STATE OF LIBYAZAWIAUNIVERSITY ABU-ISSACOLLEGE OF EDUCATIONENGLISHLANGUAGE DEPARTMENT PROPOSELDifficulties inListening Comprehension Faced by The EFL Learners In ABU-ISSA College Submitted by: -Fatima Mohammed AjajSafa Al-amory HussainSafa Ali Hussain Supervisor:Om Kalthoum Al-Bakosh Fall(2017-2018) Pages CONTENT 5-8 CHAPTER I 5 1.1 Introduction 6 1.2 Statement of the problem 7 1.3 Research questions 7 1.4 Research hypothesis 7 1.5 Research objective 7 1.
6 Significant of the study 8 1.7 Limited study 8-13 CHAPTER II 8 2.1 Introduction 8 2.
2 Definitions of listening 9 2.3 Significant of listening 10 2.4Factor that make listening difficulties 10 2.5 Listening strategies 11 2.5.1 Cognitive strategies 11 2.
5.1.1 bottom-up processing 12 188.8.131.52 top-down 12 2.
5.2 Metacognitive strategies 13 2.5.3 Socio-affective strategies 13 2.6 Relevant study 14-16 CHAPTER III 14 3.1 Introduction 14 3.
2 Research Design 14 3.3 Population and sample 15 3.4 Data collection 15 3.5 Procedures 16 3.6 Data Analysis CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION :1.1Listening is one of the mostimportant skills in English language learning.
When EFL students listen toEnglish language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. EFL Students havebasic difficulties in listening comprehension because colleges and schools paymore attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an importantpart of many course books and most teachers do not pay attention to thisimportant skill in their classes. In this research, the researchers will reviewthe terms listening, listening comprehension strategies, and listeningdifficulties. So, theresearchers would have indicated that when teachers are aware of the EFL students’ learning difficulties they can helpthem develop effective listening strategies and finally solve theirdifficulties in listening and improve their listening comprehension abilities. Though, listening is a complexprocess which is often a confusing matter especially for L2 learners, it is themost frequent activity among learners.
Gupta (2002) cited in Ahkam (2015)expressed that the listening ability was disregarded and take a gander at adetached procedure before in language teaching. However, it is gives much importance in stream language teachingapproaches that listening seems to be a simple and natural task to the fact wetend to take it for granted. This simplicity of listening is questionable.Nunan (1993) cited in Kazouz (2014)revealed that listening is the Cinderella ability in a second language educating.
That is, listening is the principle ability which assumes a viable part inshowing second language.Howatt and Dakin (1974) cited in Suradej(2011), says that listening is the capacity to recognize and comprehend whatothers are stating. This includes understanding a speaker’s accent orpronunciation, the speaker’s linguistic use and vocabulary and perception ofsignificance. A capable audience can do these four things at the same time.Also According to Hamouda (2013) cited in Kazouz (2014) expressed thatlistening is basic as open aptitude as well as to the improvement of talkedlanguage capability. This research paper discusses the problems and difficulties thatfaced Libyan student in the department of English language at the factually ofeducation in Abu-Isa.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM1.2 a lot of researchers said that thelistening is very difficult for EFL learners According to ”Hamouda (2013)cited in Abbas & Narjes (2016:123) emphasized that listening comprehendingspeech is a very difficult activity for students”; On the other hand, Yagang (1994) cited in SURADEJ 2011, stated thatthe problems in listening were accompanied with the four following factors: themessages, the speaker, the listener and the physical setting.,Anderson and Lynch (1997) cited in Abbas & Mohammed Reza (2011) guaranteedthat absence of foundation learning caused trouble in listening cognizance. Goh(2000) cited Kazouz (2014) declared that listening challenges are characterizedas the interior and outside variables that may interfere with contentunderstanding and genuine handling issues specifically identified withintellectual strategies that happen at different phases of listening perception. Comprehension or recognition:students are unable to recognize the multi-word like form /meaning of the partof speech when listening to the speaker or conversation, etc.
they often assumethat each word in an utterance contributes to the meaning independently. E.G.
: when studiedlistening for the first time we always ask a teacher how can be listening inthe best way and also asked what are strategies can we use when listening.There for the student focus on the word in any spoken, conversation or any listening. So; the researchers focus on the difficulties and problems in listening to EFL learners in Abu-Isa college, and also todescribe some strategies to solve it. 1.
3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:This researchstudy tries to answer the following questions:1. What are the problems withlistening comprehension faced by EFL students of theEnglish Department in college of Abu-Isa?2. What strategies are used to help EFL students of the English Department incollege of Abu-Isa to succeed in listening comprehension? 1.
4 RESEARCHHYPOTHESIS It is hypothesized that thelistening skill is the most important and the most used among the four skills.Therefor third semester in Abu-Isa college face various problems anddifficulties. So; the researchers will help the students at the department ofEnglish to understand and produce listening properly. So the researcher intendsto teach the student English listening for a period of time to ensure that theywill stay on listening1.
5RESEARCH OBJECTIVE In line with the research problem above, theobjectives of the study therefor are:To describe theproblems in listening comprehension encountered by L2 learners of the English Department atcollege abu-issa.To describe thestrategies used to help EFL students of the English Department at collegeabu-issa to succeed in listening comprehension. 1.6 SIGNIFICANTOF THE STUDYThis study is important to the student because EFL learners have manydifficulties and problem; so the researcher have many strategies and solutionto make easier for any EFL learners in listening; and we will open new doorsfor teachers in regard to L2 learning and draw the educationalistsattention to listening comprehension. AndEFL learners to identify their difficulties of listening comprehension.; whenlisteners know something about own problems; In this case, the solution to thisproblem is easy and you can also learn to deal with the problems that we facein the future, so they will be able to improve their listening practices andbecome better listeners. Limited study CHAPTER IIREVIEW OFRELATED LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION: For the sake of organization, systematicity, and clarity the researcher arrangedliterature review topically; that is, the titleand subtitle associated with hearingdifficulties.
A lot of researchers and scholars conducted research on listeningcomprehension difficulties in the 20th and 21st centuries,such as Conrad, 1989; Blau, 1990; Griffith, 1992cited in Ahkam (2015). theytried to improve listening comprehension and Findout some strategies to solve this problem. Therefore; this chapter presents a review of the related literaturewhich involves the following main topic:2.2definition oflistening2.3 significancesof Listening2.4 Factors thatMake Listening Difficulties2.
5ListeningStrategies2.6 relevant study 2.2 DEFINITIONOF LISTENINGListening is morethan simply hearing the word; is an interactive, not a passive skill, towhich the students need to apply much effort and practice.so; When people listen effectively, they might understandwhat the person is thinking or feeling from the other person’s own perspective.
It is as if they were standing in the other person’s shoes, seeing through hiseyes and listening to the person ‘s ear. To listen effectively, people must beactively involved in the communication process, and not just listening passively. Ronald & Roskelly (1985) citedin Abeer H (2010) characterize tuning in as a dynamic procedure requiringsimilar aptitudes of forecast, estimating, checking, modifying, and summing upthat written work and perusing request.Anderson, Lynch (1996) & Wolvin (2010) cited in Kazouz (2014)said that hearing is an open procedure identified with the organic or thephysiological framework which lets audience members getting sound whether it isimportant or not.
Hearing underlies tuning in and not the other way around.Along these lines, hearing is vital for listening cognizance.Inconclusion; Listening is an essential piece of the corresponding procedure andought not be isolated from the other dialect expressions, and is a procedure ofrecognizing and understanding what the speakers say, which incorporatesunderstanding a speaker’s articulation, linguistic use and vocabulary. 2.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF LISTENINGPeople have never really beentaught to listen.
In school, they are taught speaking, reading, and writingskills, but, in general, there are few courses devoted to listening. Moreover,most people are so busy talking or thinking about what they are going to saynext that they miss out on many wonderful opportunities to learn about newthings, ideas, and people. Thought English is important for EFL learners atAbu-Isa college. So the teacher in the class must be focused on theconversation related to the listening.”A study by Wilt (1950), (Adler.R. etal.2001) cited in Suradej (2011) found that peoplelisten 45% of the time they spend communicating, speak 30% of communicationtime, read 16% and 9% is writing.
That is, by anystandards, a lot of time listening”. It is worthwhile taking a bit of extratime to ensure that you listen effectively.Listening provides comprehensibleinput for the learner which is essential for any learning to occur. Second,learners need to interact with speakers to achieve understanding. Third,listening exercises help learners draw their attention to new forms (vocabulary,grammar, interaction patterns) in the language. Inthis way listening comprehension gives the correct conditions to dialectobtaining and advancement of other dialect aptitudes (Krashen, 1989) cited inSuradej. Thus, the importance of listening inclassroom instruction has been less emphasized than reading and writing.
Nevertheless, it is evident that listening plays a significant role in thelives of people. Listening is even more important for the lives of studentssince listening is used as a primary medium of learning at all stages ofeducation. 2.4 FACTORS THAT MAKE LISTENING DIFFICULTIES Yagang (as referred to Hien, 2015) notices that the issue in listeningwas went with the four factors after variables: the message, the speaker, theaudience and the physical setting. Besides, a quantities of research has beenled to choose the issue in tuning in. The issues were accepted to cause by thediscourse rate vocabulary and elocution (Higgins, 1995; as cited in Idrissova,Smagulova, and Tussupbekova, 2015). Identified with the troubles of listeningexhibitions, the accompanying eight attributes should be viewed as (adjustedfrom Richards, 1983; Ur, 1984; Dunkel, 1991; Flowerdew and Miller, 2005, as referredto in Brown, 2007): clustering, 2.
Redundancy3.Reduced structures 4. Performance factors5.Colloquial dialect 6.
Rate of conveyance7.Stress, cadence, and pitch8. Interaction.
2.5 LISTENING STRATEGIESAppropriatestrategies are needed to reach the expected goal, especially in listeningcomprehension. In this case, strategies can be perceived as conscious, actionwhich is conducted on purpose to improve learning and allow the learners to useinformation more effectively ”(Oxford, Chamot, and O’Malley, as cited inWilson, 2009), are categorized into three groups: cognitive strategies,metacognitive strategies and socio-affective strategies”. 2.5.1 COGNITIVE STRATEGIES Cognitive strategies are related tounderstanding and gathering input in short term memory or long-term memory forlater use.
Comprehension starts with the got information that is inspected asback to back levels of development and a procedure of translating. Cognitivestrategy is a critical thinking technique that students apply to manage thelearning movement and encourage the learning of information (Azmi Bingol,Celik, Yidliz, and Tugrul Mart, 2014) As indicated by Goh (1998) cited in Abbas& Narjes(2016) , students use cognitive strategies to help them process,keep, and recollect new data. There are two kinds of cognitivestrategies in listening: bottom- up and top-down. Bottom-up strategies areword-for-word translation, arranging the rate of speech, repeating the oraltext, and concentrating on prosodic characteristics of the text. Top-downstrategies involve forecasting, guessing, explaining, and visualization. 2.
5.1.1 BOTTOM-UPPROCESSINGNehei (2003) cited in Kazouz (2014)guaranteed that Comprehension is anticipated to occur in a definite order, inbottom up preparing gazing with the most reduced dialect joins together andafterward climbing to the highest level. Listeners make up their understandingstarting with phonemes and then they combine them into words which togethershape phrases, clauses and so on till they fulfill a literal understanding. Thelast, is then interpreted depending on relevance of the information at thattime to understand what the speaker means. Yet, listening comprehension isachieved piece by piece going from the parts of the whole. According to thisidea, expectations which come from the background knowledge are prerequisitefor comprehension.
184.108.40.206TOP DOWN PROCESSING This process goes in oppositedirection of the previous model. The listenercomprehends discourse by movinghighest unit, schemata, context and culture to the lowest, language knowledgein processing a text, emphasis is on the use previous knowledge rather thanrelying upon linguistic knowledge.
The advantages of this model are that it canremunerate to a specific level for the linguistic limitations when theaudience’s dialect learning isn’t adequate for comprehending a spoken input (asreferred to in Nehie and Koichi, 2003) cited in Kzouz (2014).2.5.2METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES indicated by Rubin (1988) cited in Abbas & Narjes (2016), metacognitive strategies are administration procedures utilized by students tocontrol their learning through arranging, checking, evaluating, and evolving.For example, for metacognitive arranging techniques, audience members clear thepoints of a listening assignment and apply particular highlights of the auraldialect input that make simple the comprehension of aural information. Accordingto ”Henner Stanchina (1987) cited in Abbas & Narjes (2016), metacognitivestrategies played an important role in listening comprehension.
She mentionedthat skilled listeners can permanently explain and what they hear through (1) utilizingtheir prior knowledge and predictions to create theories on the text; (2)connecting new information with their continuing predictions; (3) makingdeductions to fill comprehension breaks; (4) assessing their predictions; (5)improving their theories”. Henner Stanchina (1987) proceeded with giftedaudience members can distinguish disappointment in understanding and activateto their experience information to improve understanding 2.5.3SOCIO-AFFECTIVESTRATEGIES Vandergrift (2003) and Abdalhamid (2012) communicated thatsocio-affective strategies are methods that listeners members use toparticipate with others, to check their perception, and to lessen their dread.Gardner and MacIntyre (1992) said that affective strategies are exceptionallycriticized on the grounds that the learning circumstance and students’social-psychological factors are firmly identified with each other. There is anoteworthy connection between low uneasiness and high listening execution: thatis, the utilization of full of feeling methodologies makes simple and enhancetuning in (Aneiro, 1989). O’Malley and Chamot (1987) cited in Chou, Yen-Lin(2004)spoke to that among the four systems of listening comprehension, socialand emotional techniques had the most impact on the learning setting. ”Wilson(2003) said that socio-affective strategies are related to students’interaction with other speakers and their reactions towards learning.
”2.6RELEVANT RESEARCHTakeno and Takatsukay (2007) describedfactors that might affect listening comprehension ability of Japanese Englishlearners, those factors are grammar, reading comprehension, Englishrepeatability, and articulation speed of Japanese and English words.Grant (1997) also pointed out fourstrategies which would help learners to listen to English by activating orbuilding schema, guessing, or predicting, listening selectively, andnegotiating meaning.Ma Weima (2005) reveals that short-term memory is an important clue in listening comprehension, and put forwardthree most effective ways to improve short-term memory retention, repetition,dictation, and good command of the language.Gary Buck (2001) stressed out thatlistening comprehension is an active process of constructing meaning and thisis done by applying knowledge to the incoming sound in which number ofdifferent types of knowledge are involved: both linguistic knowledge andnon-linguistic knowledge.Wolvin and Coakley (1985) statelistening as the process of receiving, attending to and assigning meaning toaural stimuli.
This definition suggests that listening is a complex,problem-solving skill. The task of listening is more than perception of sound;although perception is the foundation, it also requires comprehension of meaning. CHAPTER IIIResearch Method3.1INTEODUCTION The present chapter represents themethodology of the present study.
It is divided into six main sections. Thefirst section describes clearly the research methods. Then, the second section dealswith the research design. Next, the third section Population and Sample. While,section of four data collection. Additionally, procedures and data analysis. 3.
2 Research Design The present study adopts a descriptiveresearch design to collect data in order to answer the research questions thatguided this research. Singh (2006) claimed that the descriptive research isconcerned with the present and attempts to determine the status of thephenomenon under investigation( cited in Ahkam 2015)This is due to the natureof the problem under investigation in the present study which attempts toinvestigate the problems that that faced Libyan third-semester in thedepartment of English language at the factually of education in Abu-Isa. 3.3 Population andSample To accomplish thepoint set for the present study, a sample of twenty students registered in theclass of third-semester permit of English at Abu-Isa for the academic year 2017/2018is used to serve as respondent in this research.
According to Cohen, Manion and Morisson, cited in KAZOUZ Ismail (2014:13) claim that random sampling involves “choosingthe nearest individuals to serve as respondents and continuing that processuntil the required sample size has been obtained or those who happen to beavailable and accessible at the time”. The presentresearch takes place on college of Abu-Isa (Department an English Languagewhere English is considered as a foreign language)This sample consists of fifty students. Theyare 20 females. The strategy which the study followed to choose theseparticipants is simple random sampling. That is to say; the study will select therequire number 20 of the participants randomly, in which all of them have anequal chance to be a chosen.
This method is reliable in collecting valid data,because it is widely applied in education researchers. 3.4 DatacollectionThe data of the present research arecollecting in the third semester of the academic year (2017/2018) .According toAry et al (2010), cited in Ahkam (2015) there are a few strategies forinstrument generally used to guide and help the researchers to produce the information,for example: observation interview and document analysis. In addition,questionnaire as the researchers instrument are apply .
Consisting of questionsto be answered or statements to be responded by respondents, questionnaire isused to gather the opinion from respondents (Best, J.W., Khan, J.V., 2003, ascited in Latief, 2012).
The scope of questions in preliminary study includes listening ingeneral, problems in listening, students’ opinion about listening class, andstudents’ strategy in listening activity.Questionnaire contains of closed andopen-ended questions. The idea for combining of both responses is that it iseasier to gather and analyze and the responses to the later will provide moreflexibility so that respondent can give more accurate answer. 3.
5 Procedures:This section explains all of operations thatare related to get information to answer the statement problems. The steps ofcollecting the data in this study are as follows:1.The researchers will explain the questionnaire to thestudents. The researchers explain the items clearly to avoid misunderstanding.2.The researchers give instruction to the student to fill outthe questionnaire.3.
the researchers will collect the students’questionnaire. 3.6 Data Analysis:The next step after the researcher collectsthe data is analyzing the data There are some steps in analyzing the data.They are presented as follows:1.Reading and identifying thequestionnaire that will be answer.
2.Classifying the result of thequestions based on the blueprint of questions.3.Composing tables to classify students’problems and strategies use based on the questionnaire.4.Calculating the result that will be taken fromthe students’ answer based on the table. 5.Drawing conclusion based on the data analysis.