Surfboarding: History And Beyond Essay, Research Paper
What is Surfboarding?
Surfing, act of siting on moving ridges as they break over a shallow shoreline surface, such as a reef, sand saloon, or some other submerged surface. Peoples can surf with merely their organic structure, this is called organic structure surfboarding, or by lying, kneeling, or standing on a surfboard.
Equipment Used & # 8211 ; The Surfboard
Modern surfboards are constructed of a fictile froth nucleus that can be shaped by manus or machine, so covered with a shell of fibreglass and rosin. Personal boards can change in dimensions. The high public presentation surfboards used by top professional rivals are about 6 to 6.5 pess long, and 18.5 inches broad, less than 2.5 inches thick, and weigh about 6 lbs. These boards are called shortboards. Most longboards are 9 pess long, 20 to 22 inches broad and about the same thickness as shortboards. On the underside of the board there can be one to five fives near the tail, but three is the criterion. These fives provide the board with directional stableness and enhance public presentation by supplying extra power and frontward thrust. Both boards can be used for professional or recreational contexts, nevertheless the shortboard is better for velocity and aerial manoeuvres.
When a moving ridge reaches the shallow shoreline of an ocean or other big organic structure of H2O, the upper part of the moving ridge pitches frontward and the moving ridge begins to interrupt, a gesture frequently indicated by crests of froth called white horses. The basic ides of surfboarding is to sit the unbroken portion of a moving ridge for every bit long as possible, utilizing a assortment of manoeuvres to rush up, decelerate down, and manoeuvre around the interrupting part of the moving ridge. Good surfboarders continue to sit the moving ridge until the full moving ridge has broken and become white H2O.
Surfboarding competitions can take topographic point anyplace that moving ridges can be ridden, from the winter breaker in Hawaii to unreal indoor wave-pools. In competition, surfboarders are judged utilizing a subjective system that awards points based on the size of the moving ridge ridden, the distance ridden, and the quality of the manoeuvres performed by the surfboarder.
Now that we know the rudimentss what about the other material? ? ?
The Roots of Surfing & # 8211 ; Hawaii
Although no 1 knows precisely where and when stand-up surfboarding began, there is no uncertainty that over the centuries the ancient athletics of & # 8220 ; he & # 8217 ; e nalu & # 8221 ; ( wave-sliding ) was perfected by the Kings and Queens, and by work forces and adult females in the Sandwich Isles, long before the fifteenth century.
Of the Hawaiians who surfed, it was the chiefly category who claimed the highest repute for dedicated proficiency with board and moving ridges. They had their ain supplications, melody pipes, board makers, wood and beaches where they entirely could surf with others of similar rank. No 1 dared to drop in on their moving ridge, that meant decease, or at least a close decease experience. Surfboarding achieved a particular position and reputability in ancient Hawaii. Renowned surfboarders were celebrated in vocal and dance and frequently enjoyed particular privileges in the royal circle. Which of all time board they choose, being the long or short board, the Chiefs took great pride in the accomplishment, grace, velocity and bravery with which they rode the Pacific & # 8217 ; s crestless waves.
However low one & # 8217 ; s surfboard was, it was treated with regard. Even before the board was shaped a proper & # 8220 ; surfbuilding ritual & # 8221 ; was observed. It began with a tree. Merely three types of trees were used ; the wiliwili, the ulu, and the koa. They dig a hole among the roots and topographic point the fish therein with a supplication as an offering to the Gods in return for the tree he is about to determine into a board. The building and defining of the board took a great experient craftsman, that they called the & # 8220 ; shaper. & # 8221 ; Stains were besides used. They were obtained from the carbon black of burned kukui nuts, wood coal from burned pandanus leaves, or the juices from immature banana buds. To finish the procedure, a dressing of Kukiu nut oil was applied when the discoloration was dry, and the black, calendered board was ready for surfing.
How it Escaped Hawaii
The first European to see surfing in Hawaii and study on it was a British adventurer James Cook, who sailed into the islands in 1778. Surfboarding in the Hawaiian islands was suppressed as a frivolous activity by Christian missionaries through much of the nineteenth century. It did non re-emerge at that place until the early portion of the twentieth century. One of the most influential surfboarders from the early 20thcentury was Duke Kahanamoku, known as the & # 8220 ; male parent of surfing. & # 8221 ; The popularity of surfing is chiefly accredited to this one adult male. He was the first Hawaiian to go outside of the islands to show his accomplishment to viewing audiences all over the universe.
History Beyond Hawaii
1910 & # 8217 ; s
At the bend of the century, Hawaiians and transplanted Europeans began surfing Waikiki, by this clip it was for pure enjoyment and non because it was required for ritual. In 1912, Duke Kahanamoku was selected to be on the United States Olympic swimming squad. On his manner to the Stockholm for the games, he introduced surfing to both of the American seashores. He brought the gold place in the 100 metre freestyle. He was named the World & # 8217 ; s fastest swimmer, this lead to his popularity. His celebrity allowed him to go the universe to show his swimming accomplishments and the thought of siting the moving ridges on a wooden board.
On January 15, 1915, Duke introduced surfing to Australia. Duke toured the Aussie beaches and at Freshwater, gave a surfing presentation. He gave a immature adult male named Claude West a few lessons, gave him his pine board, and left for place. Those few lessons must hold taken, because West won the Australian surfing title from 1919 through 1924.
1920 & # 8217 ; s
The thought of siting a moving ridge perched on a board made it & # 8217 ; s manner from Hawaii to California. Tom Blake sailed to Hawaii in 1922 and became fascinated by surfing. Returning to California subsequently that same twelvemonth, he built his first surfboard by turning a redwood board into a honeycomb construction, boring 100s of holes and covering this nucleus with wood veneer. At 15 pess long, 19 inches broad, and 4 inches thick, it was considered a & # 8220 ; lightweight & # 8221 ; at 100 lbs. Blake refined his methods, acquiring the weight down to 60 lbs with the hollow building.
1930 & # 8217 ; s
The 1930 & # 8217 ; s became a period of surfboard invention as surfing popularity spread up and down the West, East seashore and Australia. In 1930, Blake got a U.S. patent for his & # 8220 ; Hawaiian Hollow Surfboards. & # 8221 ; He besides developed the first fives, or skegs, in 1935. The first company to bring forth commercial surfboards was Pacific Ready Cut Homes in California. In 1937, Whitney Harrison would determine four boards a twenty-four hours for $ 100 a month. The redwood balso boards had a typical logo, the Swastika, but was removed prior to World War II. The first one-year Pacific Coast Surfriding Championship were held in the mid 1930 & # 8217 ; s.
1940 & # 8217 ; s
World War II had a profound consequence on surfing. Many coastal countries where off-limits to surfboarders, wharfs became undersea ticker points and most surfboarders were in the service. The lucky 1s, though, were stationed in Hawaii and after the war brought back surfing accomplishments to their ain coastal communities. The biggest impact that the war had on surfboarding was the development and application of new stuffs such as waterproof gums, plyboard, balsa, Styrofoam, and gum elastic. Bob Simmons had a physical disablement and made money by doing redwoods boards. Besides, utilizing theories he learned at Cal Tech, he designed the first twin five boards with concave undersides and subsequently experimented with tail contours and rounded tracks. Simmon & # 8217 ; s followings grew and demand for plyboard, Styrofoam and balsa surfboards became to large. Partnerships were formed and surfboards stores opened. Joe Quigg fashioned surfing & # 8217 ; s first fibreglass fives and a adult male named Rochlen began using colourful designs onto the boards.
1950 & # 8217 ; s
A whole new batch of name-brand personalities and surfboards came along during a clip of prosperity and personal free clip. The demanded for Balsa surfboards depleted the supply and shortly surfboard industries had to happen some sort of replacement. Polyurethane was developed in 1956, and perfected by surfboarder and chemical science alumnus, Gordon & # 8220 ; Grubby & # 8221 ; Clark. Clark and his friend Hobie Alter developed the first polyurethane froth surfboards. The surfing population by this clip swelled. Newer challenges were meet in bigger moving ridges. Rubber wetsuits developed by the Navy made surfing a year-round activity and in the early 1950 & # 8217 ; s breaker movie innovators, like Bud Browne, showed why surfboarding was fun year-long. Tendencies such as the & # 8220 ; Woody & # 8221 ; station waggons and Hot Rods became transit, anything that was big plenty to transport surfboards.
1960 & # 8217 ; s
The surfboarding life style was in full swing with manner, music, movies, magazines, and Television fueling its image. No clip was wasted to surf & # 8216 ; n party, party & # 8216 ; n surf. Much of this was making a bad name for surfboarders. On August 1961, the United States Surfing Association was made to do surfboarders and surfing more acceptable. Movies started being made, such as & # 8216 ; Gidget & # 8217 ; and Beach Party. By 1964, movies and music were at a high point. Bruce Brown ( The Endless Summer ) , and other gifted movie shapers produced reliable breaker footage bangs.
1970 & # 8217 ; s
Old ages of telecasting coverage by ABC Wide World of athleticss increased the public consciousness of the athletics of surfing. In 1971, the International Professional Surfing Association was formed to develop relationships between surfboarders and companies. It was still difficult for pro-surfers to do a life. It was a clip when California was in a & # 8220 ; soul-searching, & # 8221 ; free-spirited life style. Long hair, drugs, and wellness nutrient was the norm. Fame and luck were treated as a much lighter matter. Surfers who hung out in Mexico life in micro-buses, surfing stat mis of uncrowded beaches realized that it could non last everlastingly.
By the late 1970 & # 8217 ; s surfboards were in mass production due to the demand and board design went from individual five to duplicate fives.
1980 & # 8217 ; s
The debut of the tri fives were developed. Besides, another betterment to surfboarding was the development of the tether, invented by Jack O & # 8217 ; Neill. Still, surfing kept turning and turning.
1990 & # 8217 ; s
Now surfboard designs can be done with the usage of computing machines, new igniter stuffs are used to compose the board, new manners of siting ( we will travel into more item in the subdivision Evolution of the Board ) . You don & # 8217 ; t even hold to be a surfboarder to acknowledge the name Kelly Slater. Named & # 8220 ; the best rival the athletics has of all time seen. & # 8221 ; Born in 1972, this six clip universe title-holder grew up in Florida
and had a contract with Quicksilver before even graduating high school. He popularity besides made him a star on telecasting and in Hollywood.
Lashkar-e-taibas Not Forget the Women
Surfboarding is frequently thought as a male athletics, but in fact adult females have been basking surfing since the yearss of ancient Hawaii and in California in the 1920 & # 8217 ; s. One of the earliest adult females surfboarders from California was Mary Ann Hawkins. The first Australian to sit a surfboard was, in fact, a adult female: Isabel Letham, who rode tandem with Duke Kahanamoku in 1915, when he introduced surfing to Australia. Surfboarding among adult females truly became popular with the reaching of Hollywood films, such as Gidget Goes Hawaiian, or Ride The Wild Surf. Linda Merrill & # 8217 ; s surfing manner incorporated ballet-like prowess as she danced from the tail to the olfactory organ in the early 60 & # 8217 ; s. Joyce and Joey Hamisaki, from Hawaii, were likely the first well-respected adult females surfboarders. In 1968, Margo Godfrey was in the scene. Margo surfed with a & # 8220 ; tom-boyish & # 8221 ; manner, and in 1975 she was the first pro adult females surfer. More and more adult females are hitting the moving ridges. The reaching of professional surfboarding has helped this procedure ; so has the twin-fin board, being little, light and easier to turn than a individual five. But the people who have been chiefly responsible for this alteration in public attitude are the professional adult females surfboarders themselves. Two reflecting illustrations are Jericho Poppler and Rell Sunn, two ladies who have worked hard for this societal alteration. In the mid 60 & # 8217 ; s, they were both regarded as strange, in the about wholly male-dominated athletics. Jericho was 1970 and 1976 U.S. Women & # 8217 ; s World Champion. Rell was Hawaii & # 8217 ; s figure one adult female amateur surfboarder for five old ages and in 1975 joined the first adult females & # 8217 ; s pro circuit. When the growing of professionalism enabled them to go and give their positions to the universe, they had small problem raising echt public support. These two ladies aren & # 8217 ; t merely embassadors of surfboarding, but title-holders for continuing our ocean environment.
Making the Surfboard
There are many stairss that take topographic point for the chef-d’oeuvre of a surfboard. There is much accomplishment and expertness that is needed for each and every measure. The first measure is determining. The defining of the froth space determines the features and public presentation of the surfboard. This is the most important phase of industry. Professional makers take about 45 proceedingss to determine a board. Glassing is following, one time the board has been shaped it must be coated with protective beds of fibreglass that will give the froth strength and lastingness. Many great forms have been destroyed due to a bad glass occupation. It is of import the glassing of a board does non change the form or add inordinate weight, yet it must be strong plenty so that it gives you a realistic life span. Once the board has been glassed, it must be sanded in readying for the finishing phase. Sanding is underrated phase of fabrication. Over sanding will cut down strength and incorrect sanding will go forth the board with an uneven surface that does non retroflex the original form. Next is completing, there are several ways to complete a board. There is a gloss coating, the moisture hang-up coating and the velocity coating. If your board is traveling to hold a rubric coating, you must out any needed colour spray straight onto the molded space prior to glazing. If the board is holding a wet hang-up coating, the spray can be put onto the board after the sanding procedure.
Pre-50 & # 8217 ; s
The surfboard itself has been around since the sixth century, although it became more publically recognized in North America at the terminal of the 1800 & # 8217 ; s. Boardss so were crudely molded and most were fashioned out of solid wood and weighed near to 150 lbs. Granulated coral was used to sand the board and the board was stained with bark or wood coal and finished with calendered nut oil.
It wasn & # 8217 ; t until the beginning of this century that people started to experiment with it. It evolved from a solid redwood board around 10 pess long which acted like a sponge when it came in contact with H2O during the 1920 & # 8217 ; s, to a hollow longer board ( up to 16 pess long ) and besides made of wood called the & # 8220 ; Cigar Box. & # 8221 ; This led to the streamlined & # 8220 ; hot-curl & # 8221 ; boards of the 1903 & # 8217 ; s make out of composite wood, and when supplies became available after WWII composite wood was exchanged for light weight balsa wood. During this clip gum elastic was added to assist stabilise the board, every bit good as a thin bed of rosin and fibreglass surfacing the wood. The length of each board stayed around 10 pess long.
Surfboards of the 1950 & # 8217 ; s
Surfboarding in the 50 & # 8217 ; s was the beginning of modern surfboarding. A good part of board stuffs and design during the 50 & # 8217 ; s was based on the usage of balsa wood, and it besides was highly influential to surfboard engineering. The most outstanding development developed in the late 50 & # 8217 ; s and early 60 & # 8217 ; s was the debut of polyurethane froth and fibreglass. The beauty of froth eliminated extra weight. With less weight to force in the H2O, boards were easier to turn, though little jobs arose refering perkiness. It besides aided the industry by doing surfboards easier to determine, therefore faster to bring forth and market.
The 1960 & # 8217 ; s
The 1960 & # 8217 ; s will likely be ever be referred to as the revolution decennary of the surfboard. The Surfboard underwent major experimentation. The jet propelled debut of the shortboard transformed the manner that everyone looked at surfboarding, and reasonably much converted every surfboarder to a shortboarder overnight. Between 1968-1970 the mean length of the surfboard went from 10 to 6 pess, and lost approximately eight lbs. Manufacturers could barely give away the longboards and many ended up shaving off a few pess and reselling them as 6.5 footers. The major advantage over the new form was its accent in velocity. Now surfboarders could non merely sit the moving ridges vertically like the longboard, but besides sit inside the pipe and carve extremist bends in and out of the white H2O. The flexible five came into the image and finally the shortboard became the footing of the all around public presentation board of today.
The 1970 & # 8217 ; s and 1980 & # 8217 ; s
One of the best things to go on to surfing did, in 1973, surfer Jack O & # 8217 ; Neill invented the tether, or leg rope. This piece of stretchable yet highly strong surgical tube enabled the surfboard to be attached to the leg of the surfboarder, therefore maintaining the board from rinsing ashore every clip the surfboarder missed a moving ridge. Another accomplishment was the debut of tri fives, which as fundamentally two attachable & # 8220 ; stick on & # 8221 ; fives made of plastic that could be mounted in assorted places outside of the five that was for good glassed on. This added greater stableness to the rear of the board by enabling greater rail control in the H2O, and it gave the rider the opportunity to experiment with different five agreement with out perpetrating to a certain one.
The early 1880ss were a quite clip in surfboard design, shaper & # 8217 ; s designs started to concentrate on certain countries of the board separately. There were a few new experiments in fin design, non of which became socially popular, with the exclusion of the three five surfboard, in 1981, which as you can think had three fives for good glassed on.
The 1990 & # 8217 ; s
In the 1990 & # 8217 ; s the surfboard design started to polish a small. The longboard, which became to the full accepted by the breaker industry was re-launched into the market, but has been tainted with engineerings and was being manufactured utilizing much lighter stuffs than those used during the 50 & # 8217 ; s and 60 & # 8217 ; s. Surfboard designs besides started to be directed towards certain manners of siting and certain moving ridge types. Makers besides started to utilize computing machine package to make board templets, as mentioned before. There are programs underway to make a board devising machine that will read package. The 90 & # 8217 ; s have besides been a pivot point in surfing as a athletics with the add-on of tow in surfing. A tow in is normally required for moving ridges that are bigger than 25 pess because the surfboarder is excessively slow to paddle into these elephantine moving ridges himself.
Can & # 8217 ; t Forget Some of the People who Made all this Happen! ! !
The Kings/Queens of the moving ridges
Duke Kahanamoku, & # 8220 ; male parent of surfboarding, & # 8221 ; has contributed more to the enlargement of the athletics than anyone else in the history of surfing. His exhibitions along the Hawaii seashore and other topographic points around the universe brought surfing from the shores of Oahu to a world-wide limelight.
Tom Blake, invented the add-on of a five to the terminal of a surfboard, airborne manoeuvres you see today, and one of the first air current surfboards. He reduced surfboard weight by every bit much as 25 per centum, besides, revolutionized the athletics and introduced aerobatic moves into the athletics of surfboarding.
Joyce Hoffman, likely one of the most recognizable names in Women & # 8217 ; s surfing. From 1964 & # 8211 ; 1966, she was the top adult female surfboarder in the universe.
Bruce Brown, he will be everlastingly remembered as the Godhead and storyteller of Endless Summer, one of the most popular surfing docudramas of all clip.
Margo Oberg, known as & # 8220 ; the miss that surfed every bit good as a cat, & # 8221 ; won 5 universe rubrics that made her one of the top female riders in the universe.
John Sverson, the laminitis of Surfer Magazine.
Bud Browne, brought the breaker to the people with a 16mm camera for 30 old ages and made more than 15 surf movies.
Tom Pratte, is one of the original laminitiss of the Surfrider Foundation, an organisation formed to protect the ocean for today & # 8217 ; s surfboarders and for the coevalss to come.
Hobie Alter, his name is everyplace, on surfboards, catamarans, skateboards, and merely about anything related to the ocean. He is a fable in the defining industry. His progresss in surfboard design and success in developing the first mass-produced polyurethane surfboard expanded surfing to a much larger audience.
Surfing is still a manner of life. It has formed itself a civilization. This civilization is unlike no other around the universe. Millions of surfboarders from 100s of topographic points use the same cognition originated from Hawaiian roots. All of these surfboarders come together on the ocean and unit with the same manners, technics, and moralss. They ride the moving ridges for the joy, bang and be one with the ocean.
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