* Sociology offers a position that stresses the societal contexts in which people live and how these contexts influence people’s lives. For C. Wright Mills. this is the interaction of life and history.
* Sociology is the scientific survey of society and human behaviour. and. as such. is one of the societal scientific disciplines. which study human behaviour. in contrast to the natural scientific disciplines. which focus on nature.
* Sociology is different from the other societal scientific disciplines because sociology focal points chiefly on industrialised societies. does non look at merely a individual societal establishment. and focuses on factors external to the person.
* Sociology emerged during the turbulences of the Industrial Revolution. Early sociologists such as Auguste Comte. Herbert Spencer. Karl Marx. Emile Durkheim. Max Weber. and Harriet Martineau focused on how the sweeping societal alterations brought approximately by the Industrial Revolution affected human behaviour.
* Sociologists agree that sociological research should be value free but disagree refering the proper intents and utilizations of societal research. Some believe its intent should be merely to progress apprehension of human behaviour ; others feel that its end should be to reform harmful societal agreements.
* Weber believed that sociologists must seek to see the universe from another’s position in order to understand their behaviour ( Verstehen ) ; Durkheim stressed the importance of bring outing the nonsubjective societal conditions that influence behaviour ( societal facts ) .
* In the early old ages of sociology. merely a few affluent adult females received an advanced instruction. Harriet Martineau was an Englishwoman who wrote about societal life in Great Britain and the United States and published a book entitled Society in America.
* In North America. sections of sociology began to be established at the terminal of the 19th century. In the early old ages. the parts of adult females and minorities were mostly ignored.
* Pure sociology is research whose merely intent is to do finds. while applied sociology is the usage of sociology to work out societal jobs in scenes runing from the work topographic point to the household.
* A tenseness between societal reform and societal analysis has ever run through sociology. The American Sociological Association is advancing public sociology to do politicians more cognizant of the sociological position.
* Globalization is besides go forthing its grade on sociology and will probably direct sociologists to give greater consideration to planetary issues.
I. The Sociological Position
A. This position is of import because it provides a different manner of looking at familiar universes. It allows us to derive a new vision of societal life.
B. This position stresses the broader societal context of behaviour by looking at individuals’ societal location—employment. income. instruction. gender. age. and race— and by sing an individual’s external influences and experiences. We are able to see the links between what people do and the societal scenes that shape their behaviour. C. This position enables us to analyse and understand both the forces that contribute to the outgrowth and growing of the planetary small town and our alone experiences in our ain smaller corners of this small town.
II. Sociology and the Other Sciences
A. Science is the systematic methods used to obtain cognition and the cognition obtained by those methods. It can be divided into the natural scientific disciplines and the societal scientific disciplines. Sociology is defined as “the scientific survey of society and human behaviour. ”
B. The natural scientific disciplines effort to grok. explicate. and predict events in our natural environment.
C. Social scientific disciplines attempt to objectively analyze the societal universe. Like the natural scientific disciplines. the societal scientific disciplines are divided into specialised Fieldss based on their capable affair. * Anthropology efforts to understand civilization ( a people’s entire manner of life ) by concentrating chiefly on tribal people. This is giving manner. though. to analyze of groups in industrialised scenes. * Economics analyzes the production. distribution. and allotment of the material goods and services of a society. * Political scientific discipline focal points on political relations or authorities.
* Psychology dressed ores on procedures that occur within the person. * Sociology is similar to the other societal scientific disciplines in some ways. but it is distinguishable because it looks at all societal establishments. focal points on industrialised societies. and looks at external factors which influence people.
D. All scientific disciplines have certain ends.
* The first end is to explicate why something happens.
* The 2nd end is to do generalisations by looking for forms. repeating features. or events. * The 3rd end is to foretell what will go on in the hereafter. given current cognition.
E. To accomplish these ends. scientists must travel beyond common sense and rely on decisions based on systematic survey.
III. The Origins of Sociology
A. Sociology developed in the center of the 19th century when European societal perceivers began to utilize scientific methods to prove their thoughts. The undermentioned four factors led to its development: * The societal turbulence in Europe as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution. which led to alterations in the manner people. lived their lives ; * The political revolutions in America and France. which encouraged people to rethink their thoughts about societal life ; * The development of imperialism—as the Europeans conquered other states. they came in contact with different civilizations and began to inquire why civilizations varied ; * The success of the natural scientific disciplines. which created a desire to use scientific methods in order to happen replies for the inquiries being raised about the societal universe.
B. Auguste Comte coined the term “sociology” and suggested the usage of positivism—applying the scientific attack to the societal world—but he did non use this attack himself.
C. Herbert Spencer viewed societies as evolutionary. coined the term “the endurance of the fittest. ” and became known for societal Darwinism. Spencer was convinced that no 1 should step in in the development of society and that efforts at societal reform were incorrect.
D. Karl Marx. whose thoughts about societal categories and category battle between the middle class and the labor was the foundation of the struggle position. believed that category struggle was the key to human history. Marx believed that the struggle and battle would stop merely with a revolution by the on the job category.
E. Emile Durkheim played an of import function in the development of sociology. * One of his primary ends was to acquire sociology recognized as a separate academic subject. * He was interested in understanding the societal factors that influence single behaviour ; he studied suicide rates among different groups and concluded that societal integration—the grade to which people are tied to their societal group—was a cardinal societal factor in self-destruction. * Durkheim’s 3rd concern was that societal research be practical ; sociologists should non merely name the causes of societal jobs but should besides develop solutions for them.
F. Max Weber was one of the most influential of all sociologists. raising issues that remain controversial even today. Disagring with Karl Marx. Weber defined faith as a cardinal force in societal alteration ( i. e. . Protestantism encourages greater economic development and was the cardinal factor in the rise of capitalist economy in some states ) . * The Protestant belief system encouraged its members to encompass alteration. * Protestants sought “signs” that they were in God’s will ; fiscal success became a major mark. The more money they made. the more secure they were about their spiritual standing. * Weber called this behaviour the Protestant moral principle ; he called their preparedness to put capital in order to do more money the spirit of capitalist economy.
IV. Valuess in Sociological Research
A. Weber advocated that sociological research should be value free ( personal values or prejudices should non act upon societal research ) and nonsubjective ( wholly impersonal ) . * Sociologists agree that objectiveness is a proper end. but they acknowledge that no 1 can get away values wholly. * Replication is when a survey is repeated to see if the same consequences are found. It is one means to avoid the deformations that values can do.
B. Although sociologists may hold that research should be nonsubjective. the proper intents and utilizations of sociology are argued among sociologists. with some taking the place that the proper function of sociology is to progress apprehension of societal life. while others believe that it is the duty of sociologists to research harmful societal agreements of society.
V. Verstehen and Social Facts
A. Weber argued that sociologists should utilize Verstehen ( “to appreciation by insight” ) in order to see beyond the societal facts to the subjective significances that people attach to their ain behaviour.
B. Durkheim believed that societal facts. forms of behaviour that characterize a societal group. reflect implicit in conditions of society. and
should be used to construe other societal facts.
C. Social facts and Verstehen fit together because they reinforce each other ; sociologists use Verstehen to construe societal facts.
VI. Sexism in Early Sociology
A. In the early old ages of sociology. the field was dominated by work forces because stiffly defined societal functions prevented most adult females from prosecuting an instruction. * Women were supposed to give themselves to the four K’s: Kirche. Kuchen. Kinder. und Kleider ( church. cookery. kids. and apparels ) . * At the same clip. a few adult females from affluent households managed to acquire an instruction ; a few even studied sociology. although the sexism in the universities stopped them from gaining advanced grades. going professors. or holding their research recognized.
B. Harriet Martineau studied societal life in both Great Britain and the United States. printing Society in America decennaries before Durkheim and Weber were even born.
VII. Sociology in North America
A. The first sections of sociology in the United States were at the University of Kansas ( 1892 ) . Atlanta University ( 1897 ) . and the University of Chicago ( 1899 ) ; the first in Canada was at McGill University ( 1922 ) . * Albion Small. laminitis of the section of sociology at the University of Chicago. besides established the American Journal of Sociology. * The section of sociology at the University of Chicago dominated North American sociology.
B. The state of affairs of adult females in North America was similar to that of European adult females. and their parts to sociology run into a similar destiny. * Now that adult females have had more of a voice in sociology. history is being rewritten. The parts of female sociologists are get downing to be acknowledged.
C. African American professionals besides faced jobs.
* W. E. B. Du Bois was the first African American to gain a Ph. D. from Harvard. He conducted extended research on race dealingss in the United States. printing one book a twelvemonth on this topic between 1896 and 1914. * Despite his achievements. he encountered bias and favoritism in his professional and personal life. * Until late. his parts to sociology were overlooked.
D. Jane Addams is an illustration of a sociologist who was able to unite the function of sociologist with that of societal reformist. * In 1889. she founded Hull House. a colony house for the hapless. and worked to bridge the spread between the powerful and powerless. * Sociologists from nearby University of Chicago visited Hull House often. * She is the lone sociologist to hold won the Nobel Peace Prize ; she was awarded this award in 1931.
E. Many early North American sociologists combined the function of sociologist with that of societal reformist. * Talcott Parsons developed abstract theoretical accounts of society to demo how the parts of society harmoniously work together. * Countering this development was C. Wright Mills. who urged sociologists to acquire back to societal reform. He saw the exigency of the power elite as an at hand menace to freedom.
F. The argument over what should be the proper ends of sociological analysis—analyzing society vs. reforming society—continues today. * Applied sociology exists between these two extremes. One of the first efforts at applied sociology was the initiation of the NAACP. * Today. applied sociologists work in a assortment of scenes. from concern and high-tech organisations to authorities and not-for-profit bureaus. * Applied sociology is the application of sociological cognition in some specific scene. instead than an effort to reconstruct society. Both sociologists who focus on societal reform and those who emphasize basic sociology cull applied sociology.
VIII. Trends Determining the Future of Sociology
A. To understand the tenseness between societal reform and societal analysis. sociologists have found it utile to split the development of sociology into three stages. * In the first stage. the primary concern of sociologists was doing the universe a better topographic point. * During the 2nd stage. from the 1920s until World War II. sociologists sought to set up sociology as a well-thought-of field of cognition. stressing basic. or pure. sociology. * In the 3rd ( current ) stage. there has been an effort to unify sociological cognition and practical work with the development of applied sociology. This tendency has gained impulse in recent old ages. * The American Sociological Association ( ASA ) is advancing public sociology. The ASA wants the populace. particularly politicians and policy shapers. to do usage of sociological informations in order to better understand how society works.
B. Globalization is a 2nd major tendency destined to go forth its grade on sociology. * Globalization is the interrupting down of national boundaries because of progresss in communications. trade. and travel. * Globalization is likely to broaden the range of sociological analysis as sociologists look beyond the boundaries of the United States in sing planetary issues.
C. Globalization is one of the most important events in universe history. This book stresses the impact of globalisation on our lives today.
Short Answer Questions:
1 ) What is societal location?
Answer: the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
2 ) In turn toing the sociological position. what did C. Wright Mills mean by “history” ? Answer: Each society is located in a wide watercourse of events. giving it specific features. values. and norms.
3 ) The societal scientific discipline closely related to sociology. which traditionally focuses on the survey of tribal peoples. is called ________ .
4 ) What is the primary difference between the societal and natural scientific disciplines? Answer: The societal scientific disciplines objectively examine human relationships and the societal universe. The natural scientific disciplines objectively observe and explore the universe of nature and its lawful relationships.
5 ) The two ends of a scientific subject are to ________ and ________ . Answer: explicate why something happens ; do generalisations that can be applied to a broader group
6 ) The predominating thoughts in society. the things that “everyone knows” as true. are jointly referred to as ________ . Answer: common sense
7 ) What is the scientific method?
Answer: the usage of aim and systematic observation to prove theories
8 ) Herbert Spencer suggested that to assist lower categories is to interfere with the natural procedure of “survival of the fittest. ” This construct was the cardinal component in his position of the development of society. called ________ . Answer: societal Darwinism
9 ) Harmonizing to the Wall Street Journal. who were the three greatest modern minds? Answer: Karl Marx. Albert Einstein. Sigmund Freud
10 ) Why did Durkheim’s research support the place that self-destruction was more of a sociological issue instead than one based on psychological theory? Answer: He found that people are more likely to perpetrate suicide if their societal connexions are weak. and that suicide rates within states and civilizations remain changeless. but differ well between civilizations.
11 ) Karl Marx claimed that ________ was the cardinal force of societal alteration. while Max Weber argued that ________ was really the cardinal force of societal alteration. Answer: economic sciences ; faith
12 ) What is the actual interlingual rendition of the German word Verstehen as it was used by Weber? Answer: ”to understand” or “to appreciation by sight”
13 ) Name the first three American universities to develop a sociology course of study in the late nineteenth century. Answer: University of Kansas ; University of Chicago ; Atlanta University
14 ) What did C. Wright Mills mean by the term “power elite” ? Answer: the top concern. political. and military leaders who made the major policy determinations and were a menace to the state
15 ) Sociologically. what is the significance of “symbols” ?
Answer: the things to which we attach intending. the key to understanding how we view the universe and communicate with one another
16 ) Robert Merton’s two categorizations of map. both of which can assist a system adjust. are called ________ and ________ maps. Answer: manifest ; latent
17 ) Harmonizing to Karl Marx. what individual component was the key to understanding human history? Answer: category struggle
18 ) What are the similarities and differences between macro-level analysis and micro-level analysis? Answer: Macro-level analysis focuses on large-scale forms of society. Micro-level analysis focuses on human behaviour during societal interactions.
19 ) What term does the American Sociological Society usage to depict the encouragement it gives to politicians and policy shapers to be more cognizant of the sociological position? Answer: public sociology
20 ) What is globalisation?
Answer: the eroding of national boundaries due to progresss in communications. trade. and travel. puting sociology as the matchless subject on the universe graduated table
1. Define societal location. Supply a elaborate history of your ain societal location. how it has changed in the past twelvemonth. and how you expect it to alter in the following five old ages.
2. Trace the historical development of sociology in Europe. get downing with an account of positivism. Reason the reply with a brief description of the parts of Comte. Spencer. Durkheim. Marx. and Weber.
3. Briefly describe the four factors that contributed to the outgrowth of sociology as a subject in the nineteenth century.
4. Describe assorted sociological positions of sociology and give illustrations from mundane life around us.