Tourism seeks greener grazing lands for its growing and in this century every dimension of human civilization has the possible to go a ‘tourism merchandise ‘ . Estimating the potency of assortment, the merchandises that are offered in new age touristry varied from alternate mending methodological analysiss, avenues for aesthetic development, discourses by religious gurus and advanced touristry patterns. This assortment in touristry merchandise resulted in the development of Centres of attractive force, which are about three times more growing potency than the authoritative touristry market. Kerala is considered as the first State in India, which had initiated stairss to work the emerging market of new age touristry and is now supplying with broad and varied Centres of attractive force like aesthetic development, experiential and individualized self-development, and alternate attacks to wellness attention. This survey is of the position that there is a demand for Certification of these New Centers of tourer attractive forces which will guarantee quality of service provide and eventually will hike touristry in Kerala.
The history of touristry industry depicts a image of exponential growing and increasing diverseness. The figure of activities and experiences that can be categorised as touristry has increased significantly and now every dimension of human civilization has the possible to go a ‘tourism merchandise ‘ . It is justly opined that touristry seeks for greener grazing lands to turn and spread out. It unambiguously celebrates ‘differences ‘ in topographic points and peoples to make fresh experiences ( Tejvir, 2004 ) . Estimating the potency of assortment, the merchandises that are offered with new age touristry varied from alternate mending methodological analysiss, avenues for aesthetic development, discourses by religious gurus and advanced touristry patterns. This assortment in touristry merchandise resulted in the development of Centres of attractive force, which are about three times more growing potency than the authoritative touristry market. Now tourist finishs are non seen as set of distinguishable natural, cultural, artistic and environmental resources but as an overall merchandise, a complex and incorporate bundle offered by a district able to provide a vacation, which meets the varied demands of the tourer ( Maria and Peter, 2006 ) .
The New Age cabal has grown significantly since its outgrowth in the 1950 ‘s and 1960 ‘s ( Dallen and Daniel, 2006 ) . Originally, it was a counter-cultural motion, interacting with other counter-cultural motions of that clip, such as the ecology, hippy, and commune motions. During the last decennaries, religious and esoteric methods have been popularized and commercialized by an spread outing market of literature and workshops. This has made New Age a socially accepted phenomenon and it has therefore lost much of its anti-modernist and culture-critical character.
Aim of the survey
The chief aim framed for this survey is to analyze the available potency of touristry in Kerala vis-a-vis to the New Age Tourists. The other aims are as follows
To place the basic motives of tourers sing Kerala.
To analyse the socio-demographic profile and the image of the finish from the tourer position.
To analyze the activities undertaken by tourers and the use of use of touristry mediators and providers.
The new age finishs are confronting a challenge to pull off and form their resources in order to provide a vacation experience that must be equal to or better than the alternate finishs experiences on the market ( Maria and Peter, 2006 ) . Hence Kerala can be considered as the first State in India, which had initiated stairss to work the emerging market of new age touristry. As is justly opined by Professor Peter Cochrane ‘Travel has long been with us. Virtual world is good upon us. Experience is already being revealed in touristry to the extent that it may now be the cardinal aim of today ‘s traveller ‘ ( Khan, 1997 ) . It is this impulse of the present twenty-four hours traveller which made the touristry governments in Kerala to developed broad and varied centres of attractive force like aesthetic development ( Kalamandalam – art, play and music ) ; experiential and individualized self-development, ( classs on speculation, personal relationships and self cognition and eventually, classs on alternate attacks to wellness attention ( Ayurveda massage for organic structure greening ) . Furthermore, it can besides be opined that the primary sector comprising of agricultural allied operations is dead and touristry is considered one of the alternate scheme that can be adopted to renew the economic system particularly in the rural country ( Tribe, 1995 ) . During the last decennary, one can witness the development of tourer resorts where bundles are provided where all the above comfortss are clubbed together. The survey country was restricted to Kovalam, Varkala, Guruvayoor, Vallikavu, Kumarakom and Munnar. Out of this Kovalam and Varkal are beach resorts, Munnar, the celebrated hill resort and Gurvayoor and Vallikavu are spiritual centres.
Both primary and secondary information was used for the survey. Through the primary study, we tried to analyze the demographic profile, visitant motive, activities indulged at the Centre and continuance of stay. Statistical tools like correlativity analysis were used to analyze the outgo form and continuance of stay of these visitants.
Consequences and Discussions
Driven by a floaty economic system and addition in the buying power of the in-between category population along with the lifting involvement towards oriental civilization and values, one can witness an increasing displacement of touristry traffic towards India. From the Figure – 1.1, it is clear that the tourer flow to India is demoing an increasing tendency. Merely the moths April to June can be considered as slump period while peal flow is observed during the tourer season October to February.
* = ProvisionalA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A SourceA : A Ministry of Tourism, GOI
Similarly, merely the off season period between April-May, one can detect a short autumn in the tourist net incomes. The attempts made by the Cardinal authorities along with the sufficient support of assorted State Governments to do touristry a yearlong matter, can be clearly observed in the Figure – 1.2 shown below.
* = ProvisionalA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A SourceA : A Ministry of Tourism, GOI
Though with huge possible and diverseness in the merchandises that can be offered by India, yet it ranks merely twenty-second. Hence, India was non able to tackle its multiplier effects for employment and poorness obliteration. The recent policy alterations like liberalisation in air power sector, rationalisation of revenue enhancement rates in the cordial reception sector, tourer friendly visa government etc is imperative to hike the touristry sector in India.
Tourism in Kerala
Domestic tourer reachings ( excepting pilgrims ) rose from 52.40 hundred thousand in 2001 to 59.46 hundred thousand in 2005. Thus in five old ages, one-year growing rate for foreign and domestic tourer reachings are severally 13.27 % and 2.69 % . Harmonizing to the survey of World Travel and Tourism Council ( WTTC ) on touristry sector in the State, Travel and Tourism generates every bit much as 7.7 % of GSP and 6.2 % of entire employment. Visitor exports ( touristry grosss ) are worked out as 14.3 % of the entire export of the State.
Net incomes from Tourism
Beginning: Economic Review, 2006.
Figure – 1.3 provides a clear penetration into the net incomes from Tourism between 2001 – 2005. It can be observed that the foreign exchange net incomes during 2005 is Rs. 1552.31 Crores and the entire net incomes from the touristry sector is Rs. 7738 Crores. The Economic Review high spots that the Tourism sector employs around 10 Lakhs individuals in the State.
As per the estimations of World Tourism Organization ( WTO ) , propelled by the touristry and concern travel roar, India needs an extra 300,000 by the twelvemonth 2020. When we analyzed the enlargement program of assorted tourer markets in India, it is observed that Kerala is considered as a possible tourer zone, yet the enlargement program should be farther strengthened to suit the demands of the tourers. Figure 1.3 illustrates the new room supply expected to be included in the cardinal tourer zones.
Potential of Spiritual Tourism in Kerala
It is the Greeks and the Romans who cultivated the quest of good being through Spiritual touristry. One can besides detect that the followings of bulk of the faiths used to set about religious journeys at least one time in a twelvemonth. It is justly opined by Timothy Dallen that religious touristry as the “ oldest and now one of the fastest-growing sections in the travel industry. ” The new strain of religious travellers likes to bask religious enlightenment without giving up their amenitiess, which resulted in this being added as an of import constituent of ‘New Age Tourism ‘ ( Greg, 2007 ) .
Assorted surveies had pointed out that many 1000s of tourers visit India for assorted types of religious interactions with ‘diety ‘ or ‘godman ‘ . Though there are reserves against comodifying faith and to set holy topographic points into topographic point visible radiation for mass ingestion and to do holy things unhallowed, yet one can detect that the lines between mass tourers and spiritual tourers are going progressively blurred. Even religious touristry is seen by many authorities and touristry functionaries as a manner to either diversifying or salvage fighting economic systems ( Dallen and Daniel, 2006 ) .
There exist difference of sentiment about whether religious touristry is related to escape from the ego to an wholly different environment that offers pure relaxation, or, an chance to renegociate one ‘s topographic point in the universe and relationships. In utmost instances, it might be about confrontation of the universe ‘s darker side and human calamity, a reminder of one ‘s mortality and topographic point in a cosmopolitan rhythm ( Steiner and Reisinger, 2006 ) . This sort of geographic expedition arguably has philosophical and religious dimensions, which can do one ‘s minor problems, seem comparatively undistinguished. Katusuhiko Yazaki who is the Nipponese mail-order multimillionaire opined that ‘We can non happen true significance in life by busying broad abodes. At some point people will necessitate to raise their desires to a higher degree ‘ ( Khan, 1997 ) . His semblance is that we have material ownerships but for fulfillment, we need something beyond them, which urged the present twenty-four hours traveller to set about religious journeys of self-discovery. These religious journeys make the traveller feel that he is merely a infinitesimal constituent in the monolithic super construction called Universe.
The survey observed that bulk of the tourers selected for the survey falls in the age group 35 – 45 and 45 – 55. It is surprising to observe that in both the groups bulk of them is from the female group instead than male. This can be attributed to male self-importance, which refrain them talking aloud about their personal life or troubles. The survey besides observed that there exists a positive correlativity ( +.73 ) between income and outgo on religious journeys. Majority of the tourers are from the higher income group due to which there demand for quality in services is much higher than the others. The Gurus or Godmans are of the position that when the tourer ( patient ) feels confident and energetic without any negative side effects literally provides them the confidence that the intervention had achieved its ultimate aim.
Potential of Health Tourism in Kerala
From the Medieval Age one can follow the elements of wellness touristry like the scrupulous attending paid to wellbeing of Romans and Greeks ( Melanie and Catherine, 2006 ) along with the development of seaboard and spa touristry of the 18th and nineteenth century by the European elite which continues even now though at a much faster rate. The House of Lords opined that the proliferation of health centres, holistic retreats, watering place, religious pilgrim’s journeies, and complementary and alternate therapies is unprecedented ( House of Lords – Report, 2000 ) . Experts came frontward with assorted theories to warrant the sudden jet in growing. Some of them are of the position that the anomy of the western capitalist societies, the dislocation of traditional faiths and the atomization of the communities. Though the promotion made in the field of medical scientific discipline had resulted in the development of healing attention for major diseases, yet one can detect that the psychological and emotional jobs of adult male are left untreated.
Depression is normally cited as being one of the greatest disease loads of the twenty-first century and self-destruction rates are lifting, particularly amongst immature work forces ( e.g. , Mealanie Smith and Catherine Kelly 2005 ) . This can be attributed to high force per unit area he should defy in a public presentation related pay-package work environment.
But the lone feasible solution that is left for the world is to indulge in Health Tourism. Ayurveda, the antediluvian Indian system of medical specialty, trades with both the preventative and healing facets of wellness in a most comprehensive manner. Besides lending to care of wellness, it besides has a broad scope of curative steps to battle assorted unwellnesss. Though the art of Ayurveda had spread around in the sixth century BC to Tibet, China, Mongolia, Korea and Sri Lanka, yet one can witness in Kerala that this medical system is still being practised and perfected by the ‘Kalari Gurukals ‘ who are considered as the maestro of the traditional soldierly art of Kerala ‘Kalari ‘ . Vogue magazine one time opined that ‘Technology is destructing usaˆ¦Nature has a redress for every unwellness, an reply for every job ( Khan, 1999 ) . It is from this position that the strength and growing of Ayurveda lies. Kerala is the lone province in India, which can tout of doing conjunct attempts to advance wellness touristry in a large manner, which has resulted in a significant addition of visitant reachings into the province. Kerala and ayurveda have virtually become synonymous with each other.
The survey observed that many of the wellness resorts are located in beach resorts like Kovalam and Varkala. Yet one can besides detect that the serene hill resorts of Kerala besides attract wellness tourers in ample Numberss. Like all other signifier of touristry, Health Tourism besides attracts chiefly the flush subdivisions of the society. It is observed that both adult male and adult female of assorted age groups are demoing considerable involvement in Ayurveda and organic structure greening therapies. Kerala can besides tout of holding the best pool of ayurvedic doctors and masseurs who are efficaciously trained and added to the resource pool by the many figure of ayurvedic infirmaries. When we made a correlativity analysis with that of the entire outgo incurred by the tourers, it was observed that the correlativity value is 0.89. Though the survey observed that many of the ayurvedic wellness resorts are available in developed states yet bulk of them feel that it merely at the beginning of the patterns, they feel that they had received optimal service. The survey observed that though there is negative sentiment about the effectivity of certain therapies of Ayurveda yet the people are of the position that it has placebo consequence.
Potential of Culture Tourism in Kerala
Cultural touristry has been identified as one of the most quickly turning countries of planetary touristry demand. Cultural touristry is about people going for cultural motives and is measured by finding whether the travellers attended activities and locales such as festivals, exhibitions, theatre public presentations or historic sites. Kerala can tout of a alone Dravidian civilization and tradition. It is because of the singularity, Kerala can tout of a alone criterion of life, which is really different from the remainder of India. This alone theoretical account is popularly known as the Kerala Model of Development. Hence both domestic and foreign tourers want to hold a first manus experience about the societal and cultural wealth of Kerala. Along with assorted historical sites, Kerala besides self-praise of alone centres of larning where can both witness the art signifiers of Kerala. Moved by the alone nature, many of the tourers got enrolled in these centres of larning like Kalamandalam. The survey observed that though assorted circuit bundles had included short continuance public presentation by the traditional creative persons, merely the dedicated 1s like to purse these art signifiers. The short continuance public presentation besides enhanced the gross revenues chances of art keepsakes of Kerala. From the tabular array given below, one can detect that the highest consumer group of cultural touristry in Kerala is the foreign tourers.
Table – 1.1
Tendency in Expenditure Pattern of Foreign Tourists
( in per centums )
( in per centums )
Shoping for Souvenirs
The other findings of the survey are as follows.
Though both the foreign and domestic tourers are satisfied with their visits, yet bulk of them opined that there is still scope for betterment.
From the survey, it is clear that the tourers irrespective of the country to which they belong, depends on cyberspace for their information demands.
The survey besides observed that religious and cultural touristry is most preferable by domestic tourers than international tourers.
The period of stay is higher for the foreign tourers than the domestic. It ranges between two to four yearss for the foreign tourers while bulk of the domestic had a shorter stay of less than three yearss.
The size of the group consisting the domestic tourer is much higher than the foreign tourer. Hence it is clear that the accent for domestic tourer is measure and for the foreign tourer it is choice. This besides conveys that for the domestic tourer, clip is an of import standard whereas for the foreign they do n’t give undue importance to clip factor.
Finally, it can be opined that that the foreign tourer is really selective about the type of adjustment whereas the domestic tourers are satisfied with the available adjustment at the country.
Conclusion & A ; Suggestions
It can be opined that merely as ( old ) mass touristry is non needfully unsustainable, in all fortunes, new or alternate signifiers of touristry are non necessarily panacea in all state of affairss. Indeed neither signifier of touristry is sustainable unless an appropriate planning and direction government is in topographic point ( Moscardo et.al, 1998 ) . Much of the research boulder clay day of the month focused on service quality in the cordial reception sector, and in peculiar, measuring of client perceptual experiences of quality. There is small or no attempt incorporating quality into all facets of pull offing touristry endeavor ( Derek et.al, 2003 ) . One of the positions that emerged from this research is that bulk of tourers visit Kerala for relaxation and greening. It was observed that both domestic and foreign tourer on their reaching at the finish, a sense of anti-climax prevailed in their heads. This is due to the spread between what that is propagated and what is really practiced. The survey observed that Certification of these New Centers of tourer attractive forces should be incorporated which will guarantee the quality of service provide and eventually will hike the tourer traffic to Kerala. These New Centers should follow ‘Co-opetetion ‘ schemes whereby the new or minor centres should co-operate with one another to accomplish a sustained flow of tourers to these centres ( Edgell, 2006 ) . It can be concluded that it is due to the handiness of diversified merchandises that ensures that touristry still thrives in Kerala economic system. Finally this survey is of the position that still the authorities lacks a holistic position towards touristry development in Kerala. The governments consider fight and attraction as different entities but it is instead supply and demand side of touristry. Merely through such a holistic attack, policy shapers will hold a clear apprehension about what the tourers are looking for and what the stakeholders are puting in. Though there is an addition in the employment for the local community due to the visual aspect of touristry, yet this survey is of the position that there one can witness struggles between the host and service suppliers. Hence it is suggested that the burden for bridging the spread should be on the shoulders of the service suppliers and the authorities. They should seek to do the centres of tourer attractive force particularly the small towns a self-sufficing 1. The turning demands of tourer sector like meat, egg, fish etc can be sourced from the small town itself instead than depending on external markets which will guarantee the ‘trickle down consequence ‘ and sustainability in the long tally.