Introductory note: The SCR instance survey provides a valuable real-world experience for pupils. The instance involves an fanciful IT confer withing house that maintains a realistic Web site. complete with a company intranet that pupils can entree. The pupil becomes an entry-level systems analyst coverage to a supervisor named Jesse Baker. In each session. the pupil receives e-mail messages. voice mail messages. and a list of undertakings to execute. The voice mail all comes from Jesse Baker. and the e-mail messages come from Jesse Baker and other members of the house. Each message contains counsel and way that would be typical of a real-life state of affairs. After reading the electronic mail. listening to the voice messages. and confer withing the undertaking list. the remainder is up to the pupil. He or she must travel back to the chapter. reexamine the footings. constructs. and accomplishments. and so use them in the context of the instance survey. Four chief undertakings occur in each session. A typical undertaking might necessitate the pupil to fix an e-mail message. a memo. Internet research. or a in writing component such as a chart or diagram. The undertaking list for Session 1 follows.
1. Investigate SCR’s Internet site and larn about the company’s history. intent. and values. Send Jesse a brief memo with suggestions to spread out or better these subdivisions. The SCR Web site includes realistic characteristics. content. and links that allow pupils to larn about the company and its background. Promote pupils to happen illustrations of other IT consulting houses and compare them to the SCR site. This undertaking could bind into Assignment 4. which requires Web research to happen other houses. It would be helpful to acquire pupils interested in the SCR site’s design and pilotage characteristics before they start working on the instance itself. Students with a background in Web design likely will hold suggestions and remarks to portion with the category.
2. On the SCR intranet. see the information. signifiers. and resource libraries and reexamine a sample of the information in each library. This undertaking provides an overview of the site and will give pupils a valuable debut to the instance survey. If you have non done so already. this would be a good clip to explicate the chief characteristics of the instance survey. which include the SCR intranet. personalized e-mail messages. the mention libraries. and the undertaking list for each session.
3. Using the SCR maps and organisation listed in the informations library. make an organisation chart utilizing Microsoft Word. Visio. or a drawing plan. Students can utilize the list of SCR maps and organisation ( Document 1-2 from the informations library ) to make an organisation chart. A sample chart follows:
4. Jesse says that SCR has plentifulness of competition in the IT confer withing field. Get on the Internet and happen three other IT consulting houses. She wants a brief description of each house and the services it offers.
Students should hold small trouble turn uping IT consulting houses. This would be a good subject for pupil studies. and for existent visits to the online sites if computing machine resources are available in the schoolroom. You might inquire pupils to review each site on the footing of utile information content. organisation. and aesthetics.
Answers TO CHAPTER EXERCISES
1. What is information engineering. and why is it of import to a concern? Information engineering ( IT ) is a combination of hardware and package merchandises and services that companies use to pull off. entree. communicate. and portion information. More than of all time. concern success depends on information engineering. Harmonizing to a Department of Commerce study. the IT industry has created a new economic system. where progresss in hardware. package. and connectivity provide unprecedented benefits to concerns and persons around the universe. ( Page 4 )
2. Define concern profiles. procedures. and patterning. .
A concern profile is an overview that defines a company’s overall maps. procedures. organisation. merchandises. services. clients. providers. rivals. restraints. and future way. A concern procedure describes specific events. undertakings. and coveted consequences. To understand a company’s operations. systems analysts foremost develop a concern profile and so make a series of concern theoretical accounts. A concern theoretical account diagrammatically represents concern maps that consist of concern procedures such as gross revenues. accounting. and buying that perform specific undertakings. ( Pages 10 -11 )
3. Identify the chief constituents of an information system. and depict the system’s stakeholders. An information system has five cardinal constituents: hardware. package. informations. procedures. and people. Peoples who have an involvement in an information system are called stakeholders.
Stakeholder groups include the direction group responsible for the system ; the users. sometimes called terminal users. inside and outside the company who will interact with the system ; and IT staff members. such as systems analysts. coders. and web decision makers who develop and support the system ( Pages 8-10 )
4. Explain the difference between perpendicular and horizontal systems bundles. A horizontal system is a basic system. such as an stock list or paysheet plan. that can be adapted for usage in many companies. A perpendicular system is designed to run into the alone demands of a specific concern or industry. such as a Web-based retail merchant or a video lease concatenation. ( Page 8 )
5. How do companies utilize EDI? What are some advantages of utilizing XML? Online trading market places ab initio were developed as company-to-company data-sharing agreements called electronic informations interchange ( EDI ) . EDI enabled computer-to-computer transportation of informations between companies. normally over private telecommunications webs. Firms used EDI to be after production. adjust stock list degrees. or stock up on natural stuffs utilizing informations from another company’s information system.
As B2B volume soared. the development of extensile markup linguistic communication ( XML ) enabled company-to-company traffic to migrate to the Internet. which offered standard protocols. cosmopolitan handiness. and low communicating costs. XML is a information description linguistic communication that allows Web-based communicating between different hardware and package environments. XML is highly flexible because it is concerned with the informations itself instead than the end product format. For illustration. a user could see XML client informations as a Web page on a notebook computing machine or as a contact list on a PDA.
The alone advantage of XML is that informations description is non linked to end product arranging. This is merely the antonym of HTML ( hypertext markup linguistic communication ) . where the linguistic communication controls the manner the information is displayed on a Web browser. ( Page 14 )
6. Describe five types of information systems. and give an illustration of each. Information systems include enterprise calculating systems. dealing treating systems. concern support systems. knowledge direction systems. and user productiveness systems. Enterprise calculating systems support company-wide information direction demands. Airline reserve and recognition card charge systems are illustrations of endeavor calculating systems.
Transaction processing ( TP ) systems procedure informations generated by daily concern operations. Examples of TP systems include client charge. histories receivable. and warranty claim processing. Business support systems provide job-related information support to users at all degrees. These systems can analyse transactional informations. generate information needed to pull off and command concern procedures. and supply information that leads to better determination devising. A trailing system that analyzes gross revenues tendencies and prognosiss future volume is an illustration of a concern support system.
Knowledge direction systems simulate human logical thinking by uniting a cognition base and illation regulations that determine how the cognition is applied. Online tech support systems are illustrations of cognition direction systems.
User productiveness systems provide employees at all organisational degrees with a broad array of tools that can better quality. occupation public presentation. and productiveness.
User productiveness systems include networking. electronic mail. voice mail. facsimile. picture conferencing. word processing. machine-controlled calendars. database direction. spreadsheets. desktop publication. presentation artworks. company intranets. and Internet entree. ( Pages 15 – 17 )
7. Describe four organisational degrees of a typical concern and their information demands. Four organisational degrees are operational forces. lower direction. in-between direction. and top direction.
Operational forces need really elaborate information straight related to the occupation maps they perform.
Members of lower direction. such as supervisors and squad leaders. necessitate elaborate operational information and some exclusion and drumhead information particular to their narrow countries of duty.
Middle directors need less elaborate information. more exclusion and drumhead information. and broader information than lower direction. Top directors need summary-level information ; erstwhile. what-if information ; and external information to back up the strategic planning procedure. ( Pages 18 – 19 )
8. Describe the stages of the systems development life rhythm. and compare the SDLC waterfall theoretical account to the coiling theoretical account. The systems development life rhythm consists of five stages: systems be aftering. systems analysis. systems design. systems execution. and systems operation and support.
During the systems be aftering stage. you identify the nature and range of the jobs discovered in the systems petition and behavior a preliminary probe.
The intent of the systems analysis stage is to larn precisely what takes topographic point in the current system. determine and to the full papers in item what should take topographic point. and do recommendations to direction on the alternate solutions and their costs.
The intent of the systems design stage is to find how to build the information system to outdo satisfy the documented demands.
Systems execution is the stage during which the information system really is constructed.
During systems support and security. the terminal users take ownership of the constructed information system. the system is evaluated. and the IT section provides on-going support through care alterations and sweetenings. ( Pages 22 – 24 )
9. Explain the usage of theoretical accounts. paradigms. and CASE tools in the systems development procedure. Besides explain the pros and cons of agile development methods. Modeling produces a graphical representation of a construct or procedure that systems developers can analyse. trial. and modify. A systems analyst can depict and simplify an information system by utilizing a set of concern. informations. object. web. and process theoretical accounts.
Prototyping involves the creative activity of an early on the job version of an information system or its constituents. A paradigm can function as an initial theoretical account that is used as a benchmark to measure the accomplished system. or it can develop into the concluding version of the system. CASE tools aid systems analysts develop and maintain information systems. CASE tools supply an overall model for systems development. back up a broad assortment of design methodological analysiss. hike IT productiveness. and better the quality of the finished merchandise.
Agile development methods have attracted a broad followers and an full community of users. Agile methods typically use a coiling theoretical account. which represents a series of loops. or alterations. which are based on user feedback. Advocates of the coiling theoretical account believe that this attack reduces hazards and speeds up package development. Analysts should acknowledge that nimble methods have advantages and disadvantages. By their nature. nimble methods allow developers to be much more flexible and antiphonal. but can be riskier than more traditional methods. For illustration. without a elaborate set of system demands. certain characteristics requested by some users might non be consistent with the company’s larger game program. Other possible disadvantages of adaptative methods can include weak certification. blurred lines of answerability. and excessively small accent on the larger concern image. Besides. unless decently implemented. a long series of loops might really add to project cost and development clip.
( Pages 19 – 21 & A ; 25 – 26 )
10. What is objected-oriented analysis. and how does it differ from structured analysis? Whereas structured analysis respects procedures and informations as separate constituents. object-oriented ( O-O ) analysis combines informations and the procedures that act on the information into things called objects. O-O analysis uses object theoretical accounts to stand for informations. behaviour. and the agencies objects affect other objects.
By depicting the objects ( informations ) and methods ( procedures ) needed to back up a concern operation. a system developer can plan reclaimable constituents for faster system execution and decreased development cost. Many analysts believe that. compared with structured analysis. O-O methods are more flexible. efficient. and realistic in today’s dynamic concern environment. ( Pages 19 – 24 & A ; 24 – 25 )
1. Some experts believe that the growing in e-commerce will do provinces and local authoritiess to lose a important sum of gross revenues revenue enhancement gross. unless Internet minutess are capable to gross revenues revenue enhancement. Make you hold? Why or why non? This issue has sparked strong differences of sentiment among national and province leaders. consumer protagonism groups. and trade associations whose members offer on-line gross revenues and services. In some respects. the same inquiry could use to get off order houses who conduct no physical operations within a province or vicinity. Examples would include houses such as L. L. Bean and Lands End. Should the Internet be treated otherwise? You might desire your pupils to make some preliminary research and so debate this issue. Besides. you might follow this subject as intelligence points occur during the class.
2. Show an statement for and against the undermentioned proposition: Because IT directors must understand all stages of the concern. a company should make full top direction vacancies by advancing IT directors.
Some possible statements for the proposition follow:
a. Information engineering ( IT ) direction has a wide apprehension of the information processing of the company alternatively of the narrower position held by directors from other countries of the company. B. IT direction trades with all functional company countries so members of IT direction know and interrelate with the people who lead and who work in these countries. Because they provide needed services to these countries. IT direction forces have the support of the cardinal forces from these countries. c. Information systems development and care is complex and requires extraordinary direction accomplishments to run successfully. These same accomplishments are necessary in top-level direction places. d. Computer engineering dominates many companies today. Today’s engineering leaders should be tomorrow’s concern leaders.
Some possible statements against the proposition follow:
a. IT direction is more comfy covering with computing machines and with processs. and less comfy covering with people. Top-level direction places require a strong involvement in people and strong accomplishments in covering with people. B. Whether a house is product-oriented or service-oriented. it must do a net income to last. Future company leaders should. therefore. come from the production. service. or fiscal countries. because these countries are the most of import to a company. Possibly. in Internet-dependent houses. the best pick would be an IT director — but merely if he or she had extraordinary concern accomplishments apart from proficient ability. c. It is unwise to curtail chances for top-level direction places to one specific country of the company. Competent leaders are disposed to lift from many different sections. d. People who have worked in several different functional countries are better rounded than those restricted to merely one country. So. unless the IT director has worked outside the IT section. he or she basically is a specializer and is at a disadvantage compared to person with more general cognition and accomplishments.
3. The caput of the IT group in a company is frequently called the main information officer ( CIO ) or main engineering officer ( CTO ) . Should the CIO or CTO study to the company president. to the finance section. where many of the information systems are used. or to person or someplace else? Why would it count?
Several possible advantages of holding the IT manager study to the main fiscal officer of the company follow: e. The operation of the IT section represents a big disbursal for most companies. The main fiscal officer is in the best place to supervise and command this disbursal. f. Financial information systems are among the first in a company to be computerized. and it is natural. hence. to put the IT section under the main fiscal officer. g. It would be hard for a company to do a net income if it did non hold first-class control over its informations and information. The main fiscal officer has duty for all centralised pecuniary maps. Therefore. this same individual should hold duty for all centralized informations and information processing maps. h. Too many proficient inside informations are involved with the operation of the information engineering section. and holding the section study to the president would be unwise. Logically the finance country is the lone lower-level country of the company that has the comprehensiveness of duty necessary to pull off the IT section.
Several possible disadvantages of holding the IT manager study to the main fiscal officer of the company follow: a. There is a danger that excessively much attending would be paid to the fiscal information systems and non plenty to other information systems. B. The IT section should describe to the president of the company because information engineering is every bit of import to the company as the company’s fiscal maps. They. hence. merit equal attending from the president. c. Information engineering is excessively complicated to delegate to person whose expertness is finance and non computing machine engineering.
4. Computers perform many occupations that antecedently were performed by people. Will computer-based minutess and expanded e-commerce finally replace person-to-person contact? From a customer’s point of position. is this better? Why or why non? IT professionals agree that computing machine engineering is altering the manner companies do concern. Many brick-and-mortar houses are establishing large-scale B2B and B2C ventures that deeply will impact traditional concern patterns and operations. Few perceivers think that IT will replace person-to-person contact wholly. although many clerical and administrative maps will go machine-controlled. The existent inquiry is how these alterations will impact people in an information-oriented society. Many perceivers feel that the deductions of immense measures of information and 24/7 entree can cut in both waies.
Reasonable people differ on these issues. and you might desire to suggest a argument among your pupils. For extra background and point of views about the impact of computing machine engineering on traditional person-to-person interaction. pupils can execute research on the Internet and compare the positions of technology-based publications such as InfoWorld. to mainstream concern publications such as Fortune. Forbes. and the Harvard Business Review. among others.
1. Contact at least three people at your school or a nearby company who use information systems. List the systems. the place rubrics of the users. and the concern maps that the systems support. Answers will change. Students could execute this undertaking as persons or work in squads. It might be interesting to compare and discourse the assorted ways in which concerns manage information.
2. Research newspaper. concern magazine articles. or the Web to happen computing machine companies whose stock is traded publically. Choose a company and make-believe to purchase $ 1. 000 of its stock. What is the current monetary value per portion? Why did you take that company? Report each hebdomad to your category on how your stock is making. This undertaking assumes that pupils have some basic apprehension of the stock market. If they do. sites such as Yokel! offer fiscal information and analysis links and resources. If pupils need cardinal information about puting in stocks. you might direct them to the stuff at World Wide Web. free-financial-advice. net/stock-market. hypertext markup language. An industry leader like Vanguard besides offers free online information about puting at its Web site World Wide Web. vanguard. com. Besides. many school and community libraries can help pupils in larning about fiscal footings and constructs. including stock market investings.
3. Make a hunt on the Web to larn more about agile system development attacks and coiling theoretical accounts. Fix a sum-up of the consequences and a list of the sites you visited. Answers will change. Many sites describe and discuss nimble methods. Students should hold no problem happening stuff on nimble methods and coiling theoretical accounts and fixing a sum-up of the consequences. Several sites are shown in the text. and a simple hunt will bring forth a list of many more.
4. Is it truly possible to mensurate believing accomplishments? Before you decide. visit Certiport’s Web site shown in Figure 1-36 and look into the critical thought enfranchisement. Besides visit the Critical Thinking Community site shown in Figure 1-35. Fix a brief memo with your decision and grounds. To win in the schoolroom or the workplace. pupils must be able to specify. entree. evaluate. manage. integrate. create. and communicate information. These accomplishments are described in the undermentioned tabular array. which is from the Certiport. com Web site.
Critical thought is necessary to measure facts. form informations. do a judgement. or work out a job. As teachers. we should promote pupils to larn and pattern these accomplishments.
Most pedagogues believe that it is possible to mensurate critical thought accomplishments. and informations from the Educational Testing Service ( ETS ) supports this decision.