Synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticleHumandreams, ambition and imagination often give rise to new things.

Nanotechnology,a novel technology was a product of such ambition. Nanotechnology is a newfield, but has been influencing human since time immemorial. Nanotechnology;history and future J.E Hulla, S.C Sahu and A.W hayes H.E.

T 2015. long before the onset of “nanoera”humans have been coming across nanosized objects, which had unexplainableunique properties. They behaved differently (i.e.

have unique properties),differing from large objects of the same substance. Various example of”nanomaterials”, long before the establishment of the field of nanotechnology,can be observed throughout the human history. For instance, fabrics: flax,cotton, wool. Fabrics have been used for thousand of years, the unique thingabout fabrics is presence of a network of pore with the size 1-20 nm, i.

e. theyare nanoporous material. Due to these nanoporous structure they absorb sweat,swell and dry efficiently and quickly making it idle for personal use. In ancientEgypt, dyeing hair black was a common practice.

They used a paste of lime, leadoxide and small amount of water. During the process of dyeing nanoparticles ofgalenite (lead sulfide) were formed, giving black colour. Without the priorknowledge about nanotechnology, ancient Egyptians were applying nanotechnologyfor dyeing.

In  the middle ages in Europechurch windows were made of coloured glasses. These coloured glasses containedadditives of gold and nanoparticles of other metals. Damask steel is anotherexample of nanomaterial that was used in middle ages. Sword made of these steelwas very strong. The strength of the sword was due to the nanofiborousstructure of the steel, making the sword ultra strong. Licurg’s bowl is one ofthe most famous example of ancient nanotechnology, the bowl is displayed inBritish museum. The bowl belonged to the Tsars of Edons, it possesses unusualoptical properties.

The bowl changes color with change of location of the lightsource. The bowl comprised of soda-lime-quartz glass and about 1% of gold andsilver. The unusual property was due to colloidal gold present, which was laterfound to be 50 to 100 nm in size. Thus, it is safe to say nanotechnology hasbeen influencing humans long before the field was recognized. History of nanotechnology- Eolss.net,https.//www.eolss.

net/sample-chapters/Co5/E6-152-01. By N.K Tolochko.

it hasbeen made cleared that humans have been constantly been exposed tonanotechnology in one way or another throughout the history, this exposure drasticallyincreased with the onset of industrial revolution. which sparked new venturesin the field of science and technology.                                               Modernnanotechnology is the brainchild of Richard Feynman, the 1965 Nobel Laureate inphysics.

On December 29, 1959 Richard Feynman gave his famous lecture at theannual meeting of the American physical society at Caltech, titled ” there’splenty of room at the bottom”,. At this lecture, he introduced the concept ofmanipulating matter at the atomic level. Matter at atomic level, behave verydifferently, as they follow the laws of quantum physics.

Due to this we canachieve novel character by manipulating matter at atomic level, many of thesenovel characters may be useful. This concept of manipulation at the atomiclevel is the core concept of nanotechnology, that Richard Feynman introduced tothe world. Thus, he is rightfully known as the father of modern nanotechnology.There’s plenty of room at the bottom byRichard feynman, Engineering and science, febuary 1960.

                                                                                                                         Norio Taniguchi a professor of Tokyouniversity of science was the first to use the term “nanotechnology” in ascientific  publication, he used it todescribe semiconductor process that occur on the order of a nanometer. Nanotechnologyand nanomaterials: promises for improved tissue regeneration. Lijie zhang,Thomas J. Webster. Nano today.                                                                              Eric Drexler of Massachusetts institute oftechnology, was inspired by feynman’s lecture “there’s plenty of room at thebottom”. He emphasized on molecular nanotechnology in his book titled “engineof creation: the coming era of nanotechnology”.

The book emphasizes on ananoscale “assembler” that can build a copy of itself or other items ofarbitrary complexity. These type of assemblers are already seen in case ofbiochemical systems. For example, ribosome is a nanoscale assembler that can makecopies of proteins based on DNA sequences (i.e. it can make proteins ofarbitrary complexity). Engines of creation, Eric Drexler 1986. Molecular engineering:an approach to the development of general capabilities for molecularmanipulation.

K. Eric Drexler.                                                                                             The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley andRobert Curl was a major milestone that led to the onset of golden era ofnanotechnology. These discovery immediately led to high intensity research inleading academic, industrial and government laboratories world wide, exploringnew aspects of nanotechnology. The 1996 Nobel prize in chemistry was shared byHarry Kroto, Richard Smalleyand Robert Curl for the discovery of fullerene.

Fullerenesare closed cage molecules of pure carbon. The most stable and common fullerene,C60 is composed of 60 carbon atom, it resembles a football. It has 20 hexagonalrings and 12 pentagonal rings.

C60 is also known as Buckminister fullerene, fromthe architect Buckminister fuller. C60: Buckministerfullerene, H.W.

Kroto,J.R Heath, S.C. O’brien , R.F Curl and R.E Smalley. Letters to nature. Nature volume318, 14 november 1985, and geological fullerenes: reviews and analysisPeter R.

Buseck, Earth and planetary science letters 203 (2002) 781-792.                                                                                Carbonnanotubes or simply CNT was discovered by Sumio Iijima, a Japanese scientist in1991. These discovery further advanced the science of nanotechnology.carbonnanotubes are allotropes of carbon. They have extraordinary properties, makingit a very attractive candidate for diverse nanotechnological applications.

Carbonnanotubes are composed of single or multisheets of graphite which have beenrolled up in a cylindrical shape, giving the appearance of a cylindrical tube. Hencethe name carbon nanotube. Carbon nanotube has length in micrometer scale andthe diameter in nanoscale     (1-2nm) making it a nanostructure.

Carbon nanotubesmay exhibit metallic or semiconducting property based on the arrangement ofhexagon rings along the tubular surface. Single-shell carbon nanotubes of1-nm diameter Sumio Iijima and Toshinari Ichihashi, nature volume 363, 17 june1993 and chemisty of carbon nanotubes, chem. Rev. 2006, 106, 1105-1136, DimitriosTasis, Nikos Tagmatarchis, Alberto Bianco and Maurizio Prata.

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