The development of Ghana without an efficient and effectual public sector is impossible. This has besides been the observation of the curate of the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration ( GIMPA ) , Professor Yaw Agyeman Badu. Talking at the 13th Annual Lecture of Public Service Commission ( PSC ) in Accra, he explained that ‘most developed states with capitalist development political orientation owed their success to an efficient public service ‘ . Again, communists ‘ provinces including China, harmonizing to him, have besides demonstrated that ‘rapid development could merely be achieved if public sector direction is improved ‘ ( Badu 2010 ) . The public sector, in consequence, hence plays a major function in seeking to impel a state from a 3rd universe to a first universe position.
He has besides explained that, ‘Although several committees and reform plans have been instituted in efforts to change by reversal the diminution of the public service public presentation, it still had hapless path record for many grounds and that some of the grounds for this include deficiency of vision and clear sense of way, uneffective leading and weak direction, low morale and negative corporate image, inappropriate constructions and systems, inordinate bureaucratism and holds, deficiency of subject and deficit of skilled work force ‘ ( Badu 2010 ) .
Others, he besides added are, ‘corruption, hapless working environment, unequal tools and offices, low wage, low capacity for planning and execution of policy and undertakings and hapless conditions of service ‘ ( Badu, 2010 ) .
Although the above factors could explicate the ground for the low public presentation within our public sectors, it is being argued that, holding good resources in topographic point does non needfully project into accomplishing consequences of improved occupation public presentation but instead a ‘fair and crystalline employee wages and acknowledgment system and other advanced schemes that include supportive on the job environments or positive work clime, occupation enrichment, educational chances, etc. organize the other really of import portion of the equation to transforming the overall context in which employees deliver their work, heighten their motive and better their overall public presentation ‘ ( Ankomah 2007: 1 ) .
Employee wages and acknowledgment is defined as ‘any signifier ( touchable or symbolic ) of grasp that is no-cost or of nominal pecuniary value provided to another person or group, ideally for showing, bettering or accomplishing coveted behaviour or public presentation ‘ ( Nelson 2004:9 ) .
The overall purpose of employee wages and acknowledgment systems, harmonizing to Armstrong, as stated by Ankomah, is ‘to support the attainment of the organisation ‘s strategic and short-run aims by assisting to guarantee that it has the skilled, competent, committed and good – motivated work force ‘ ( 2007: 1 ) .
The wagess and acknowledgment received by employees is a signifier of grasp for their willingness to remain in the organisation and to lend their cognition, accomplishment, attempts and abilities to the accomplishment of organisational ends.
Reward and acknowledgment systems, which are of two types, can easy be distinguished: Monetary, which is being a paid an inducement for a public presentation and Non – Monetary ( NMR ) which is normally referred to as the assorted signifiers of ‘flexible ‘ acknowledgment. Additionally, it can be classified as ‘formal ‘ and ‘natural ‘ or self-generated. ‘Formal acknowledgment is normally the plans instituted to accomplish a specific consequence while natural or self-generated acknowledgment is the negligible attempt, smallest cost every bit good as congratulationss, written notes, etc. ‘ ( Liz Prudden n.d ) .
Although there has been many arguments around which manner is seen as the best motivation factor, research workers support self-generated Non-monetary Wagess and acknowledgment systems as the most efficient agencies through which employees can be motivated to make keeping ends. Harmonizing to the Business Research Lab ( Hauppauge, N.Y. ) , ‘there is a correlativity between the length of clip people plan to remain in their organisations and ‘soft ‘ factors like the acknowledgment given for a good occupation done. The relationship is, they say, is more statistically important than the longevity/monetary wages correlativity ‘ ( 2012 ) .
Again, it has been noted that, although there is a relationship between pecuniary wages and the privation to stay in an organisation, the relationship is rather weak. ( Medical Surveys.Net n.d )
At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, proprietors of concerns and fabricating mercantile establishments compensated workers at degrees that provided for merely a little more than physical endurance. However, over the past hundred old ages pecuniary systems in the signifier of pecuniary wagess and compensation have evolved into more complex systems which have considered several factors to guarantee the accomplishment of organisational ends. They have been used to act upon public presentation and to actuate workers to present at high degrees within their organisations and now face the challenge of being able to equilibrate and fulfill the differing demands and outlooks of the diverse work force of employees within public organisations ( Duah 2011: 2 ) . For how long can pecuniary wagess be used as a scheme for bettering employee public presentation, following the lifting economic state of affairs? Besides, logically, and based on interviews by the research worker, most employees, whether in the public sector or private sector, will in most instances demand a higher wage. This could be explained by the limitless demands and wants of people. Monetary wagess could hence be seen non to hold excessively much consequence on employee public presentation. McClelland ( 1975:23 ) has besides contributed to the fact that although pecuniary wagess may be of import to employees, there are several other factors that better motivate employees within organisations.
‘Motivation relates to a scope of psychological procedures that guide an single towards a end and causes that person to maintain pursuing that end ‘ ( Sadri and Clarke 2011:45 ) . Kreitner and Kinicki postulate that motive represents ‘psychological processs that give evidences for encouraged, directed and determined voluntary actions for the accomplishment of ends ‘ ( 1992:162 ) . Despite many surveies on the subject of better employee motivational factors, directors today are no closer to a better apprehension than their opposite numbers more than a half of century ago ( Kirstein 2010:1 ) . This could be attributed to the complexness of covering with human resource.
As life conditions continue to alter, self satisfaction of employees are merely being achieved when better and different wages and acknowledgment systems are demanded. This has created terrible relationships between employees and employers. Employees have great outlooks from the employment relationship which can non be overlooked by direction of organisations when strategizing wages and acknowledgment systems. If employees are non good rewarded and recognized, it becomes about impossible to actuate them and they may non be committed to the organisation which intend translates into low productiveness and hence hapless organisational public presentation. This, the research worker believes is the job harming the populace sector.
Now, since the development of Ghana relies mostly on the success of the populace sector which besides depends mostly on the handiness and quality of well-motivated human resource, there is the demand for the human resource within our public sectors to be good motivated.
This paper hence seeks to place and measure Non-monetary wages and acknowledgment systems as a scheme aspirant to heighten better committedness, trueness, difficult work, etc. from employees within public sectors.
Statement of the job
Ghana, in achieving a in-between income position must tap and develop the full potencies of her human resources in all facets and sectors of the economic system. One country that merits thorough scrutiny in position of possible for socio-economic development of workers is the proviso of good, welcoming wages and acknowledgment systems.
The increasing figure of work stoppages undertaken by workers particularly in the populace sector, every bit good as their refusal to negociate for salary increases, coupled with low employee keeping in organisations, as observed, show the value employees place on pecuniary wagess. Besides, alterations in demographics are taking to the desire of workers for higher position and acknowledgment in their workplaces. Obviously, many employees are inscribing into assorted establishments of higher instruction to obtain higher making, this could be to derive increased acknowledgment in future, and non needfully for increased wages. This is grounds to back up the fact that, in public sectors and likely for all employees, worker end product goes beyond the degree of compensation of workers to a degree of the acknowledgment of what one does in lending his quota to the development of a state as a whole. The just rewards and wages Commission has confirmed the above claim by its statement that ‘although the public sector pay measure over the last two decennaries has observed a major addition in Gross Domestic Product ( 11.3 % ) , public sector employee public presentation continues to diminish ‘ ( Fair rewards and wages committee, n.d ) .
As clients who patronize the services of public sector organisations continually complain of hapless services, the job lies in how public organisations will be able to plan attractive Non-monetary wages and acknowledgment schemes, investigate which signifiers of these systems will outdo motivate workers to set in more attempt at what they do to guarantee uninterrupted addition in degrees of productiveness and organisational success, and dig more into its execution.
Besides, another issue of critical importance is how the populace sector organisations can utilize these schemes to battle the pronouncement and perceptual experience that the private sector is better rewarded and recognized and hence is the lone engine of growing in Ghana.
What is the state of affairs of Non-monetary wages and acknowledgment systems within the populace sector?
Are at that place Non-monetary wagess and acknowledgments present public establishments?
Which signifiers of NMRRS do employees see really motivational?
Are employees rewarded and recognized often?
Make employees presume money the ultimate incentive?
Amidst several other challenges within the populace sector, do employees see Non-monetary wagess and acknowledgment systems a scheme to increase productiveness degrees?
How make employees comprehend the construct of Non-monetary wages acknowledgment systems.
1.4 Aims of the Study
The aims of this survey are:
to measure the Non-monetary wages and acknowledgment systems, if any, at assorted public establishments within the banking industry and how frequently employees receive these signifiers of NMRRS,
to measure how of import employees perceive signifiers of Non-monetary wages and acknowledgments ( per centum ) as compared to its penchant to pecuniary wagess,
to analyze if motive from these Non-monetary wagess and acknowledgment systems will interpret into uninterrupted betterment in public presentation and productiveness,
to compare some private establishments, and be able to sketch the defects that exist within the public establishments under research, and,
to measure the general perceptual experience of employees on the construct of NMRRS.
Significance of the Study
This survey is expected to be of great significance to the following groups:
Academia: This research will be of relevancy in academe since it provides of import information for farther research in the capable country.
Institution: This research is expected to function as relevant stuff for pupil mention on affairs associating to honor and recognition within public sectors in Ghana. The information and findings have been organized to back up learning on the topic every bit good.
Government and policy shapers: This research provides relevant information on issues of wages and acknowledgment systems within the public sector in Ghana and can be used as a secondary informations beginning by authorities and other policy preparation bureaus and establishments.
Leaderships in the public sectors: This research provides relevant information for Human Resource Management practicians and professionals in make up one’s minding on issues associating to utilizing the Non-monetary system in honoring and acknowledging their employees.
1.6 Scope of the survey
This research focuses on issues associating to the Non – pecuniary facet of wagess and acknowledgment within some public establishments in Ghana. The undermentioned establishments would be studied ;
Ghana commercial bank
Agriculture Development Bank
National Investment Bank
Indeed restraints faced such as hapless client service, late client bringing, increased backing within the private fiscal establishments have necessitated concentration on the above establishments. The establishments being studied are among the of import public establishments peculiarly within the banking industry in Ghana and hence there are no important differences between what happens in these organisations and what happens in other public establishments in Ghana, with respects to wagess and acknowledgment systems.
As control, some private establishments will be selected to enable comparing. This comparing, hopefully, would foreground the facets of the ‘perceived ‘ good wages and acknowledgment systems experienced within the private sector, which the populace sector is non implementing. Koforidua which is the capital metropolis of the Eastern part of Ghana will be the focal point of research since it has witnessed the gap of a figure of private fiscal establishments within the last twosome of old ages and has been observed to be increasing in client base.
The selected private establishments are ;
1.7 Restrictions of the survey
A restriction the research worker is concerned with is whether the findings of this research can be generalized to other public organisations. Another restriction the research worker foresees in carry oning this research is the deficiency of equal clip. This research will be constrained by the deficiency of equal clip to make an extended research into other establishments within the public sector. Time restraint is due to the deadline stipulated for the presentation of this research.
Beginnings of informations
Primary informations: Through interviews, questionnaires and observations.
Secondary informations: Diaries, e-journals, text books etc.
1.9 Research population
The research population for this research will be all employees from all the selected establishments.
1.10 Method of research
This research will concentrate merely on primary informations which will be acquired with the aid of face-to-face interviews and the distribution of questionnaires. The information and information collected will be analyzed utilizing statistical tools which will do it easier to pull some decisions on findings.
1.11 Organization of survey
This paper is presented in five chapters. Chapter two of the survey focuses on reappraisal of related literature, Chapter Three discusses in item the methodological analysis used for the research. Chapter four contains presentation and analysis of findings and eventually Chapter five nowadayss research worker ‘s drumhead, decisions and recommendations. Relevant mentions and appendices have besides been presented at the terminal of the thesis.