, SM represents a great challenge for marketing through traditional media channels and communications ( Gillin, 2009 ) . The popularity among on-line shopping is due to transparency, good communicating, referrals ( Urban, 2004 ) and WOM ( Eikelmann et al. , 2008 ) . Likewise, societal media tool is easy and it acts as an effectual solution for any concern with tight budget. Henceforth, the incorporate selling communications achieves promotional elements such as personal merchandising, gross revenues publicity, advertisement, direct and gross revenues publicity.
By and large, SME attack to selling activities is designed by the features of SMEs restricted to resources, size of endeavor and has an impact on the market ( Gilmore et al. , 2007 ) . These activities can be in a fringy map which consequences randomly to selling determinations ( O’Dwyer et al. , 2009 ) . In other footings, SME ‘s attacks are new and unplanned, and they agreed on the footing that clients are interested to give market conditions ( Gilmore & A ; Carson, 1999 ) . Marketing within SME is seen as an evolutionary procedure which includes selling activities through merchandise life rhythm or service. However, this procedure has an consequence to external market outside the SME sector ( Scanlon, 2009 ) .
From Fullerton maestro ‘s thesis ( 2011 ) , Sekaran defined job as a precise statement that exists between existent and coveted ideal provinces. Manik ( 2011 ) argued that impact of societal media “ does non count whether you have a Billboard, a magazine advertisement, an on-line streamer or a societal media channel. Impressions are feelings ” . Furthermore, SMEs are slightly baffled on make up one’s minding which promotional elements to take in order to stay competitory on the market. They are utilizing any communicating means among which are the societal networking web sites. Is SMM a good pick to hike up SMEs in the modern Mauritius where computing machines are low-cost for in-between income earners? Therefore, this is what has triggered the research whether SMM is a good pick to hike up SMEs in the modern Mauritius where computing machines are low-cost for in-between income earners.
AIM OF STUDY
The chief purpose of this survey is to look into on the impact of SMM for SMEs in Mauritius. This survey is based on replying research inquiries about the importance of SMM and its impact on SMEs in Mauritius. It is every bit of import to emphasize on societal media scheme, features, benefits and booby traps of specific societal media tools. Furthermore, it will assist to rede SMEs about how to optimize the effectivity of societal media in selling and do timely recommendations to SMEs on how to reexamine their selling schemes.
The survey aims at accomplishing the undermentioned research aims:
1. To set up the demographic profile of SM users in SMEs.
2. To find the consciousness and perceptual experience degrees of SM of SMEs.
3. To look into the SM penchants of SMEs from a concern position.
4. To look into the grounds for and intents of utilizing SM by SMEs.
5. To place implicit in concern facets in SMEs that could be affected by SMM.
6. To find the importance of underlying facets in impacting on the success of a concern.
7. To find the relationship between concern success and
I. Awareness of SM.
two. Amount of clip since utilizing SMM.
three. Frequency of usage of SMM.
8. To find the impact of frequence of usage of SMM on client purchase.
Which type of concern sector is involved in SM among SMEs?
What is the importance of SMM among SMEs?
Does SMEs affect in SMM in Mauritius?
Can societal media enable SMEs to act upon purchaser behavior or convey any alterations?
What are the media channels little enterprisers frequently use to advance their merchandises or services?
Had SMM has a positive impact on SMEs?
Can SM offer a competitory advantage to SMEs?
How can SMM aid SMEs to hike up on the market?
What are the motivational factors for SMEs to get down utilizing SM in their concern?
What betterment should SMEs set about to acquire involved in SM?
RATIONALE OF STUDY
The features of societal media had lead sellers to garner plenty information ( Strategic Direction, 2010 ) and therefore, consumer who now has the power ( Constantinides and Fountain, 2008 ) . Positively, SM creates relationship with clients and trade names and has a clear defined counsel to come in the market for a freshly launch merchandise for SMEs. Furthermore, clients are holding conversations about their preferable trade names which are coercing the trade names to listen to them ( Weinberg, 2009 ) .
This survey intends to present the topic of SMM for SMEs in Mauritius and emphasiss on happening its impact. Additionally, the chief thought buttocks is to derive a greater apprehension on the consciousness and new challenges of SMM. In this connexion, little enterprisers can follow some schemes to emphasis on gross revenues with SMM. By placing causes, they can tie in themselves to maintain proposition simple which can impact on gross revenues at a ulterior procedure. Finally, faculty members can besides profit from this survey where societal media and SMEs have been linked and examined together.
STRUCTURE OF DISSERTATION
Chapter 1: The chapter consists of a general introductory of SMM. It besides discusses on the background of survey, job statement, purpose of survey, research aims, research inquiries and the principle of survey. Last, it gives an overview of the different chapters.
Chapter 2: This constitutes the critical literature reappraisal divided into three parts viz. the theoretical reappraisal, empirical reappraisal and overview of the survey. It besides explains the features, importance, benefits, challenges of SMM and promotional schemes which little enterprisers adopted. It so constitutes to how SM influence purchasing behavior.
Chapter 3: This subdivision presents the methodological positions of this research. It explains how research aims will be achieved. Finally, it describes the informations aggregation methods, analysis methods and restrictions of the survey.
Chapter 4: This chapter reveals the findings and consequences analysis of the study carried out by SMEs. Analysis of each inquiry were made utilizing saloon charts, pie charts, tabular arraies, hypothesis testing and cross tabular matters.
Chapter 5: This chapter recommends SMEs on the effectivity of utilizing SMM and constitutes the decision of the survey.
Word: 4337 – 235
This chapter comprises of three parts viz. ; theoretical reappraisal, empirical reappraisal and overview of the survey. The cardinal purpose of this thesis is to research the impact of societal media selling ( SMM ) among little and average endeavors ( SMEs ) sectors in Mauritius. The result of this thesis will supply the reader with a theoretical and practical apprehension of how these SMEs can utilize SMM to their advantage.
In this subdivision, the theoretical model is presented. The term societal media will be introduced along with its different types. The selling tools, chances, challenges of SMM for SMEs and the promotional schemes that they adopt will be discussed and how it affects the purchase determination.
What is Social Media?
Media: is what influence and reflect public positions and is considered as a dialectical footing for the research done on media and motions ( Doris, 2011 ) . In add-on, Neti ( 2011 ) referred to media as advertisement and communicating of thoughts through diaries or channels.
Sociable: This involves communicating among people in a group ( Neti, 2011 ) .
Social Media ( SM ) : a utile media to pass on socially into an synergistic duologue through approachable and scalable communicating techniques. Business concerns may besides be referred to as consumer generated media ( Bengs, 2009 ) . Hence, SM is a combination of both societal interaction and engineering to make value.
Furthermore, KarahasonoviA‡ & A ; Folstad defined SM as the systems sharing and making on-line environment ( Bengs, 2009 ) . They besides argued that SM can include engineering platforms like nomadic phones and synergistic telecasting. Additionally, SM is a viva-voce ( WOM ) communicating linking friends, relations and Acts of the Apostless as an effectual manner in making concern and practising jurisprudence ( Randy, 2010 ) .
Furthermore, the design for societal media platforms is chiefly to do people interact socially and do it a user-friendly tool for everyone. Harmonizing to Mayfield ( 2006 ) , SM is a generated new manner for on-line media categorised as community, connection, conversation, openness and user engagement.
Besides, Neti ( 2011 ) stated that SM helps concerns to cut down cost by cut downing hours worked by employees to stay profitable on the market. Likewise, enterprises can maintain good interpersonal relationship with its clients and make trade name consciousness.
On the other manus, from a research by Neti ( 2011 ) , Kaplan and Haenlein defined societal media tool as Internet-based applications for Web 2.0 to make user-generated content. Undesirably, SM has been used as an on-line tool for drug sellers and has recorded 25 % of spam electronic mail messages directed to advertizements medical specialties ( Sass, 2010 ) .
The Need for Invention: Piercy high spots that there should be consistent inventions in the long term and non to concentrate merely on the merchandise development ( Fullerton, 2011 ) . In an administration, the successful invention is critical characterised by its originality and the extent to which client value is formed ( Cravens and Piercy, 2009 ) . Besides, publicity pushes consumers to acquire invoke into the selling funnel metaphor ( Fullerton, 2011 ) as illustrated in Figure 2.1 below. Similarly, the selling funnel manages the complexness of societal media into purchasing behavior. Hence, it leads to a good client service.
Figure 2.1: Selling Funnels
Beginning: Li and Bernoff, 2008
Social Media Tools
It is hard to foretell which societal media tools consumers would be involved in the following five old ages. The usage of SM should be integrated with other selling patterns to derive the most value ( Brodie et al. , 2007 ) . Therefore, the inquiry of which peculiar tools are used to accomplish the ends is non that meaningful ( Flinck, 2011 ) .
Social media tools can be divided into different classs based on the intent of usage. Harmonizing to Constantinides and Fountain ( 2008 ) , the Web 2.0 is classified into five different classs such as web logs and podcasts, societal webs, communities, forum/bulletin boards and content collectors. Furthermore, societal media platforms contain video sharing sites like Flickr and YouTube to pull off exposures and societal directories dwelling of concern podcasts ( iBizRadio ) , podcasts ( iTunes ) , concern web logs ( iBlogBusiness ) and blogging ( Del Monte, 2009 ) . Merchante Circle and LinkedIn are good illustration of networking sites to beef up and widen professional webs and contacts ( Horowitz, 2009 ) . Furthermore, the cardinal SM comprises of Really Simple Syndication ( RSS ) , chat suites, doodads, exposure sharing among others ( McCann, 2008 ) . Today, there exist elements of societal webs for societal media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, MySpace and Classmates ( Holzapfel, 2008 ) .
However, Ball ( 2011 ) stated that in societal media scheme, content is given more importance than the tools.
Use of Social Media
Social media sites allowed users to link with persons, groups and sets without bear downing any extra cost ( Boyd and Ellison, 2008 ) . A study on the pupil perceptual experiences ‘ of companies following SM was conducted in 2008 and it revealed that little concerns make net income if they are regular on online channels ( Vorvoreanu, 2009 ) . Furthermore, SM allows client to aline themselves with trade names, but it can besides has a negative impact every bit good ( Butler et al. , 2011 ) . The possible injury can be that endeavors do non hold control over the stations.
Furthermore, it is every bit of import to make a good client relationship for any concerns success. There is now a new step to the bottom line, non merely volume and net income, but besides client relationship and quality ( Butler et al. , 2011 ) .
Besides, house usually measures the cost of selling by return on investing ( ROI ) . In other footings, how much money is gained or lost comparative to the investing being made. In a research of Butler et Al. ( 2011 ) , Fisher cited that many concerns have changed the usage of the term ROI so as to better step the success with societal media. Rather than “ Return on InvestmentaˆY some are bespeaking that the new manner to find selling success in SM would be “ Return on Influence ” or “ Return on Engagement ” . Both of these footings are illustrations of how societal networking sites have influenced selling. The accent has turned to the relationship and communicating with the consumer.
In add-on to grounds of the speed uping popularity of on-line platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, concerns can increase feelings of trust and trueness through the usage of SM. Harmonizing to Moran and Gossieaux, communicating can hold a positive impact on the merchandises and make a competitory border in the market ( Butler et al. , 2011 ) . When utilizing this forum, concerns must take part and be alerted of what is traveling on the communities.
Harmonizing to Duboff and Wilkerson ( 2010 ) , sellers can easy link with their mark clients with the usage of SM. Additionally, they besides pointed out that societal networking site is an effectual and inexpensive manner to market a merchandise and do it attractive to the selling bottom-line. Since it is an cheap manner, this gives opportunity to break experiment new selling patterns.
When utilizing societal media sites to pull possible clients, concerns have several chances to prosecute and advance their merchandises or services. By promoting a connexion with consumers, they support an environment in which consumers talk about concerns amongst themselves. Moran and Gossieaux indicate that this viva-voce, peer-to-peer communicating in a community formed on an on-line forum can bring forth more first-time and return clients than those attracted by traditional selling ( Butler et al. , 2011 ) .
Social Media v/s Traditional Media
Experts have classified media as being traditional and new one ( Cutlip et al. , 2006 ; Higgins, 1999 ) . Social media from traditional media includes telecasting, newspapers and movies ( Benoit, 2011 ) . While, sing traditional media accomplishments along with placing new media, this leads to a connexion by both media as illustrated in Table 2.1 below.
Table 2.1: Four types of accomplishments for different media
Beginning: Dijk, 2005
Conventional to Industrial and Social Media
Nowadays, information can be accessible over electronic media or print media. The common features among the industrial media and SM remain appealing to be the targeted audience. Furthermore, industrial media and societal media can be effectual in depicting discrepancies and these belongingss are presented in Table 2.2 below:
Table 2.2: Properties of Industrial Media and Social Media
Benkler ( 2006 ) had used web information economic system to depict the societal, economic and technological features for societal media. However, Keen criticizes societal media as “ a tool which was regulating the infinite monkeys now in seting off on the Internet was the jurisprudence of digital Darwinism, the endurance of the loudest and most opinionated ” ( Gupta, 2011 ) .
Social Media as a Marketing Channel
Lazer and Kelley argued that societal selling involved selling constructs, cognition and techniques that help to better economically and socially ( Neti, 2011 ) . Furthermore, this deals with the analysis of the societal effects of selling activities, determinations and policies.
Social Media is going a powerful selling channel for many administrations. Furthermore, SMM is a procedure that allows persons to advance their web sites or merchandises through on-line societal channels to break communicate with big audience that may non be accessible via traditional advertisement channels. Besides, Weber ( 2009 ) claimed that SMM is non merely for largest transnational companies. In this respects, it might be even easier and effectual for SME concerns to take advantage of it ( Ahlberg, 2010 ) .
Opportunities for engagement in Social Media: Weber ( 2007 ) suggests that houses following SM addition value to do partnership, enhance employee communicating, mark trade name consciousness and do research and development. Harmonizing to Jones et Al. ( 2009 ) concerns can utilize SM to construct relationship with stockholders, protect their repute and enhance trade name image and value. Nowadays, people are bring forthing word-of-mouth ( WOM ) selling. Cheema and Kaikati ( 2009 ) argued that people ‘s privation for uniqueness affects the sum of WOM.
Obstacles of following Social Media: Common menaces while utilizing societal media engineerings are security issues, fright of utilizing unverified engineerings, senior direction apathy and negative impact on productiveness ( Flinck, 2011 ) . Culnan et Al. ( 2010 ) besides highlighted a few internal menaces ; leaks of rational belongings, devastation of company ‘s policies or codifications of behavior, security breaches and breaches of client confidentiality.
Promotional schemes for SMEs: With limited resources and budgets little concerns must besides do schemes picks on publicity ; advertisement, direct selling, gross revenues publicities and personal merchandising. Furthermore, for SMEs proprietors, local advertisement such as wireless, newspaper or community website can hold an impact if the messages are controlled and targeted to a specific group. Additionally, many SMEs prefer to utilize direct selling to better make their targeted markets. By utilizing electronic mails, concerns can besides supply persons with chances to take up gross revenues publicities or other calls-to-action ( Olson, 2011 ) .
Gross saless publicities inspire consumers to purchase a series of prompts within deadlines and which are often emotional. They can be offers like gifts, Buy One Get One Free ( BOGOF ) , free samples and price reduction vouchers. Furthermore, SMEs besides offered gross revenues publicities to pull clients or prolong with their rivals without even sing the impact on their borders. On the other manus, the gross revenues publicity messages are spread in assortment of channels and formats from point-of-sale shows, advertisement or direct selling and used in personal merchandising. Personal merchandising or 1:1 selling relies on face-to-face communicating as opposed to indirect methods of advertisement ( Olson, 2011 ) . Furthermore, many selling experts agree that WOM is an effectual component of publicity. Trusov et Al. ( 2010 ) found that the snap of WOM referrals is 20 and 30 times higher than that of marketing events and media promotion, severally.
Some factors need to be considered while choosing promotional elements are type of merchandise or services, available resources and accomplishments, perceptual experiences of consumers, size of market, demographics and life style of mark market. Henceforth, larger concerns can happen it low-cost to see national advertisement whereas little 1s have limited resources. Hence, they prefer to publicize on local documents or local wirelesss, use door-to-door cusp beads, postings and societal media platforms to advance their merchandises or services ( Olson, 2011 ) .
Successful of Social Media: The chief feature of any successful concern is its ability to link to a mark audience and persuade consumers to purchase merchandises.
Features of Social Media Marketing ( SMM )
Similarly to multi-media advertisement run utilizing wireless, telecasting, cyberspace, print media or public dealingss, SMM must besides execute in a systematic manner. Companies like Frito-Lay and Disney are utilizing a combination of SMM with other traditional and on-line selling trusts ( Del Monte, 2009 ) . However, the cardinal elements still remained the same while planing the SMM program as illustrated in Table 2.3 below.
Table 2.3: Elementss while planing SMM program
Beginning: Del Monte, 2009
Importance of Social Media Marketing
Harmonizing to Woodall and Colby ( 2011 ) , they examined and categorised four necessities of societal media over traditional media. These elements satisfy demands and wants of consumers as they remain affiliated, due to rapid connexions and do non necessitate tremendous attempt to be applied. Furthermore, experience sharing is another indispensable component of SM as everyone ‘s sentiment differs and through internet information can be shared easy ( Patino et al. , 2012 ) . Besides, house can advance new merchandises and maintain good relation with online clients through SMM ( Horowitz, 2009 ) .
Furthermore, users are perceived as been unbiased since they have trusty and original information. Sellers agreed and argued that it can be a bonanza of utile information for research workers ( Woodall and Colby, 2011 ) . Typically, community ‘s cognition shows a advancement with the consciousness of persons and cyberspace ( Pitta and Fowler, 2005 ) . Hence, this is resulted as huge information flow.
SM offers a faster and more cost-efficient manner to make targeted markets than marketing through traditional media like telecasting, newspaper and web sites. It can be seen as an chance for the research and development section to hold immediate feedback on the merchandise and take disciplinary actions, so see the following challenge.
Importance of Social Media Marketing for SMEs
SMM can assist little concerns to finish in their niche on general leads and cyberspace. Furthermore, SMEs are prosecuting online to construct their individuality and manage repute ( Horowitz, 2009 ) . Similarly, users are emerging on a new consumer behavior known as “ Shop Online, purchase Offline ” ( Choithani, 2011 ) . Furthermore, consumers need to be cognizant of the presence of bing and new SMEs organizing up. Equally, it is of import to hold societal media schemes like cyberspace and nomadic tools to ease conversations and interactions between SMEs on which of all time platforms they are utilizing Flickr, Facebook, LinkedIn, Google Buzz, YouTube, Vimeo or Twitter ( Choithani, 2011 ) .
Therefore, it is of import to pull off the legal and ethical challenges to better understand the conversation about the communities, larn how to incorporate the traditional selling tactics with SMM scheme ( Choithani, 2011 ) . Hence, anyone portion their thoughts straight through societal media to assist their clients. Social media besides helps clients to work out common jobs and have a direct interaction with the clients so that they can show themselves freely.
Influence of Social Media on Purchasing Decision
Customers are non merely influenced by the traditional selling ( A ) but they are besides unmanageable personal influencer ( B ) . Today, Internet as a communicating channel improves the on-line selling mix ( C ) and the societal media experiences ( D ) ( Constantinides and Fountain, 2008 ) . Figure 2.2 below shows the factors that influenced the decision-making procedure in an information based market place adapted from Kotler 1994 ( Constantinides and Fountain, 2008 ) . Furthermore, it emphasises on the trouble in the decision-making procedure in the new societal media environment. However, sellers found that act uponing the consumer behavior by traditional selling media and patterns becomes less effectual.
Figure 2.2: Factors act uponing Buying Procedure
Beginning: Constantinides and Fountain, 2008
Constantinides and Fountain ( 2008 ) pointed out that client experiences and front-runners about merchandises and services offered either in traditional or electronic mercantile establishments is non based any more entirely on information made available through traditional mass media or corporate web sites. Furthermore, their determinations come from referrals, equal reappraisals, labeling, blogging, other signifiers of user-generated content, online forums, and societal webs. Vollmer and Percourt claimed that more and more consumers are utilizing assorted types of societal media to seek for information and do buying determinations ( Mangold & A ; Faulds, 2009 ) .
Importance of SMM
Small concern success is based on a mensurable graduated table of 0 to 100. Furthermore, it depends on the undermentioned six countries such as capital entree, selling and invention, work force, conformity, client service and engineering ( Small Business Success, 2011 ) . Similarly, Small Business Success Index ( SBSI ) varied within these dimensions such that capital entree is totalled one-third on the fight mark and selling and invention contributes to one-fourth of mark. Figure 2.3 has a better illustration of these factors which aimed to turn, construct wealth and supply an attractive income improving life styles for proprietors.
Figure 2.3: Sub-Index Importance to Small Business Success Index
Beginning: Small Business Success, 2011
Small enterprisers are seeking to do more investings with capital entree and they are involved on day-to-day operations for their concern. They besides struggle to acquire fiscal advice for bettering their concerns. Figure 2.4 shows a comparative success factors for little concern between the twelvemonth 2009 and 2011.
Figure 2.4: Competitive Success for Small Business
Beginning: Small Business Success, 2011
Furthermore, little concerns are categorised as being extremely competitory, marginally competitory, marginally neglecting and neglecting. Harmonizing to statistics of SBSI distribution as at 2011, the SBSI distribution for little concern can be illustrated in Figure 2.5 below.
Figure 2.5: SBSI Distribution for Small Business
Beginning: Small Business Success, 2011
Harmonizing to the Small Business Report, there had been an increased in figure of SM among little concern ( Small Business Success, 2011 ) . Statistics in 2011 revealed that 12 % to 24 % of little endeavors were utilizing societal media as compared to merely 23 % in twelvemonth 2009. Figure 2.6 below shows the activities that those little concerns were acquiring involved with.
Figure 2.6: Assorted Activities involved by Small Businesss
Importance of SMEs
The little concern sector is familiar in economic systems world-wide, irrespective of the economic system ‘s developmental phase. Furthermore, part towards occupation creative activity, societal advancement and growing is highly indispensable and little concern is a critical component to accomplish economic growing ( Vosloo, 1994 ) . SMEs employed about 22 % of the grownup population in developing states ( Daniels, 1994 ; Daniels & A ; Ngwira, 1992 ; Daniels & A ; Fisseha, 1992 ; Fisseha, 1992 ; Fisseha & A ; McPherson, 1991 ; Gallagher & A ; Robson ) . UNIDO ( 1999 ) estimated that 90 % of private concern represent SMEs represent and comprised to more than 50 % of employment and of GDP in most African states.
Challenges of Social Media Marketing
Harmonizing to Awareness ( 2012 ) , the greatest challenges by respondents were chiefly there was deficiency of sufficient resources and the measurement of ROI. On the other manus, iContacts revealed that the challenges among most respondents were deficiency of clip and deficiency of cognition about SM ( Ghali, 2011 ) . Figure 2.7 illustrates the SM challenges.
Figure 2.7: Challenges for Social Media
Beginning: Awareness, 2012
Selling in Small and Medium Size Businesses ( SMB )
By and large, SMEs used common selling techniques to open their manner to societal media including WOM, wireless, telecasting, hoardings or wayside, cyberspace, networking, xanthous pages directories, email selling and client referrals.
The most efficient manner to make public consciousness is to utilize an Electronic media such as telecasting but it can be really expensive for little concerns to acquire involved through this type promotional tool. For this ground, they prefer to utilize internet selling in order to advance their merchandises or services which are more low-cost and approachable to everyone through web hunts like Yahoo Search Marketing and Google Ad Words.
Besides, little concerns are holding a selling exposure with customized and individualized web site such as Squarespace, Joomla and WordPress. Among the popular societal media platforms, Facebook and Twitter are normally used by little concern proprietors to make and pass on with a greater targeted audience. In add-on, Facebook advertisement is of import for SMEs as less publicizing demand to be done.
Additionally, little concerns are positioned as an effectual manner with the societal networking sites. With the assistance of a proprietary web log, the seller can notice on other web logs as good and motivating the latter to go forth a nexus to the little concern ‘ web site. Finally, maintaining a strong connexion with the populace, little concerns can keep client relationship by having recent narratives with updated events and sponsorships, imperativeness releases and battle.
SME Sector in Mauritius and Abroad
Small Enterprises and Handicraft Development ( SEHDA ) stated that for a house to be categorised as little units production, it must be using less than 10 employees and holding an one-year turnover less than Rs10 million. SEHDA considered the micro houses and does non take into history the medium sized endeavor which is one using between 10 to 50 staffs and an one-year turnover get downing from Rs10 million but non transcending Rs50 million.
Development of SME Sector
Table 2.4 gives a clear thought of the development of SMEs in clip and the constitution of regulative organic structures that are of important to little and average houses.
Table 2.4: Development of SME Sector
Impact of Social Media Marketing on SME ‘s
SMM is an imaginative tool, well-known for its result-oriented and besides cost effectual technique used in selling. It is chiefly used by SMEs to increase trade name consciousness and addition more in footings of profitableness within their endeavors ( Manik, 2011 ) . Blanchard argued that magazine ad, Billboard, societal media channel or on-line streamer does non hold an impact of SMM while harmonizing to Thomas feelings what affairs ( Swallow, 2011 ) .
With new engineering, little concern scheme has flourished as compared to in the yesteryear. Previously more accent was put on seeking for client in little country coverage but, today, there has been an enlargement in local parts as good. Nowadays, little concerns besides formed schemes to vie with larger 1s. One possible scheme that SMEs can follow is to make a successful program to be used for SM. SMM focuses on happening regular clients who are equal to societal web. In other words, SM helps make clients ‘ consciousness, encouragement trade name image and for concern spouses to remain in touch with their co-ordinated clients.
Today, SM emphasises merely on the promotional facet of a merchandise or service but less attending is put on the selling or public dealingss. It is every bit of import for concerns to see all factors so as to last in this competitory universe. Conversely, SM can turn out to be bad as good since it has an impact on concern procedures and has the possibility to turn communicating into an synergistic duologue. Small endeavors can accomplish success but they must see some indispensable elements as shown in Table 2.5:
Table 2.5: Successful Factors for SMEs
Beginning: Ranade, 2011.
Legal and Political Environment
Small concern proprietors who want to get down up their ain concern must seek for licences and should be granted licenses before establishing their concern. Furthermore, a proceed demand to be followed before the SMEDA issue the licenses to the terminal users and this includes different authorities parties such as Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labour and Industrial Relations, Ministry of Environment, Fire Services sector and the Police Department. Harmonizing to the informations of World Bank Doing Business ( 2012 ) , Mauritius is ranked 23rd among the 183 states making concern and following all processs usually required to put up a well-established concern model.
However, it is extremely imperative to observe that usually there are several statute laws that govern the SME industry which are listed as follows:
Local Government Act
Business Facilitation Act
Business Registration Act
Employment Relations Act
Chew overing over the political environment in Mauritius, the authorities is dedicated to supply a helpful environment for the little concerns being formed. Government organic structures are giving appropriate support to overhaul and beef up the SME sector within the Mauritians economic system. Ranking at the international degree, Mauritanian SME sector usually abides by the trading moralss of COMESA and SADC. By and large, this put accent on the gradual remotion of duties and custom responsibilities on the traded goods among the province members.
Social Media Marketing Facts
SMEs had gained a important economic growing worldwide during these past few old ages. Statisticss revealed that 90 % of the entire constitution in Singapore constitutes to SMEs from a working population of 44 % and 16 % engaging in export schemes. Additionally, in Mauritius, 96,000 establishments had already been registered to get down little concerns and authorities organic structures are doing enormous attempt to advance these sectors. Figure 2.8 illustrates 7900 SMEs from SMEDA who are licenced and registered in different sectors.
Figure 2.8: Pie Chart SMEs Sectors registered to Regulatory Institution
Social Media Facts in Mauritius
Facebook ( FB ) is taking many concerns towards success and doing them follow SMM scheme. Harmonizing to the statistics of Social Bakers, this shows that Mauritius had already attained a entire figure of 308620 Facebook users by 2012 as illustrated in Figure 2.9 demoing the study for the last 6 months. Furthermore, the societal networking statistics reveals 23.82 % of Facebook incursion in Mauritius as compared to its population and for the cyberspace users it is 106.3 % .
Figure 2.9: FB users for last 6 month from 2012 in Mauritius
FB users in Mauritius had witnessed a important growing in the demographics age group with a sum of 110974 users in the scope 18-24 old ages old. Refering the gender group it has been noted 55 males compared to female.
SME Employment and Constitutions
Statisticss showed that in December 2007, there were 76,320 little endeavors as compared to 2,227 from big one. From a study carried out by Central Statistics Office ( CSO ) , figures revealed that little concerns had a important addition between 1990 and 2002 demoing 177,659 occupations which was created as opposed to big houses 11,750. The Table 2.6 shows the employment rate from twelvemonth 2006 to 2008.
Table 2.6: Employment Rate from twelvemonth 2006 to 2008
Small Unit of measurements by industry group
The nose count economic activities 2007 study indicates that little units were chiefly involved in the undermentioned activities: “ Wholesale and retail trade ” ( 38.2 % ) , “ Transport, storage and communicating ” ( 16.9 % ) , “ Fabrication ” ( 13.9 % ) , “ Construction ” ( 10.3 % ) and “ Hotels and eating houses ” ( 8.4 % ) ( CEA, 2007 ) . Figure 2.10 below illustrates the distribution of little units by the different industry group for Mauritius.
Figure 2.10: Distribution of little units by industry group
Beginning: Census of Economic Activities, 2007.
This chapter gives an account of the research attack used to carry through the intent of this thesis and justifies the determinations that have been made. First, the research design was described, followed by the research scheme, techniques and analysis applied to run into the purposes and aims of this survey. Second, a description of how the probe was designed and the theoretical models that were used to prove the hypotheses will be mentioned. Finally, accent was laid on range, ethical issues and restrictions. The study was conducted during the month of August 2012 and a uninterrupted correspondence had been maintained with all respondents till the terminal of the research.
THE RESEARCH DESIGN
A research design can be defined as a basic program which guides informations aggregation and analysis stages of the research undertaking. There are fundamentally three types of research activity viz. explanatory, explorative and descriptive ( Sarma, 2012 ) . In wide footings, Robson ( 2002 ) suggests that explanatory research is required for a job or state of affairs and it aimed at happening relationships among variables from theory based outlooks. On the other manus, explorative research is carried out when small cognition is known about the topic and it is acute to go familiar with the subject. Last, descriptive research is undertaken when an accurate profile of individuals, events or state of affairss is required. Hence, a blend of descriptive and explanatory techniques research was used for this survey since these are more appropriate for turn toing the current aims of this research.
For this survey, information is required about the consciousness and perceptual experience of little enterprisers in Mauritius who are following SMM in their concern, therefore the research being partially descriptive. Additionally, it entails inquiries related to research aims and is built-in to the testing of the hypotheses and other illative statistics.
The aggregation of informations through questionnaires has both advantages and disadvantages. Drawbacks include respondents non being encouraged to give honest replies or the trouble in seeing whether respondents are holding jobs in construing inquiries. Conversely, questionnaire studies can be less expensive and enable a wider geographic range for the informations aggregation as compared to face-face interview ( see Section B1 of Appendix 2 for a elaborate account ) .
The Research Strategy
Harmonizing to Neuman ( 2003 ) and Robson ( 2002 ) , three research schemes were identified viz. experiment, study and instance survey schemes. Table 3.1 shows the undermentioned features.
Table 3.1: Research Scheme
Primary informations is normally collected to work out a current job. No information was antecedently collected refering users of societal media among SMEs at SMEDA. So, it was highly of import to garner primary informations before continuing farther. Data was collected with the purpose of being used straight in the existent survey by little enterprisers through questionnaire studies, interviews and unstructured interviews.
3.1.4 Secondary Data
Secondary informations is preexistent and collected for another intent. A common manner is to unite two types of informations ; secondary informations may be used to analyze collected primary informations.
Furthermore, the theoretical reappraisal in this thesis are based foremost of a literature survey from old published literature. In add-on, stuffs from academic articles, mention to books, web sites, Internet hunt for on-line diaries, books, web pages and on-line thesis were used. Finally, to broaden cognition on the job and the subject, a colloquial interview with the Business Development Officer at SMEDA was conducted.
RESEARCH AIMS & A ; OBJECTIVES
To rede SMEs about how to optimize the effectivity of societal media in selling.
To do timely recommendations to SMEs on how to reexamine their selling schemes.
To set up the demographic profile of SM users in SMEs.
To find the consciousness and perceptual experience degrees of SM of SMEs.
To look into the SM penchants of SMEs from a concern position.
To look into the grounds for and intents of utilizing SM by SMEs.
To place concern facets in SMEs that could be affected by SMM.
To find the importance of underlying factors in impacting on the success of a concern.
To find the relationship between concern success and
Awareness of SM
Sum of clip since utilizing SMM
Frequency of usage of SMM
To find the impact of frequence of usage of SMM on client purchase.
DETERMINING DATA COLLECTION METHODS
The following measure of the survey involves the informations aggregation method. The chief intent of roll uping informations is to obtain information, maintain record and do determinations about of import issues. There are many factors that affect the pick of informations aggregation method such as celerity, costs, quality and measure of informations and response rate, to call a few.
Creswell ( 2003 ) inferred that research attack does non merely inform research design but besides gives chance to critically see how each assorted attacks may lend to fulfill the aims and design an attack which best satisfies the demand. Normally, research attack is either qualitative versus quantitative or deductive versus inductive. For this undertaking, a quantitative research attack was chosen given the design of the study questionnaire used.
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
A research is described as qualitative if its nonsubjective requires information to be generated about how people think and feel about a peculiar issue or why they take certain determination and behave as they do. The techniques usually used in qualitative research are focus group treatments and projective techniques.
However, quantitative researches are normally conducted if aims require informations to be collected about how many people hold similar positions or expose peculiar features.
Before any informations aggregation methods were taken into consideration, it was necessary to chew over over which aggregation method would be the most appropriate for this survey. After critically measuring the advantages and disadvantages of the assorted methods, a quantitative research via questionnaire was eventually used.
Furthermore, telephone interviews were used to reach participants to happen out the proportion of SMEs following SMM as it offers possible advantage related to entree, velocity and low cost. This method eliminates face-to-face interview due to distances, costs involved and clip constrain.
With societal media, little concern proprietors better experience new tools that shape an active function in the research and influence the result of procedure ( Bryman & A ; Bell, 2007 ) .
A questionnaire was designed to roll up information on the perceptual experience about societal media selling and find its impact among SMEs in Mauritius. This method was deemed most appropriate because of the type of information required and due to the fact that respondents were little enterprisers. It is deserving observing that, for this survey, personal interviews, telephone interviews and electronic mails were besides used as support.
Types of Questions used
The types of inquiries used can be shown in Table 3.1 as follows:
Table 3.2: Types of Questions
The questionnaire used for this survey chiefly deals with the followers:
Table 3.3: Sections and Variables in Questionnaire
The pilot study consists of a dry run of all study process on a little figure of respondents. This procedure allows the designation of any defects or failings in the questionnaire, which can be redresss. It besides provides tonss of information about the field process ; whether the method of nearing the respondent is satisfactory, how long it takes to administrate the questionnaire among others. This information besides helps to form the full graduated table study. Ten individuals were chosen at random for the pilot proving. On the footing of uncertainties raised by the respondents, the undermentioned unequal inquiries were losing:
Most of the inquiries were dichotomous.
Questions like ranking order were losing.
There were duplicate replies with same significance for Qu. 24 ( refer to Appendix 1 ) and needed to be merged.
No proper instructions were given to respondents where they need to give multiple replies.
Some general inquiries were removed refering SMM among SMEs.
Once the research job had clearly been specified, an appropriate research design was developed and the informations aggregation instrument. The following measure in the research procedure is to choose those elements from which information will be collected. Furthermore, information can be either collected from:
Each member of the population of involvement or
A part of the population.
As in about all surveies, it is non possible to transport out nose counts. For this, the sample was chosen from the targeted population via simple random sampling, assorted with convenience sampling.
The population of involvement for this survey consisted of little enterprisers who were registered with SMEDA. The targeted SMEs were users and non-users of SMM. A list of these SMEs can be found in Appendix 4.
Benefits of utilizing a sample
Accurate, if choice is carried out with great attention
Determination of sample size
In this present survey, the degree of assurance was set at 99 % and the false assurance interval at 10. These figures, including the mark population of 349 registered little concerns, were input in the sample size reckoner found on the Creative Research Systems ( 1982 ) web site and it was found that a lower limit of 113 respondents would necessitate to be sampled.
However, to cut down instances of losing values in questionnaires ( despite a close followup ) , minimise prejudice and maximise sample representativeness, 136 questionnaires were collected. It is ne’er harmful to roll up more questionnaires than is required but, on the contrary, more fluctuation in responses help mensurate the cogency of the mensurating instrument every bit good as the dependability of these responses ( Section 3.4 ) .
Furthermore, sophisticated statistical techniques like factor analysis ( see Section 3.6.1 below ) are based on wider fluctuations in responses and a maximal figure of questionnaires.
Validity is defined as the extent to which a measurement instrument indicates what we are interested in mensurating. For the intent of this research, content and concept cogency were considered. Contented cogency is the extent to which it provides equal coverage of the subject under survey. If the instrument contains a representative sample, so content cogency is appropriate. Construct cogency infers the presence of abstract features for which no empirical proofs seems possible. Although this state of affairs is much more hard, some confidence is still needed that the measuring has an acceptable grade of cogency. A more elaborate account of cogency is given in Section B2 of Appendix 2.
Dependability refers to the consistence of the consequences on different points in a trial. Whenever attributes or sentiments of people are measured, it is necessary to see the dependability of the mensurating instrument every bit good as its cogency. There are a figure of types of dependability: test-retest, inter-scorer, split-half and so on. The facet of dependability, which will be relevant for this research, is, in a certain sense, split-half dependability, measured by the Cronbach Alpha coefficient ( See Section B3 of Appendix 2 ) .