Wireless sensor network are on the
top in market, wireless sensor users grow per annum. Wireless sensors are made
up to very tiny chips which are capable of commutating with each other or
gather data by sensing. Wireless sensor network can be deployed randomly or
planted. Wireless sensor network are very useful but it also have some
limitation E.g. Wireless sensors have very limited energy once the battery is
dead then it cannot be rechargeable so to solve this issue many researchers
have done work on this issue and proposed some methodology and once the network
is established then further nodes cannot be added to that network.

Wireless sensors have nodes which
are deployed in the field while all the data were send to the Base-Station (BS)
by these nodes.

Once the nodes are deployed in the field
then they transmit their location and residual to the base station and
Base-station make an clusters and then the cluster head (CH) is selected by the

The Node sense data and send it to
the respective Cluster head and further these cluster head send this data to
the base station.

All in this process the node are
active and energies are used and as we already discuss those nodes have very
limited energy and cannot be replaceable.

To take care of this problem we
have some proposed solution.



High Energy

 In Addition Small number of high energy nodes
are added which sends the residual energy and location to the BS of respected
node while these nodes cannot participate in sensing the nodes goes to sleep
mode and after completing the round these nodes were active and send energy and
location e nodes. 

M=Message send by each node

R=no of nodes



i-ECBR is
divided into two main phases.

Firstly, i-ECBR performs nodes
clustering and

 secondly optimal paths are constructed for
robust routing

have nodes (n no. of nodes) which are randomly deployed in the field at the
start each sensor node currier its location and energy to the base station by
its adjacent nodes based on the optimal number of clusters (p) and then the Bs
divide the entire network work with identical size partitions.

Z=n*p                                      (1)

which are more closer to each other make an cluster having unique ID.

the formation of equal clusters then the CH election is announced and those
nodes is participate which were high energy only participate in the election.



node which have high energy and near to Centerior is elected as CH and then it
broadcast the ADV message to all these respective nodes and clusters. The
entire cluster has their TDMA in which CH collect the sensory data from nodes
and send to the BS.

this the intermediate nodes are elected to create the routing path. Those who
have less hops counts send data.

in addition when the nodes reached to his threshold value and the data
are send by this path the node show a error to the sender then message goes
from another rout path by this the energy is saved.


2D Elliptical Gaussian Distribution Function

This method has great influence on the energy balancing
and enhancing the network life time because the standard deviation had a great
influence on the energy and network life time

a0,b0 will be equal to zero. While
each sensor node has an specific area to continue sensing and can communicate
directly to the base station if the node has high energy.

These mode are relaying on the distance between the
transmitter and receiver

Optimal number of cluster heads is formed and the energy
consumption in the cluster head node in a single frame is.

And the energy consume by non-cluster head nodes are

The average distance between the cluster head and non
cluster head is calculated by and the network radius R and the
area of each cluster M2/C .

M/ determine the radius of clusters.

total energy of
cluster in single frame.

frame energy

Modified TDMA

Step 1. Each cluster
head computes the number of sensor nodes assigned to its cluster based on the
number of receiving requests.

Step 2. Each cluster
head will broadcast a message includes the number of its own nodes attached to
the entire cluster heads in the WSN. At this end, each cluster head knows the
capacity of the largest cluster.

Step 3. The capacity
of the largest cluster is selected to be the implemented duration of the TDMA
schedule in all clusters for steady state phase.

Step 4. Each sensor
node within each cluster has a chance to transmit data according to modified
TDMA in steady state phase. So, All nodes will send the same amount of data to their
cluster heads. Thus, All nodes will drain the same amount of energy. Clusters
that contain a small number of nodes after sending their amount of data for the
current steady state phase, they go into the sleep mode during the

remaining time of
steady state phase. It’s also avoiding that nodes go into an idle listening
mode that affects on the node’s energy level.





architectures: network is organized as clusters where
each cluster is has a cluster head (CH) that takes the responsibility of
coordinating the communication activities of members. CHs communicates with

·       CHs or to the base station.
Clustering techniques enhance energy efficiency by limiting energy consumption
of the nodes. Network scalability is also improved by the hierarchical
structures in the network.

·       _
Energy as a
routing metric: the setup path phase considers energy as
a metric. By doing so, routing algorithms can select the next hop by focusing
not only the shortest paths but also on its residual energy.

·       _
Multipath routing:
single way directing quickly depletes vitality of nodes on a chose way and when
the node depletes out of energy, another course should be remade. Multipath
steering conversely, substitutes sending node along these lines adjusting
vitality among the nodes. It empowers the system to recoup quicker from
disappointment and upgrades the system unwavering quality.

·       _
Relay node
placement: the beginning time exhaustion of Nodes
can be kept away from by the even dispersion of nodes by putting a couple of
transfer nodes. This enhances the vitality balance between nodes, scope, and
limit and maintains a strategic distance from sensor problem areas

·       _
Sink mobility:
A colossal workload is focused on the hubs nearer to the sink (base station)
since all the movement is coordinated towards the sink through them. Henceforth
their battery gets drained quicker than other sensor hubs. The heap can be
adjusted by permitting a versatile base station which gathers hub data by
moving in the system. Sink portability enhances availability, unwavering
quality and decreases impact, conflict and message misfortune.



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