Abstraction: There were some barriers to develop Islamic tourism- unequal research activities, appropriate images, proper policy and guidelines, selling jobs and deficiency of coordination were staying in this part.
The purpose of this touristry was to obtain the satisfaction of Allah and attractive force to the tourers. Tourism is the 2nd largest income bring forthing sector of Malaysia. Islamic touristry is a new touristry finish in the universe today. Through this touristry, spiritual responsibility was performed every bit good as cognition achieved for wider dimension. International and domestic tourer reaching informations for Malaysia and East Coast Economic Region used in this survey. The survey revealed that there were immense chances to develop Islamic touristry in the East Coast Economic Region and a batch of natural beauties, cultural and archaeological heritage, historic civilisations, and spiritual topographic points, which might be possible touristry finishs. Assorted organisations including Organisation of Islamic Conference can play critical function in this respect.
So, if Malaysia develop the Islamic touristry in East Coast Economic Region, the present and future coevalss will cognize the glorious heritage of Islam and it besides ensures their economic sustainability.Cardinal words: Islamic touristry, Satisfiction, Attract, East Coast Economic Region.
Tourism is one of the largest gaining sectors of Malaysia. Tourism industry effects positively on the Malayan economic system for increasing foreign exchange net incomes, and employment chances.
World Tourism Organization ( 2005 ) addresses that Malaysia topographic point 14th in the ranking of counties by international touristry reachings. Tourist reachings to Malaysia rank figure three after Britain and Canada among the 53 Commonwealth states. By 2005, touristry industry is a cardinal foreign exchange earner for Malaysia, lending to over 40 % of the state ‘s balance of payment ( EPU, 2006 ) . The touristry sector generated US $ 18.1 billion in export gross, stand foring 10.1 % of exports in 2006, doing the 2nd largest subscriber of foreign exchange net incomes to the state after the fabrication sector ( WTTC, 2006 ) . Before its dependance in 1957, the Malayan economic system was to a great extent dependent on primary trade goods chiefly tin, gum elastic, palm oil and crude oil merchandises.
The Malayan authorities has serious attending to develop touristry industry after lessening in oil and the universe economic recession in the center of the eightiess. The Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism had established in 1987 and subsequently upgraded it to the Ministry of Tourism in 2004 ( Fateh Habibi et Al, 2009 ) . The authorities has allocated sum of fund to tourism industry besides supplying sufficient basic substructure. Malayan authorities has been passing RM1.8 billion under the Ninth Malaysian Plan ( 2006-2010 ) , on upgrading tourer finishs and substructure, every bit good as on selling publicities in major beginning markets ( Government Malaysia, 2006 ) .Assorted attempts have been taken by the authorities to do Malaysia as one of the developed state in Asia.
Economic part through touristry sector has become one of the chief subscribers to the state ‘s economic system. Physical and substructure development have been given precedence by the authorities and established touristry undertakings with touristry attractive forces for their economic chances ( Jamil Jusoh et al. ) . Malaysia is a state with diverse life styles, cultural groups, and faiths here populating together peacefully. Islam is its official faith, but the citizen may pattern any faith. Temples, mosques, and churches are frequently situated in the same country of the state.
After independency, Malayan concerns over western influences impeded touristry development ( Din, 1982 ) .Tourism development continued with vision for national development, Civilization Islam, progressivity in analogue with Islamic instructions ( Islam Hadhari, 2005 ) . The chief aim of Civilization Islam, socioeconomic development, counters the socioeconomic underdevelopment that hinders tourism in many Muslim states. The state ‘s multi-religious population and the tenseness between Islamic modernisation and revivalism provide an interesting research context for touristry development ( Din, 1989 ) . The universe ‘s 57 Muslim states have earned less than 10 % of planetary touristry grosss. The four states that dominate Muslim tourism-Morocco, Egypt, Turkey, and Malaysia-received 17.5 million tourers in 2004 ( Islamic states Seek Bigger Piece of Tourism Pie, 2005 ) .Tourism is related to assorted facets of Islam.
Several research workers have given stress on how Islam supported in different touristry activities to heighten spiritual and societal maps. In Islam, prompt the Muslim to go for seeking the beauty and making escapade of Allah. Every twelvemonth over a million of Muslim visit Saudi Arab in the clip of Hajj. Again about 0.2 million people visit Bangladesh every twelvemonth in the intent of World Ejtema.
Din ( 1989 ) emphasizes the influence of the faith on touristry motions and policies in Islamic states as a whole, reasoning that travel is comparatively low in volume. Some Muslim states find tourers more acceptable than others, depending on the grade of liberalism every bit good as personal additions and losingss. The determination about whether Muslim finishs should seek to run into the demands of international tourers and have hazard when the visitants are following of Muslim traditions or non ( Henderson, 2003 ) . Although Muslim individualities are non unvarying ( el Zein, 1977 ) , because have struggles over nutrient, frock, behavior and spiritual and societal observations. The Organization of Islamic Conference ( OIC ) have emphasized for developing the touristry activities in the member states.
The OIC has held two Tourism Curates Meetings and a conference since 2000 which have discussed spread outing touristry through improved research and preparation, selling and upgraded substructure. In these meetings, talkers give much of the accent is on touristry as a vehicle for reenforcing the solidarity of the Islamic community. They besides discuss the ways for sing non-Muslim visitants are more acceptable in Muslim states and there is acknowledgment of the value of working with the World Tourism Organization and other international bureaus. Greater travel by Muslims within the Islamic universe could take to better apprehension, stimulate coaction and serve the common good. At the latest meeting, the talkers have advised making more Muslim circuit bundles devoted to a Muslim heritage which has been mostly ignored ( Sayed, 2001 ) . The Islamic Development Bank ( IDB ) , expressed support for touristry in conformity with the Shariah. The bank has allocated fund for touristry development in Muslim states in this connexion. The purpose of this survey is to obtain the potency to develop Islamic touristry in Malaysia and ECER in order to acquire the satisfaction of Allah and attractive force to the tourers.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
The survey is conducted in University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi since January, 2010 to December, 2010. The information for analysis is perceived from the secondary beginnings. The important uses for acquired informations are Muslim touristry on East Coast Economic Region ( ECER ) , Malaysia. The corresponding results are demonstrated from the analysis of collected informations.
Muslim Tourism: Tourism is traditionally closely linked to faith which has acted as a powerful motivation for going. Religious edifices, rites, festivals and spiritual events are of import tourer attractive forces for those are the followings of the peculiar systems of belief represented ( Henderson, 2003 ) . The development of touristry in Europe and the Middle East, uncovering different forms partially linked to spiritual philosophy ( Ritter, 1975 ) . Now, research has been conducted for placing relationship in assorted facets of faith and touristry. The commercial potency of the spiritual travel market has besides been highlighted in the Muslim states ( Bywater, 1994 ; Russell, 1999 ) . Muslim touristry is a new touristry finish in the universe today. There are 54 Muslim states in the universe. Most of the states situated in an of import nervus point of the universe.
Due to the geographical and economic importance of Muslim states, this touristry increases twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. Islamic touristry will be celebrated in those states every bit good as all over the universe. Muslim touristry is non one type of touristry, in the instance of secular touristry. This touristry would assist to widen the chances for rational probe.
Some bookmans have been depicting this touristry as spiritual touristry besides. It is of two types: touristry through which a spiritual responsibility is performed, and touristry by which cognition is recorded and quoted for wider airing. Should the purpose of this be to obtain the Blessings of God, it would accomplish another nonsubjective – and that is to pull tourers. Islam has encouraged touristry for the faithful in the pattern of life ‘s personal businesss and to obtain experience and adulthood. For case, Muslims from Andalusia to China, India, Persia and Turkey to Indonesia hold traversed the Earth by the orders of God, both in hunt of work and to get cognition ( Jubayr, 2002 ) .
Muslim touristry has a great impact on the tourers and travellers every bit good as on Muslim societies.
East Coast Economic Region: Malaya is a moderate Muslim state of south-east Asia. There are a batch of Islamic substructures, mosques, Muslim heritage sites in Malaysia. This state besides has attractive Muslim civilizations and imposts.
So, the state may be an Muslim touristry finish in the universe. Tourism Malaysia has sold the state as a safe finish with a familiar civilization which is able to provide to Islamic travelers in the state ( The Straits Times, 2002 ) . The Eastern Coast Economic Region ( ECER ) involves three E seashore provinces of Malaysia, viz. Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and some parts of Johor. It is formed to be focused on the socio-economic and industrial development of the part. East Malaysia is still exposed to the privileging of Islam and gives precedence the hard-on and renovation of mosques and other Islamic substructures confirms the attached to its avowal by the federal powers ( Cleary, 1997 ) . State Mosque and Islamic Museum in Kelantan, State Mosque of Pahang, Batu Bersurat, Masjid Abidin, Masjid Tengku Tengah Zaharah, Masjid Kampung Tuan, Kota Lama Duyong and Islamic Civilization Park in Terengganu are the celebrated Islamic touristry finish in this part.
The present survey discusses the potency of Islamic touristry in ECER every bit good as Malaysia. The survey besides addressed the barriers of advancing Islamic touristry and necessary actions for developing this touristry in Malaysia.Table 1: International Tourists Arrival in OIC and MalaysiaTourist Arrivals ( million )Market Share ( % )Growth Rate ( % )1990199520001990199520001990-1995World Sum457.2550.3696.71001001003.
47.510.221.617.815.50.3Beginning: World Tourism OrganizationTable 1 reveals that in OIC states international tourers ‘ reaching were 34.3, 42.
9 and 65.6 1000000s in the twelvemonth 1990, 1995, and 2000 severally. In these old ages market portions of international tourers ‘ reaching were 7.5 % , 7.8 % , and 9.
4 % in footings of universe markets. The growing rates of international tourers ‘ reaching were 4.5 % and 8.
9 % on 1990-1995 and 1995-2000 periods severally. On the other manus, Malaysia attracted 7.4, 7.
5 and 10.2 million international tourers ‘ and market portions of international tourers ‘ reachings were 21.6 % , 17.8 % , and 15.5 % in footings of OIC markets on the twelvemonth 1990, 1995, and 2000 severally.
The growing rates of international tourers ‘ reaching were 0.3 % and 6.3 % on 1990-1995 and 1995-2000 periods severally.Table 2: International Tourists Arrival in top 10 OIC CountriesState19961997199819992000Turkey46976372605537325925Malaya187811267115674947United arab republic18872380141728253272Dutch east indies39082910222923572552Maroc13741133128814401610Tunisia11601126132213211233Syria652468437401442Jordan362376420440335Bahrein154189224249300Maldives228247261280298Beginning: World Tourism OrganizationTable 2 shows that international tourer ‘s reaching in top 10 OIC states during 1996-2000. In 1996 Malaysia was 4th place to reaching of international tourers. But in 2000, Malaysia reached 2nd place among the OIC states ‘ by their touristry friendly activities.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 1: Foreign tourer reachingsFigure 1 examines the foreign tourer reachings in Malaysia and three east seashore provinces during 1996-2006.
The growing of foreign tourer reachings to Malaysia has been increasing from 7.13 million in 1996 to 17.55 million in 2006 and mean one-year growing rate ( AAGR ) of 9.41 % . The east seashore provinces have displayed besides increasing tendency in foreign tourer reachings. The AAGR are 6.53 % , 1.
91 % and 8.02 % in Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang provinces severally.Figure 2: Domestic tourer reachingsFigure 2 reveals the domestic tourer reachings in three east seashore provinces during 1996-2006. The east seashore provinces have shown increasing tendency in domestic tourer reachings on the twelvemonth 2006 than the twelvemonth 1996. The AAGR of domestic tourer reachings are 9.7 % , 4.31 % and 11.
9 % in Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang provinces severally.Table-3: Prognosis of Foreign Tourist Arrivals, Malaysia and the ECER, 2005-2020No. of Foreign Tourists in Base Year 2005201020152020Annual Average Growth Rate ( % )
High Optimistic16,431,05528,189,76248,363,45982,974,24511.4Base16,431,05524,585,90136,788,05355,046,2178.4Low Pessimistic16,431,05521,373,95527,803,81236,167,9425.
High- Optimistic1,918,5353,292,2196,175,32711,079,11611.9Base1,918,5352,872,1534,709,4067,378,4378.9Low- Pessimistic1,918,5352,495,6823,566,4194,862,5455.9Beginning: ECER Master PlanTable 3 nowadayss prognosiss of foreign tourer reachings to Malaysia and the ECER on the footing of three scenarios: Base, High and Low. In the Base scenario, the 9th Malayan Plan prognosis of AAGR of 8.4 % is adopted, but the ECER increase its portion and the AAGR is assumed to lift to 9.4 % . For the part, on the footing of Base scenario, foreign tourer reachings would be expected to number 2.
872 million ( 2010 ) , 4.709 million ( 2015 ) and some 7.378 million by 2020.
Table 4: Prognosis of Domestic Tourist Arrivals in the ECER, 2005-2020No. of Domestic Tourists in Base Year 2005201020152020Annual Average Growth Rate ( % )High8,307,92113,078,65120,588,91932,411,8749.5Base8,307,92111,382,57215,595,10921,366,6526.5Low8,307,9219,867,20411,719,14313,918,6653.5Beginning: ECER Master PlanTable 4 shows the prognosiss of foreign tourer reachings to Malaysia and the ECER on the footing of 3 scenarios: Base, High and Low. In the Base scenario, the 9th Malayan Plan prognosis of AAGR of 6.5 % for ECER is predicted and under this scenario some 11.
3 million domestic tourers are expected to see in 2010, over 15.6 million by 2015 and 21.4 million by 2020.
Potential to develop Islamic touristry in Malaysia and ECER:
Tourism is the dominate and imaging industry in Malaysia. It is a purposeful activity in Islam that aims to accomplish physical, societal and religious ends. The physical end leads to a healthy and stress-free life, which later lets Muslims service God better. Islam encourages sing Muslim brothers, as this helps beef up among Muslim community. The religious end reinforces one ‘s entry to God through the beauty and premium of God ‘s creative activity ( Hashim et al ) .
So, the instruction of Islam influences to heighten the touristry activities in Muslim states. In December 2004, World Tourism Organization ( WTO ) nominated Malaysia among 38 states as the universe ‘s top emerging touristry finishs. Malaysia has a immense chances to develop Islamic touristry for economic sustainability every bit good as carry through the spiritual sprit. The chief advantages ECER of Malaysia in this respect are as follows:Natural beauties: Malaysia has a batch of full natural resources and beauties. Specially, ECER has beautiful and untasted coastlines, mountains, waterfalls, alien birds and wildlife, sea beaches, Mangrove and tropical wood, beautiful islands and lakes.Cultural and archaeological heritage: Heritage touristry is now a possible touristry finish.
The provinces in ECER of Malaysia have riche Islamic traditions and imposts along with each state ‘s self civilizations. In Kuala Lumpur, Twin Tower is the 2nd highest edifice in the universe. Those are attractive to the all type ‘s tourers.Historic heritages: There are some historic heritages were established in the three E seashore parts of Malaysia. Therefore, a batch of historic sites, edifice and mosques were situated in this country. Among them, Kota Bharu Handicraft Village and Craft Museum, Royal Museum, State Museum, Istana Balai Besar of Kelantan, Cottage industries, Colonial architecture of Kuala Lipis, Assorted edifices in the Royal town of Pekan, Sungai Lembing Museum, sultan Abu Bakar museum, Humanistic disciplines and Cultural Centre of Pahang, Desa Craft Handicraft Centre, Traditional boat-building, Istana Maziah, Traditional houses, Bukit Besi, State Museum Complex of Terengganu are mentionable.
Islamic heritage and topographic points: East seashore parts are host of Islamic heritages and holiest topographic points. Among them, State Mosque and Islamic Museum of Kelantan, State Mosque of Pahang and Masjid Abidin, Masjid Tengku Tengah Zaharah, Kota Lama Duyong and Masjid Kampung Tuan of Terengganu are may be suited finish for Islamic touristry.Historic events: Every twelvemonth several plans have arranged depends on some historic sites of ECER. Landing of Nipponese military personnels on 1941 at Kota Bharu in Kelantan, Bukit Keledang, Bukit Puteri and Pulau Bidong of Terengganu may be selected in this respect. Muslim touristry can be operated by focus oning these type ‘s historic topographic points. In malice of immense chances, Malaysia non yet develop Islamic touristry for some restrictions. These are ;Inadequate research activities: Tourism is a researchable affair. There are immense research have been carry oning all over the universe on this subject.
Research workers engaged to look into and happen out how touristry may be a tool for sustainable development, livelihood security and economic development. But Malaysia have non proper and equal enterprises to research on Islamic touristry.Appropriate images: Islamic touristry has n’t developed as a possible touristry finish in Malaysia. For this ground, this touristry non pull the tourers enormously. As a consequence, Islaic touristry non develop appropriate image in Malaysia.Proper policy and guidelines: Malaya could non develop common policy and scheme for Islamic touristry. Even they are non yet able to construct up proper international relationship in this point.Marketing job: Some touristry dominated states follow modern and suited selling scheme for developing their touristry industry.
They besides focus their touristry topographic points to the tourers with market oriented ways. Due to proper selling scheme, Islamic touristry could non concentrate extremely among the tourers.Lack of co-ordination: Tourism oriented states have developed assorted understandings and co-operations among them in this sector for increasing concern chance. Lack of these type ‘s co-operations between Muslim states and bureaus have deprived Malaysia from the benefits of Islamic touristry sector.
Recommendations to develop Islamic touristry in ECER of Malaysia:
Malaya can guarantee an Muslim touristry market in the state by strong and positive function. By using the touristry potency in all over the state, Malaysia has taken inaugural to further this sector for their economic benefit.
The undermentioned stairss will be taken in this respect.Develop substructure and communicating: In the touristry topographic points must be ensured proper substructure and communicating to pull the tourers. Islamic resorts and hotels, every bit good as Islamic finishs will determine the touristry activities ; alcohol-free adjustments in which gender-segregation and the frock codification will be purely respected and controlled ; available prayer-rooms on site ; and “ Islamic ” transit installations ( Hamarneh & A ; Steiner, 2004 ) .Arranged Islamic touristry events: Malaya should be arranged gender segregated athletics and health installations and “ Islamic ” amusement plans in touristry topographic points. Elementss of this construct are already implemented by Saudi Arabia and Iran in their touristry industry.
Positive media function: Media can play a critical function to further Islamic touristry activities. They besides encourage that touristry by their positive engagement. Malaysia can set up satellite channel, newspaper and other media house for advancing Islamic touristry.Proper selling: Malaya can use suited selling scheme for developing touristry.
They must be constructing up positive image as a Muslim state to concentrate the Islamic touristry.Co-ordination between Muslim states: Malaya can set up joint touristry bundles with other Muslaim states to pull immense tourers. By this bundle plans they can guarantee broader economic activities for the state.
Proper function of OIC: OIC is the highest platform for the Muslim universe. Malaysia can make and keep an international linkage with OIC to increase their touristry activities.Additions tourism research: Malaya should be allocated necessary financess for uninterrupted research activities in Islamic touristry. They can set up research institutes and patronize the touristry scholars in this respect.
Muslim touristry is a manner to execute the spiritual responsibility.
By this touristry Muslims have to ask for the whole universe towards the way of Islam. It may be an economic tool for the Muslim states. Malaya can immense put in Islamic touristry. Otherwise, they can make economic engagement and occupation chances for hapless Muslim states people by this touristry activities.
As a consequence, there is a balance status will stay in the economic sector of the Muslim universe. “ Muslim touristry ” has a opportunity to win as a portion of multiple constructs for touristry developments. Intra-Arab and intra-Muslim touristry may so lend to stabilising the national touristry industries and have the ability to play a positive function as interpolations and auxiliary options in the touristry landscape ( Hamarneh & A ; Steiner, 2004 ) . East coast part is good mix of royal, spiritual, historic and cultural resources with in Malaysia.
For these suited status, ECER has immense chances to develop Islamic touristry. So, if Malaysia develop the Islamic touristry in ECER, the present and future coevalss will cognize the glorious heritage of Islam and it besides ensures the economic sustainability of local people.
Fiscal aid provided by the Research University Grant ( GUP ) , Institute for Environment and Development, University Kebangsaan Malaysia is appreciatively acknowledged.