Synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticle

dreams, ambition and imagination often give rise to new things. Nanotechnology,
a novel technology was a product of such ambition. Nanotechnology is a new
field, but has been influencing human since time immemorial. Nanotechnology;
history and future J.E Hulla, S.C Sahu and A.W hayes H.E.T 2015. long before the onset of “nanoera”
humans have been coming across nanosized objects, which had unexplainable
unique properties. They behaved differently (i.e. have unique properties),
differing from large objects of the same substance. Various example of
“nanomaterials”, long before the establishment of the field of nanotechnology,
can be observed throughout the human history. For instance, fabrics: flax,
cotton, wool. Fabrics have been used for thousand of years, the unique thing
about fabrics is presence of a network of pore with the size 1-20 nm, i.e. they
are nanoporous material. Due to these nanoporous structure they absorb sweat,
swell and dry efficiently and quickly making it idle for personal use. In ancient
Egypt, dyeing hair black was a common practice. They used a paste of lime, lead
oxide and small amount of water. During the process of dyeing nanoparticles of
galenite (lead sulfide) were formed, giving black colour. Without the prior
knowledge about nanotechnology, ancient Egyptians were applying nanotechnology
for dyeing. In  the middle ages in Europe
church windows were made of coloured glasses. These coloured glasses contained
additives of gold and nanoparticles of other metals. Damask steel is another
example of nanomaterial that was used in middle ages. Sword made of these steel
was very strong. The strength of the sword was due to the nanofiborous
structure of the steel, making the sword ultra strong. Licurg’s bowl is one of
the most famous example of ancient nanotechnology, the bowl is displayed in
British museum. The bowl belonged to the Tsars of Edons, it possesses unusual
optical properties. The bowl changes color with change of location of the light
source. The bowl comprised of soda-lime-quartz glass and about 1% of gold and
silver. The unusual property was due to colloidal gold present, which was later
found to be 50 to 100 nm in size. Thus, it is safe to say nanotechnology has
been influencing humans long before the field was recognized. History of nanotechnology-,
https.// By N.K has
been made cleared that humans have been constantly been exposed to
nanotechnology in one way or another throughout the history, this exposure drastically
increased with the onset of industrial revolution. which sparked new ventures
in the field of science and technology.   

nanotechnology is the brainchild of Richard Feynman, the 1965 Nobel Laureate in
physics. On December 29, 1959 Richard Feynman gave his famous lecture at the
annual meeting of the American physical society at Caltech, titled ” there’s
plenty of room at the bottom”,. At this lecture, he introduced the concept of
manipulating matter at the atomic level. Matter at atomic level, behave very
differently, as they follow the laws of quantum physics. Due to this we can
achieve novel character by manipulating matter at atomic level, many of these
novel characters may be useful. This concept of manipulation at the atomic
level is the core concept of nanotechnology, that Richard Feynman introduced to
the world. Thus, he is rightfully known as the father of modern nanotechnology.
There’s plenty of room at the bottom by
Richard feynman, Engineering and science, febuary 1960.

                                           Norio Taniguchi a professor of Tokyo
university of science was the first to use the term “nanotechnology” in a
scientific  publication, he used it to
describe semiconductor process that occur on the order of a nanometer. Nanotechnology
and nanomaterials: promises for improved tissue regeneration. Lijie zhang,
Thomas J. Webster. Nano today.

                                                                              Eric Drexler of Massachusetts institute of
technology, was inspired by feynman’s lecture “there’s plenty of room at the
bottom”. He emphasized on molecular nanotechnology in his book titled “engine
of creation: the coming era of nanotechnology”. The book emphasizes on a
nanoscale “assembler” that can build a copy of itself or other items of
arbitrary complexity. These type of assemblers are already seen in case of
biochemical systems. For example, ribosome is a nanoscale assembler that can make
copies of proteins based on DNA sequences (i.e. it can make proteins of
arbitrary complexity). Engines of creation, Eric Drexler 1986. Molecular engineering:
an approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular
manipulation. K. Eric Drexler.

The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley and
Robert Curl was a major milestone that led to the onset of golden era of
nanotechnology. These discovery immediately led to high intensity research in
leading academic, industrial and government laboratories world wide, exploring
new aspects of nanotechnology. The 1996 Nobel prize in chemistry was shared by
Harry Kroto, Richard Smalleyand Robert Curl for the discovery of fullerene. Fullerenes
are closed cage molecules of pure carbon. The most stable and common fullerene,
C60 is composed of 60 carbon atom, it resembles a football. It has 20 hexagonal
rings and 12 pentagonal rings. C60 is also known as Buckminister fullerene, from
the architect Buckminister fuller. C60: Buckministerfullerene, H.W. Kroto,
J.R Heath, S.C. O’brien , R.F Curl and R.E Smalley. Letters to nature. Nature volume
318, 14 november 1985, and geological fullerenes: reviews and analysis
Peter R. Buseck, Earth and planetary science letters 203 (2002) 781-792.

nanotubes or simply CNT was discovered by Sumio Iijima, a Japanese scientist in
1991. These discovery further advanced the science of nanotechnology.carbon
nanotubes are allotropes of carbon. They have extraordinary properties, making
it a very attractive candidate for diverse nanotechnological applications. Carbon
nanotubes are composed of single or multisheets of graphite which have been
rolled up in a cylindrical shape, giving the appearance of a cylindrical tube. Hence
the name carbon nanotube. Carbon nanotube has length in micrometer scale and
the diameter in nanoscale     (1-2nm) making it a nanostructure. Carbon nanotubes
may exhibit metallic or semiconducting property based on the arrangement of
hexagon rings along the tubular surface. Single-shell carbon nanotubes of
1-nm diameter Sumio Iijima and Toshinari Ichihashi, nature volume 363, 17 june
1993 and chemisty of carbon nanotubes, chem. Rev. 2006, 106, 1105-1136, Dimitrios
Tasis, Nikos Tagmatarchis, Alberto Bianco and Maurizio Prata.

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