Statement of ProblemAccording to WWFinternational (2011), tourism is the biggest industry in the world based on the calculation of Global GDP’s percentage(11%), the total percentage of employment (more than 10%), and the estimation oftotal tourist travels (1.
6 billion per 2020). Furthermore, WWF International (2001) stated that tourism developmentcan bring positive effects for both nature and community through appropriatetourism or sustainable tourism development such as producing economic opportunities for societies andnations, and raising consciousnessregarding local culture and nature conservation. However, tourism development also can createnegative effects (e.g.
pollution, increased waste, degradation of land andhabitats, and natural resource reduction) in form of irresponsible tourism or unsustainable tourism. Emphasizing appropriate tourism orsustainable tourism development, UNEP and WTO (2005, p.12) defined sustainabletourism as “Tourismthat takes full account of its current and future economic, socialandenvironmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, theenvironment and host communities.”In the contextof Indonesia, a country known worldwide for its rich and unique natural andcultural resources. These resources are essential assets for the development oftourism industry in Indonesia, particularly ecotourism and cultural and ruraltourism.
2015 data from the Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Indonesiarecords that the tourism sector was the fourth largest contributor of staterevenues, (after oil and natural gas, coal, and palm oil) generating a total revenue of12,225.89 million USD (Kementerian Pariwisata Republik Indonesia, 2016). Moreover, by 2019, the Ministry of Tourism ofthe Republic of Indonesia is projectingthat the tourism industry will be the biggest contributing sector to Indonesianstate revenue, 24 million USD (Kementerian Pariwisata Republik Indonesia, 2017). From these data it is clear that, the role oftourism sector is central in Indonesia’s current economy and a key to futureeconomic development. In order toachieve the goal of making tourism as the largest contributing sector forIndonesia in 2019, the Indonesian Government must promote a sustainable tourismdevelopment. One of the essentialfactors for developing a sustainable tourism industry is stakeholder participationthrough collaboration.
Graci (2013) claimed that in developing sustainabletourism industry, collaboration is crucial. Similarly, UNEP and WTO (2005) stated the comprehensiveand fair principles of sustainable development indicates that the participationof broad stakeholders is required for developing and managing sustainabletourism. Moreover, Waligo et al.(2012) listed six groups of stakeholders related to tourism development:government, the local community, tourists, special interest groups, educationalinstitutions, and industry. Waligo et al. (2012) also cited manyscholars such as Fyall and Garrod (2005); Hall (2000); Jamal and Getz (1995);and, Ladkin and Bertramini (2002) that mentioned about how the collaboration ofstakeholder can reflect an extensively accepted solution regarding issues intourism development due to limited comprehension among various relatedstakeholders about the issues and general objectives of tourism development. Meanwhile, in the context of Indonesia, Sutawa(2012) concluded that sustainable tourism development will be easier to attain ifall related stakeholders participated, particularly in managing all mattersthat can produce negative effects on tourism development such as the environmentaland socio cultural damage.
Based on resultsof the empirical studies above, it is clear that the collaboration ofstakeholder is important for sustainable tourism development. Yet, in theIndonesian context, few studies have analyzed the impact of tourism policy onstakeholder collaboration at the local level, for achieving sustainable tourismdevelopment. Therefore, in this study, I will fill this gap by analyzing thetourism policy implementation by the local government of Kulon Progo Regency,part of the Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, which is one of the leadingprovinces in Indonesia’s tourism sector, and how the policy affects localstakeholder collaboration in support of sustainable tourism development,especially in the context of Dolan Deso Boro tourism site. The results of thisanalysis will be the basis of policy recommendations for the Tourism Agency of KulonProgo local government to improve its policy formulation for the tourismsector, particularly in the context of managing better local stakeholdercollaboration to support sustainable tourism development in Kulon ProgoRegency, Indonesia.ResearchQuestionHow do the localgovernment and local stakeholders collaborate to support sustainable tourismgoals at Dolan Deso Boro tourism site?Methodology Thisqualitative study will usepurposive sampling through interviews(in-depth semi-structured interviews) of key stakeholders, Focus GroupDiscussion (FDG), direct observation, documentation (photos, videos, notes, andaudios), and relevant document analysis.ReferencesGraci, S. (2013).Collaboration and partnership development for sustainable tourism.
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