Statement of Problem
According to WWF
international (2011), tourism is the biggest industry in the world based on the calculation of Global GDP’s percentage
(11%), the total percentage of employment (more than 10%), and the estimation of
total tourist travels (1.6 billion per 2020).
Furthermore, WWF International (2001) stated that tourism development
can bring positive effects for both nature and community through appropriate
tourism or sustainable tourism development such as producing economic opportunities for societies and
nations, and raising consciousness
regarding local culture and nature conservation. However, tourism development also can create
negative effects (e.g. pollution, increased waste, degradation of land and
habitats, and natural resource reduction) in form of irresponsible tourism or unsustainable tourism. Emphasizing appropriate tourism or
sustainable tourism development, UNEP and WTO (2005, p.12) defined sustainable
tourism as “Tourism
that takes full account of its current and future economic, social
andenvironmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the
environment and host communities.”
In the context
of Indonesia, a country known worldwide for its rich and unique natural and
cultural resources. These resources are essential assets for the development of
tourism industry in Indonesia, particularly ecotourism and cultural and rural
tourism. 2015 data from the Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia
records that the tourism sector was the fourth largest contributor of state
revenues, (after oil and natural gas, coal, and palm oil) generating a total revenue of
12,225.89 million USD (Kementerian Pariwisata Republik Indonesia, 2016). Moreover, by 2019, the Ministry of Tourism of
the Republic of Indonesia is projecting
that the tourism industry will be the biggest contributing sector to Indonesian
state revenue, 24 million USD (Kementerian Pariwisata Republik Indonesia, 2017). From these data it is clear that, the role of
tourism sector is central in Indonesia’s current economy and a key to future
economic development. In order to
achieve the goal of making tourism as the largest contributing sector for
Indonesia in 2019, the Indonesian Government must promote a sustainable tourism
One of the essential
factors for developing a sustainable tourism industry is stakeholder participation
through collaboration. Graci (2013) claimed that in developing sustainable
tourism industry, collaboration is crucial. Similarly, UNEP and WTO (2005) stated the comprehensive
and fair principles of sustainable development indicates that the participation
of broad stakeholders is required for developing and managing sustainable
tourism. Moreover, Waligo et al.
(2012) listed six groups of stakeholders related to tourism development:
government, the local community, tourists, special interest groups, educational
institutions, and industry. Waligo et al. (2012) also cited many
scholars such as Fyall and Garrod (2005); Hall (2000); Jamal and Getz (1995);
and, Ladkin and Bertramini (2002) that mentioned about how the collaboration of
stakeholder can reflect an extensively accepted solution regarding issues in
tourism development due to limited comprehension among various related
stakeholders about the issues and general objectives of tourism development. Meanwhile, in the context of Indonesia, Sutawa
(2012) concluded that sustainable tourism development will be easier to attain if
all related stakeholders participated, particularly in managing all matters
that can produce negative effects on tourism development such as the environmental
and socio cultural damage.
Based on results
of the empirical studies above, it is clear that the collaboration of
stakeholder is important for sustainable tourism development. Yet, in the
Indonesian context, few studies have analyzed the impact of tourism policy on
stakeholder collaboration at the local level, for achieving sustainable tourism
development. Therefore, in this study, I will fill this gap by analyzing the
tourism policy implementation by the local government of Kulon Progo Regency,
part of the Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, which is one of the leading
provinces in Indonesia’s tourism sector, and how the policy affects local
stakeholder collaboration in support of sustainable tourism development,
especially in the context of Dolan Deso Boro tourism site. The results of this
analysis will be the basis of policy recommendations for the Tourism Agency of Kulon
Progo local government to improve its policy formulation for the tourism
sector, particularly in the context of managing better local stakeholder
collaboration to support sustainable tourism development in Kulon Progo
How do the local
government and local stakeholders collaborate to support sustainable tourism
goals at Dolan Deso Boro tourism site?
qualitative study will usepurposive sampling through interviews
(in-depth semi-structured interviews) of key stakeholders, Focus Group
Discussion (FDG), direct observation, documentation (photos, videos, notes, and
audios), and relevant document analysis.
Graci, S. (2013).
Collaboration and partnership development for sustainable tourism. Tourism Geographies, 15:1, 25-42.https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2012.675513.
Indonesia. (2016, December 27). Ranking devisa
pariwisata terhadap komoditas ekspor lainnya Tourism foreign exchange rank
towards others export commodities. Retrieved January 14, 2017, from http://www.kemenpar.go.id/asp/detil.asp?c=87=1198.
Indonesia. (2017, February). Laporan akuntabilitas kinerja Kementerian Pariwisata
tahun 2016 2016 Ministry of Tourism Accountability Performance Report.
Retrieved January 10, 2018, from http://www.kemenpar.go.id/userfiles/LAKIP.pdf.
(2012). Issues on Bali tourism development and community empowerment to support
sustainable tourism development. Procedia
Economics and Finance, 4, 413-422. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(12)00356-5.
Environment Program (UNEP) and World Tourism Organization (WTO). (2005). Making Tourism more sustainable: A guide for
policymakers. Retrieved January 19,
2018, from http://wedocs.unep.org/handle/20.500.11822/8741.
Clarke, J., & Hawkins, R. (2013). Implementing sustainable tourism: A
multi-stakeholder involvement management framework. Tourism Management, 36, 342-353.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.008.
International. (2001). Guidelines for
community-based ecotourism development.
Retrieved June 17, 2017, from http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/WWF_2001_Community_Based_Ecotourism_Develop.pdf