3.1 Introduction

This study, to what extent is at that place a relationship between the perceptual experience of and support for sustainable touristry development, was conducted among touristry employees in Curacao. The methodological analysis used for this descriptive research was through a quantitative attack. The mark population and the mode in which the samples size was defined are besides described in this chapter. A self-administered questionnaire was used to roll up informations, dwelling of 50 points, divided into 5 subdivisions. The cogency and dependability of the instruments used were besides tested.

The job statement is defined as: To what extent is at that place a relationship between touristry employees ‘ perceptual experience of and their attitude towards sustainable touristry, and their support for a sustainable development of Curacao ‘s touristry industry? The variables tested were three independent and the dependent variables.

The independent variables were:

What are the socio-demographic features of the occupants?

How do occupants comprehend touristry impact and how do they measure these impacts.

Make occupants with different socio-demographic features differ in their perceptual experiences and rating of touristry impacts, and their support for touristry development?

The dependant variable was:

Which of the variables under survey explain the occupants ‘ support for touristry development?

Above mentioned variables have measured the nexus between the socio-demographic features, the perceptual experience of touristry impacts, the overall rating and the degree of support towards sustainable touristry development.

3.2 Procedure

As mentioned earlier, the methodological analysis used for this descriptive research was through a quantitative attack. The participants that have contributed to this research survey were employees working in the touristry sector in Curacao. As stated in the STMP 2010-2014, the sector is divided into five subsectors ; hotels, eating houses, honkytonk operators, circuit operators, and attractive forces ( Halcrow International Partnership, 2009 ) . The instrument used to roll up primary informations was a self-completed preset set of inquiries divided into 6 subdivisions. These subdivisions are described in paragraph 3.4.

This scientifically developed instrument for measuring, derived from the conceptual theoretical account and the questionnaire of Long and Kayat ( 2011 ) , will find to what extent touristry employees in Curacao have perceived sustainable touristry and how of import their support could be for a continued success of sustainable touristry in Curacao. This research survey was based on some old apprehension of the nature of the research job ( Zigmund, 2002 ) . As is the instance in any research surveies, the attack has its restrictions. Harmonizing to Hair Jr. , Babin, Money and Samouel ( 2005 ) , a disadvantage of a self-administered questionnaire is the loss of research worker ‘s control, because the research worker does non cognize whether the intended individual completed the questionnaire, if the respondents answer the inquiries in the sequence they are formatted, or whether they have asked for input from others. However, many research workers, such as Ryan & A ; Aicker ( 2011 ) , Marzuki ( 2012 ) , Nunkoo, Gursoy and Jowaheer ( 2011 ) and Tatoglu et Al. ( 2002 ) have used this attack to analyze perceptual experiences and attitude of local occupants towards touristry development and have gained valuable penetrations during their research surveies.

Measurement graduated tables used for this research survey is a combination of nominal, ordinal, interval graduated tables, open-ended and closed-ended inquiries. For the comfort of the mark population and to vouch the aggregation of every bit much informations as possible, the questionnaire has been design in two linguistic communications, the island ‘s native linguistic communication Papiamentu, and English. In add-on, and every bit is the instance in many research surveies, the research worker of this research survey does non except the possibility that premises ensuing from this research survey can present some response prejudice to the consequence. The chance besides exists that the research worker can see a really low response rate. In order to avoid prejudice and or low response rate the research worker of this research survey performed a pretest of the content of the questionnaire with some research professional and research coordinators who have experiences with coordinating and steering research surveies in the field of touristry.

A qualitative attack was non considered for this survey, based on the fact that qualitative attacks are explorative research surveies and can merely be conducted to clear up equivocal jobs and used to analyse state of affairss ( Hair Jr. , et al. , 2005 ) . Besides, explorative research surveies does non bring out conclusive grounds to find a peculiar class of actions ( Zigmund, 2002 ) , which is the instance in this quantitative research survey. The intent of this quantitative research attack is to depict the features of the mark population, the phenomena, and seeks to find the replies on the job statement.

The sampling method used was based on the nature and the aim of, and the clip available for this research survey ( Hair Jr. et al. , 2005 ) . In this instance, the chance trying method was used based on the premiss that each component of the mark population has a known, but non needfully equal, chance of being selected in a sample, and thereby minimising choice of prejudice. Through the chance method, the research worker of this research survey used the graded sampling to pull a sample from the mark population. Hair Jr. , et Al. ( 2005 ) defines stratified trying as the complex of the samples taken from the strata, and that strata are the subpopulations of the mark population. For this research study the subpopulations are employees from hotels, eating houses, honkytonk operators, circuit operators, and attractive forces in Curacao. At the clip this research survey was conducted no statistical figures were available about the entire figure of employees and the gender per organisation in each subpopulation. Below table provides an overview of the entire figure of employees employed in the subpopulation of hotels, eating houses, honkytonk operators, circuit operators and attractive forces, in general.

Subpopulations

# of employees in each subpopulation in 2009

Hotels

3,379

Restaurants

1,328

Honkytonk Operators

277

Tour Operators

200

Attractions

289

Entire

6,473

Table: entire employees in touristry sector in Curacao in 2009 Beginning: STMP 2010-2014

The sample frame of the mark population ( N ) = 6,473. The representativeness that mirrors the mark population is calculated in the tabular array below. The computation factor 75 has been used to hold a entire respondent stopping point to the sample size of 100 respondents ( set by the university ) .

Hotels

Restaurants

Honkytonk Operators

Tour Operators

Attractions

Entire

3,400

2300

280

200

290

Calculation factor = entire per subpopulation

75

45.3333

30.6666

3,7333

2.6666

3.7333

Table: represents the sample size computation based on the entire sum of mark population

Due to the fact that the sub population -dive operators, circuit operators and attractions- do non hold a representative of 25, they have non been used as samples for this research survey.

3.3 Participants

Reasoning from the above mentioned factor, the mark population used for this research survey consists of employees working in the hotel and eating house sector in Curacao. The sum of each subpopulation are 3,400 and 2,300 severally, with a subset of 75 % of each bomber population ( see table 4 ) . As in many other organisations, the touristry sector consists of assorted section degrees, presuming that for the two subpopulations these degrees are operational, supervisory, in-between direction and top direction degree. Because of the fact that are no statistical informations about the entire sum of employees per hotel and entire gender, each bomber population approached were requested to supply a 10 % of their entire employees with an equal representation of male and female participants.

3.4 Instruments

This research survey was conducted with the construct of sustainable touristry development in head. As the footing for the instruments, the conceptual theoretical account and the questionnaire of Long and Kayat ( 2011 ) were used to mensurate touristry employees ‘ perceptual experiences and support for sustainable touristry development. For this research study the definition of the construct sustainable touristry development was developed to guarantee that there were no ambiguities in the apparatus, and reading by participants. The job statement was defined, and the aims clarified. The study was based on a quantitative attack. The instrument used to roll up primary informations was a through self-administered preset set of inquiries divided into the debut subdivision and 5 subdivisions with inquiries. In the debut subdivision the intent of the research survey is explained including a description of the construct of sustainable touristry development. Followed by the five subdivisions, subdivision one described the inquiry, which organisation is responsible for sustainable touristry development. Section two described inquiries refering perceptual experiences of the impacts, subdivision three defined the inquiries refering to the rating of impacts, while subdivision four stated the inquiries about the degree of support for sustainable touristry. The last subdivision described the socio-demographic features of the participants.

The questionnaire was designed with the undermentioned considerations in head. The response rate must be near to 100 respondents. The questionnaire was designed in two linguistic communications, viz. the island ‘s native linguistic communication Papiamentu and the English linguistic communication because of the assorted cultural groups working in the touristry sector. Questions for the questionnaire were derived from the conceptual theoretical account of Long and Kayat ( 2011 ) , and have been somewhat adapted sing Curacao variegation of the touristry sector. The measurement procedure involved the specifications of the variables used, that have served as placeholders for the constructs. In this research survey, the placeholders are defined as the index variables used to supply the numerical tonss to mensurate the construct “ support ” .

The topology of the questionnaire consists of 50 points divided in the 5 subdivisions mentioned supra. In order to obtain a high response rate and high quality responses, the research worker focused peculiarly on the length of the questionnaire, the manner in which the inquiries were structured, sequenced and coded. As stated by Hair Jr. et Al. ( 2005 ) , the type and sequence of a questionnaire are designed sing the nature of the subject, the mode in which the questionnaire is administered, the mark population ‘s ability and their willingness to finish the questionnaire, and the type of statistical analysis to be performed. To obtain dependable day of the month, the undermentioned types of inquiries were used:

Closed-ended inquiries, whereby the respondents were given the option to take from a figure of preset replies.

Open-ended inquiries, in some instances these inquiries were asked to specifically hold some penetrations about to fulfill respondents ‘ demands for support.

A set of Likert scale inquiries, a list of statements with response points that indicate the degree of understanding of the respondents.

The job statement that has guided this research survey is defined as: To what extent is at that place a relationship between touristry employees ‘ perceptual experience of and their attitude towards sustainable touristry, and their support for a sustainable development of Curacao ‘s touristry industry? The variables tested were three independent and the dependent variables.

The independent variables were:

What are the socio-demographic features of the occupants?

How do occupants comprehend touristry impact and how do they measure these impacts.

Make occupants with different socio-demographic features differ in their perceptual experiences and rating of touristry impacts, and their support for touristry development?

The dependant variable was:

Which of the variables under survey explain the occupants ‘ support for touristry development?

Above mentioned variables were used to mensurate the nexus between the socio-demographic features, the perceptual experience of touristry impacts, the overall rating and the degree of support towards sustainable touristry development. Sing the type of questionnaire, the mark population and the four variables used, below figure describes in general the lay-out of the questionnaire:

Introduction: presenting the research worker, the aim of the research survey and the definition of the construct under survey.

Section 1: the general inquiry, depicting the inquiry which organisation is responsible for sustainable touristry development.

Section 2, 3 & A ; 5: the first one measured the independent variables: the perceptual experience of sustainable touristry impacts on socio-cultural, economic and environmental factors, the overall appraisal of the impact, followed by the socio-demographic features of the mark population.

Section 4: assessed the support for sustainable touristry. In this subdivision participants were given the chance to supply extra information about having or non having extra information on sustainable touristry.

Below figure describes in general the variables used for mensurating the construct “ support for sustainable touristry development ” .

Variable

Q

Scale

General

Section 1: Organization responsible for sustainable touristry development

1

Close-ended ( C-E )

Independent variables

Section 2: Percepts of sustainable touristry impacts

2 – 26

Five-point Likert graduated table ( 5p LS )

( strongly agree to strongly differ )

Section 3: Overall rating of touristry impacts

27 – 28

Five-point Likert graduated table ( 5P LS )

( strongly agree to strongly differ )

Section 5: Socio-demographic features

38 – 50

Nominal, Ordinal, Open-ended

Dependent variable

Section 4: Support for touristry

29 – 37

Five-point Likert graduated table ( 5p LS )

Table: Table depicting in general the variables used, entire inquiries and the grading used to carry on the research survey

For more elucidations, the questionnaire for this research survey is enclosed in this study in the subdivision Appendix. The two hypotheses developed for this research survey are

Hypothesiss

# 1

There are no differences among employees ‘ socio-demographic features with regard to perceptual experiences of sustainable touristry impacts, overall rating of sustainable touristry impacts and their support for sustainable touristry development

# 2

The independent variables ( employees ‘ socio-demographic features, perceptual experiences of sustainable touristry impacts, rating of sustainable touristry impacts do non significantly explicate the dependant variable ( support for sustainable touristry development

Table: Original hypotheses of Long and Kayat ( 2011 ) , adapted to mensurate touristry employees support toward sustainable touristry development in Curacao

3.5 Cogency

Harmonizing to Hair Jr. , et al. , ( 2005 ) , a scientific survey must ever turn to the dependability and cogency issues. Validity is the extent to which a concept measures what it is supposed to mensurate ; a proposition from which a decision can be drawn. For this research study the dependability lies in the fact that the questionnaire consists of a multi-item scales – in this case- variables and indexs that the tonss can be correlated. This research survey focused on the construct of sustainable touristry development in Curacao. Ryan and Aicken ( 2010 ) concluded in their research for finish image spread that, while there has been much work and research related to finish image and resident perceptual experience of touristry, skips in that country of research can still be identified.

Variable

Scaling

Statistical trial

Assess S1: Organization responsible for sustainable touristry development

Closed-ended

Pearson correlativity

Assess S2: Percepts of sustainable touristry impacts

Assess S3: Overall rating of touristry impacts

Assess S5: Socio-demographic features

Five-point Likert graduated table

Five-point Likert graduated table

Nominal, Ordinal, Open-ended

Pearson correlativity

Pearson rectification

Chi-square/Pearson correlativity

Assess S4: Support for touristry

Five-point Likert graduated table

Pearson correlativity

Table: Overview of measuring, scaling and statistical trial of the variables

3.6 Representativeness

The representativeness in this research survey is seen as the ability to give a moderately accurate portraiture of the research topic ‘s features. These are the features of the population from which the sample was selected. The term is besides applied to this research study, to measure whether the independent variables have a relation with the dependant variable and to what extent they have influenced each other.

3.7 Decision

So far a roadmap with waies to carry on this research survey has been provided. It envolves three stages, viz. the debut of the construct sustainable touristry development, the literature reappraisal, and the preparation of the job statement, the research inquiries, mark population and the hypotheses tested.

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