Tele Education Essay, Research Paper

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Tele-education Tele-education has a long

history get downing with systems like that for learning kids in Australian

Outback, the British Open University and other such organisations. These built

on the thought of correspondence classs where class stuffs are sent

sporadically by station and augmented the experience with broadcasts either on

wireless or on Television. The job of pupil isolation was addressed partly through

techniques such as telephone entree or bipartisan wireless links with instructors. At the

terminal of 1980s, the vest bulk of distance instruction throughout the universes was

still chiefly print-based. Technologies used for distance instruction are

germinating from chiefly? one-way? engineerings and applications such as

computing machine aided acquisition, computing machine based preparation and computing machine aided direction,

to more? two-way? engineerings and applications such as computing machine mediated

communications and computing machine conferencing systems for instruction. The significance

of? two-way? engineerings is that they allow foe interaction between

participant and coachs, and possibly even more significantly amongst participant

themselves. This development has allowed and in some senses force researches to

expression more closely at the impact of educational environment, on the pupils

larning experience. In the hereafter, it is expected that the

telecommunications-based engineerings to go the primary agencies of bringing of

distance instruction. The grounds for this are as follows: & # 183 ; a much wider

scope of engineerings are going more accessible to possible distance

instruction participants & # 183 ; the costs of technological bringing are dropping

dramatically & # 183 ; the engineering is going easier to utilize for both coachs

and scholars & # 183 ; the engineering is going more powerful didactically

& # 183 ; instruction centres will happen it progressively hard to defy the

political and societal force per unit areas of the technological jussive moods. 1.2 The

Emergence of Tele-education Radical alterations in the computer science substructure,

spurred by multimedia computer science and communicating, will make more than widen the

educational system, that is revolutionise it. Technological progresss will do

schoolrooms mush more accessible and effectual. Today, schoolroom instruction

dominates instruction from simple school to graduate school. This method has

remained popular for a really long clip and will likely prevail as the most

common manner of instruction. However, schoolroom instruction has its jobs, that is

the effectiveness diminution with addition in the figure of pupils per category.

Other force per unit areas affect the teachers, many of whom are non experts in the

stuff they must learn, are non good? performing artists? in category, or merely are

non interested in learning. The biggest restriction of the schoolroom direction

is that a category meets at a peculiar clip in a peculiar topographic point. This

basically requires all pupils and the teachers to roll up in one topographic point for

their specified period. But with the emerging engineering, these jobs can be

overcome. 1.3 Reasons for analyzing Tele-education The current Tele-education

systems that have been applied in some states are by and large of multipoint

transmittal technique. It is found that, this sort of transmittal technique

holding several jobs or defects. Largely, jobs raised during the

application of the system. One of the important jobs raised is that, for

the multipoint transmittal, the signals or information transmitted by the

transmitter do non wholly received by the receiving system. This job is might be due

to error that occurs during the transmittal of the signals or information.

Another job is slowdown of transmittal. For this instance, the signals or

information transmitted do non get at all the receiving system at the same clip, for

illustration, the inquiry raised by the lector might non received by the pupils

at the same clip and this is non a good environment for Tele-education system.

Some receiving system receives the signals earlier than the others and some later or

even non receives at all. Therefore, it is of import to analyze the Tele-education

engineering from clip to clip to get the better of these jobs so that the

Tele-education system could supply a more effectual manner of larning

environment. In order to hold a talk from, for illustration, a really celebrated

professor from other state would necessitate him to come at our topographic point. But the

sum of money spent for paying him to give talk would be really expensive and

this besides would do troublesome for him. However, this job can be solved

with Tele-education system in which the professor does non necessitate to travel anyplace

else to give his talk. This would salvage a batch of disbursals and clip. Another

ground is that, in normal categories the acquisition procedure would non be really

effectual if the figure of pupils in a category is really large. This is because the

lector entirely can non organize such a big category. With Tele-education

system, one lector could present his talk to as many pupils as possible

efficaciously in a manner that a big figure of pupils from different sites holding

the same talk at one time. 1.4 Purpose of Research The intent of this research

is to analyze the current Tele-education system that has been applied in some

states. This survey covers the background of Tele-education ; that is its

definition, the publications of Tele-education ; that is any documents that discuss

approximately Tele-education as a whole, the public presentation of applied Tele-education, and

besides the engineering of Tele-education ; that is its web architecture. But the

chief intent of this survey is to understand the Tele-education system that have

been applied in another state and seek to implement it in our state. 1.5

Acronyms ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode CCITT Committee Consultatif

International Telegraphique et Telephonique CPE Customer Premises Equipment IP

Internet Protocol ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISO International

Standard Organization JAMES Joint ATM Experiment on European Services LAN Local

Area Network MAC Medium Access Control Mbone Multicast Backbone PC Personal

Computer POP Point-of-Presence PVC Permanent Virtual Channel QoS Quality of

Service RAT Robust Audio Tool SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol TCP-IP

Transmission Control Protocol & # 8211 ; Internet Protocol TES Tele-Educational Service

UI User Interface VIC Video Conferencing Tool VP Virtual Path VPN Virtual

Private Network VSD Virtual Student Desktop WAN Wide Area Network WWW World Wide

Web XC Cross Connect 2.0 METHOD OF INVESTIGATION Since Tele-education is a really

new engineering that is popularly discussed today, it is rather hard for me

to happen any books that discuss about Tele-education from the library. Therefore,

the easiest and the fastest manner to garner information associating this undertaking is

via the Internet. I have surfed and found many interesting sites that discuss

about Tele-education. Besides surfboarding, I besides have contacted several people who

are involved in this country, Tele-education, by e-mail. But unfortunately, this does

non truly assist because most of them did non answer. Besides utilizing the Internet,

I besides get the information for this undertaking from the IEEE Database at the

library of Universiti Telekom. 3.0 BACKGROUND STUDY 3.1 Definition of

Tele-education What is Tele-education? Before discoursing about what

Tele-education agencies, Lashkar-e-Taibas look at what distance acquisition is. This is because

Tele-education and distance acquisition are really related to each other. Distance

acquisition is the acquisition of accomplishments and cognition through electronic

communications that allow pupil and teacher to be separate in either in

clip or infinite. The to distance acquisition is? asynchronous acquisition? which can

be defined slackly as larning at different clip. It is a extremely flexible method

of preparation because the transmitter and receiver do non necessitate to be synchronized in

infinite or clip. But Tele-education is more than that of distance acquisition. In

Tele-education, non merely asynchronous but synchronal acquisition is besides made

possible. In other words, Tele-education is the development of distance acquisition.

As stated before, asynchronous larning environment is non real-time

environment. It is a self-study-based application and is accessed via the

Internet to a waiter. The demand to the pupil is merely an ordinary Personal computer with

standard package and Internet entree. This application is applicable for a

big sum of users who can entree the class independent of each other. The

combination of the lecture-part, group-work-part, and self-study-part is another

type of Tele-education larning environment, which is synchronal larning. It

is a real-time environment. In this environment, pupils and lectors can

interact with each other at the same time. Tele-education use the engineering of

picture teleconferencing that allows two or more parties at different geographical

country to interact with each other or to hold larning procedure together. But

people normally get baffled whether picture teleconference can be considered as

Tele-education every bit good. Tele-education is really different with picture

teleconferencing in a manner that Tele-education normally involve a big figure of

people as compared to video teleconference, that is, it is in picture

teleconferencing many people use a individual proctor to see other people at other

country but in Tele-education, pupils have their ain proctor that can be used non

merely to see their lector and co-workers but besides to direct and have

educational stuffs. 3.2 Publications of Tele-education There are many documents

discoursing about Tele-education. Most of these documents cover merely the general or

overall range of Tele-education. The country of treatment on Tele-education can be

summarized as the followers: & # 183 ; Tele-education service & # 183 ; Content of

Tele-education & # 183 ; Network architecture & # 183 ; public presentation of

Tele-education & # 183 ; operation and direction of Tele-education For

Tele-education service, it describes about what multimedia tele-service and

hyper media service is, and how it can be integrated into Tele-education

service. It besides describes about what Tele-education service facilitate. Content

of Tele-education describes about the manner or manner of Tele-education system,

that is, what sort of instruction manner used, and how the talk notes or any

stuffs delivered to all the pupils. For web architecture, it describes

about the protocol used for the Tele-education system and its web

substructure. Performance of Tele-education covers the public presentation of service

of Tele-education and besides the web public presentation. The description of these

public presentations is from the client point of position. For the operation and

direction of Tele-education, it describes about what should be taken into

consideration in order to supply a good managed Tele-education service. 3.3

Examples of Systems From the survey of stuffs gathered, there are by and large

three illustrations of Tele-education system that have been applied in the Europe and

Canada. Those illustrations are: & # 183 ; Tele-education NB & # 183 ; Delta & # 8217 ; s Virtual

College & # 183 ; ACTS Project AC052 ( RACE Project Report ) The intent of looking

into these illustrations is to seek to understand what sort of Tele-education system

is implemented, how Tele-education can be implemented, to cognize what are the

demands to implement it, and what considerations should be taken into

consideration for implementing it. 3.3.1 Tele-education NB Tele-education NB is

implemented at the University of New Brunswick, Canada. The present physical

web consists of three independent webs that operate on telephone lines ;

& # 183 ; Voice & # 183 ; SMART 2000 computing machine teleconferencing & # 183 ; Computer

Mediated Communications utilizing NBNet The SMART 2000 span for computing machine package

sharing and audiographic teleconference is owned and operated by the

Tele-education NB. This is accessed by simple dial connexions utilizing ordinary

telephone lines. This allows for the computing machine proctor at each site to demo

images created by users at the other sites. The package can be used like an

luxuriant electronic chalkboard, overhead projector, or slide projector. In

add-on, it is being used for package sharing at multiple locations. Datas

communications are transmitted over NBNet utilizing a SLIP waiter which resides in a

user friendly simple bill of fare front-end created by Tel-education NB to allow easy

entree to NBNet and to installations available. Students and instructors can entree

NBNet for uploading and downloading assignments and other class stuffs. A

CD-ROM waiter is being set up at the cardinal site and at the University of New

Brunswick library for allowing entree to different databases. Tele-education

NB besides supports an online acquisition centre with a file waiter located at Mount

Allison University. Information of relevancy distance instruction and the web

in peculiar can be accessed at that place. In Tele-education NB, a particular listserv is

created for internal communications among different sites. As an built-in portion

of the state & # 8217 ; s electronic information main road, Tele-education NB is

back uping the development of an unfastened, distributed web, taking advantage of

media available. The most widely used bringing manners are audio teleconference

with SMART 2000, every bit good as videoconferencing. However, it is non restricting the

web to any one engineering, or suite of engineerings. It is actively

advancing experimentation and cooperation in the response and bringing of

classs utilizing other package and media. Tele-education NB placed routers in the

Community College Campus in each part, and other sites in parts that do non

hold a college. Initially it operates utilizing 56K connexions and will travel T1.

Smart 2000 runs non merely on regular telephone lines but besides on LANs and WANs

utilizing Novell, TCP-IP and other telecommunication protocols. Tele-education Niobium

are now experimenting with synchronal transmittals utilizing the TCP-IP protocol

on NBNet. The Picturetel videoconferencing units bing in state all are

CCITT compatible. Tele-education NB has provided the guidelines for choosing

appropriate engineering for its web as follows: & # 183 ; The web shall

experiment with different engineerings and enterprise non to trust on any one

engineering or any provider. & # 183 ; Existing equipment and distance instruction

sites in the state shall be integrated into the web wherever possible.

& # 183 ; The web shall set up computing machine teleconference and computing machine

conferencing links among the sites, including entree to electronic information

main road and the Internet. & # 183 ; Satellite bringing and response capablenesss

and upgrading of sites to PC-based videoconferencing will be investigated for

execution in future. & # 183 ; Other optional equipment may be placed in

sites at the petition of users and establishments such as MACs and CD-ROMs.

& # 183 ; The web should be compatible every bit much as possible with other

states and parts. 3.3.2 DELTA & # 8217 ; s Virtual College Delta & # 8217 ; s Virtual College is

implemented in Denmark ( Europe ) . It offers the chance for pupils to

participate in desktop Tele-education from their places or offices. This construct

agencies that single pupils take part in Tele-educational classs utilizing a

desktop computing machine online connected to a class supplier. The user interface is a

common Web browser, that is, Netscape Web-browser, extended with slackly

integrated sound and picture tools. The educational environment applies the

metaphor of a practical college. The thought is that pupils entree DELTA & # 8217 ; s practical

college waiter when take parting in a class. The user interface looks like the

program of a college. From the college hallway, the pupil can come in different

suites with different maps. Those suites are: & # 183 ; schoolrooms where

online talks and presentation take topographic point, & # 183 ; group suites where on-line

concerted work takes topographic point, & # 183 ; surveies where off-line survey such as

self-study stuff, exercises, slides from old talks, auxiliary

stuff and links to other sites on the Web take topographic point, & # 183 ; instructor

offices where it is furnished with class disposal tools, & # 183 ; tea

room where it is used for informal confabs and societal contact with fellow pupils

during interruption. The undermentioned figure, the “ floor program ” , illustrates

those suites: Figure 1: The floor program The end of this practical college is to

integrate different manners of instruction and acquisition. This includes synchronal

manners like online talks and group exercisings every bit good as asynchronous manners like

synergistic ego survey, engagement and threaded measure board conferences and

sharing of paperss. The practical college is run chiefly in a local web

environment in order easy to supervise and command the pupils and engineering.

Then, when there are several states participate, each sites are connected by

the JAMES ( Joint ATM Experiment on European Services ) broadband web. 3.3.3

ACTS Project AC052 ( RACE Project Report ) This is a large undertaking on

Tele-education. It covers the whole facets that should be taken into

consideration for implementing Tele-education in Europe such as service facets,

direction facets, web architecture, etc. In this undertaking, there are

several tests have been done in order to obtain an effectual Tele-education

system. The inside informations of this will be discussed subsequently throughout this study. 4.0

Consideration It is non easy to happen stuffs or any documents describing the

architecture of Tele-education. Most of the stuffs found are fundamentally

discoursing about the general thought on what Tele-education system is, for illustration

some documents discuss about the general system of a Tele-education service

offered, its advantages over current educational environment, etc. However, I

managed to happen a really interesting stuff discoursing approximately Tele-education as a

whole, that is the ACTS Project AC052 ( RACE Report Project ) . Therefore, I choose

this study as my chief mention in making my survey on Tele-education overall

system description covering the architecture. There are fundamentally five chief

subjects that are traveling to be discussed in rather item sing the

Tele-education as a whole in this study. These chief subjects are: & # 183 ;

Tele-education service & # 183 ; Tele-education content & # 183 ; Network

architecture of Tele-education system & # 183 ; Performance of Tele-education

service & # 183 ; Operation and direction of Tele-education service 4.1

Tele-education Service The multimedia tele-service provides both nucleus and

direction services. The multimedia tele-services are briefly described as

Video/audio conferencing service, which based on the MBONE ( Multicast Backbone )

tools VIC ( video conferencing ) and RAT ( audio conferencing ) . Hypermedia service

allows entree to be provided to hypermedia information stored on a WWW waiter.

The WebStore service is a managed WWW based multimedia papers shop, which

allows users to hive away and recover arbitrary paperss ( text, picture, sound,

etc. ) , utilizing the well-known interface of the WWW. The direction of the WebStore

includes subscription, accounting and entree control. A function between the

larning signifiers and the multimedia teleservices has resulted in a list of four

basic paradigms: a ) Self-study & # 183 ; Individual work with web based class

stuff including exercisings and discovery/reference hunt. & # 183 ; This

paradigm is supported by the interactive multimedia and WebStore services. B ) Lecture

& # 183 ; Teacher to category presentation. & # 183 ; Supported by the conferencing

and interactive multimedia services. degree Celsius ) Group work & # 183 ; Discussions, exercisings or

undertaking work performed by the pupils in groups. This paradigm can besides include

shared discovery/reference hunt. & # 183 ; It is supported by conferencing,

interactive multimedia, and WebStore services. vitamin D ) Consultation & # 183 ; Student to tutor

audience & # 183 ; Supported by video/audio conferencing and interactive multimedia

services. In order to back up these four paradigms the multimedia services are

integrated into a Tele-educational Services ( TES ) which provides both the nucleus

service and the direction service functionality. The nucleus Tele-educational

service provides two user interfaces, one for the instructor and one for the

pupils. In Tele-educational service, each class, presented as portion of

Tele-educational service, would affect the rendition and seamless integrating

of audio, text, graphics/bitmaps and appropriate picture sections, to accommodate the

presentation of the class stuff. An educational service would besides

ease the interaction of class participants with one another in category

treatments, every bit good as with the class coach. In this manner, a class coach can

usher arguments on issues originating from class stuff and allow participants to

exchange positions and portion experience. This interaction is really of import, as

participants need to be encouraged to larn both from the tutored class every bit good

as from each other & # 8217 ; s practical experience. This forum of treatment besides

supports the coach in measuring feedback from the participants refering the

comprehension, benefit and effectivity of a class for participants. The

educational service could besides ease entree to simulation environments and

& # 8216 ; unrecorded systems & # 8217 ; , which are parts of the participant & # 8217 ; s class stuff. For

illustration, it could supply entree to specific commercial database information,

which would be portion of a Database Modeling class. In this manner, entree may be

gained to systems and information, which would otherwise non be available on the

participant & # 8217 ; s site. Course could be taken when the participant & # 8217 ; s work agendas

permitted. Similarly, participant/participant interaction could be scheduled

flexibly. An educational service can be seen as integrating several

interaction ( tele-services ) and class presentation mechanism, for illustration,

multimedia presentation tools conferencing, e-mail or notice board systems. The

following is an illustration of service bed used in the ACTS Project AC052: Figure

2: Service Layer In the ACTS Project AC052, there are two Tele-educational

classs offered as a test of the direction service. These classs are “

An Introduction to ATM “ and “ An Introduction to Relational Databases

and SQL “ . 4.1.1 An Introduction to ATM The class includes both

synchronal and asynchronous bringing methods. The continuance of the class is

three to four yearss with about three hours of learning and analyzing each

twenty-four hours. The class consists of five talks, three ego survey faculties and three

group exercises with a follow-up treatment of the consequences. The different

faculties and manners of the class are conducted in a Tele-educational environment

which includes class outline information, a database of participants with

images and CVs, a WWW hoarding back uping off-line treatments, entree to a

WebStore and a tea-room which participants can see for informal confabs. The

talks are performed by utilizing video/audio conference tools. A system was used

to demo slides on the participants web-browsers. The ego survey faculties

contained web pages with information to read and little built-in exercisings. The

group exercises consist of a figure of inquiries to be answered by the group and

returned to the instructor for rectification afterwards. When the instructor has

corrected the replies they are discussed in a conference with all the

participants. In the first test a shared editor was introduced for usage in group

exercisings. The shared editor is a tool for synchronal coaction on smaller

texts, and is meant to complement the confab and whiteboard tools used in earlier

tests. An illustration of the new shared editor can be found below. In the

2nd test, a new floorcontrol-system for usage during talks every bit good as a

complete new graphical design of the practical acquisition environment was tested.

The floorcontrol system was used by the instructor during talks, to find

which pupils wanted to inquire a inquiry, and to muffle or unmute the mikes

and picture cameras consequently. A new graphical design of the User Interface ( UI )

was introduced, in an effort to make an even more homogeneous UI. The

floorplan metaphore was kept, but new images and controls where implemented

throughout the environment. 4.1.2 An Introduction to Relational Databases and

SQL This class covered the theoretical rules of relational database

engineering every bit good as back uping the hands-on accomplishments of utilizing relational

database linguistic communication ( SQL ) . Students took the class over a three twenty-four hours period, for

two hours each twenty-four hours. At the beginning of the class a one hr talk outlined

the aims of the class and provided an debut to the subjects. The

educational content comprised of text, artworks, and life and was divided

into four subdivisions, dwelling of a sum of 20 one faculty ( a faculty

typically being 1-5 pages ) . The class was made available via the Prospect

Tele-educational environment. On accessing the class, a separate courseware

browser window was opened, called the Virtual Student Desktop ( VSD ) . All pupil

interactions with the courseware are facilitated via this VSD. The

Tele-educational environment is besides accessible by the pupil for conferencing

and synchronal interaction. The VSD is rendered as a set of WWW Windowss,

frames, tool saloon and icons. All native WWW browser buttons are suppressed

( hidden ) so as non to deflect the user from the chief end of instruction. A tool

saloon specially designed for educational usage is provided by the VSD at the underside

of the screen. From this tool saloon the pupil is able to reach coachs or

fellow pupils ( asynchronously ) , entree external systems, every bit good as navigate

and interact with the educational class stuff. Figure 3 illustrates a page

from a faculty in the class, and shows the educational toolbar at the underside of

the screen and an index of the subjects dealt with by this peculiar faculty in

the class on the left manus side of the screen. Figure 3: page from faculty in

the class Overall the class comprised several different types of information:

Administrative ( i.e. how to utilize the class etc. ) ; A database of ( self contained )

faculties ; Indexes or Roadmaps of specific classs through assorted faculties ;

Evaluation Forms and a Case Study. The roadmaps were of import as the faculties

can be combined in several ways to fulfill the different demands for

different pupil aims. Each roadmap corresponds to different acquisition

aims of the RDBMS class. Thus the roadmaps provide a agency of re-using

bing faculties with every bit small redundancy as possible of educational stuff

and administrative operating expense. A important characteristic of the system was to supply

direct entree to a existent? commercial?

RDBMS via the same interface as the

educational class. The relational DBMS is seamlessly integrated into the

pupil educational desktop. Thus the tool saloon offered by the VSD contains an

icon which allows pupils to publish SQL questions on a unrecorded database. The thought of

this is to intentionally film over the differentiation between the educational environment

and the? mark? systems. This encourages pupils to? seek out? assorted

parts of the class before trying a larger undertaking. Another characteristic was the

ability of the pupil to hive away mentions to distinguishable locations in the class

stuff ( bookmarks ) . Traditionally these are stored locally on the pupil? s

machine. However this has disadvantages as pupils seldom use the same machine

all the clip. The VSD allows such bookmarks to be stored within the educational

service and are therefore ( in private ) accessible to an single pupil at any

clip. Besides if the pupil has logged off the class and logs back on, the VSD

allows him/her the ability to restart at his/her most recent place or restart

at the beginning. Assorted signifiers of online tutorials are embedded into the

class. ? True or False? and? Multiple Choice Questions? are supported,

with automatic rectification and presentment of Markss to the pupil. Form based

( short unstructured text manner ) replies are besides facilitated in some tutorials.

In these instances the pupil replies are automatically delivered to class coachs

for subsequent rectification. Besides integrated into the class are rating signifiers

which, when completed, are automatically submitted and stored for later analysis

by class coachs. The VSD provides buttons to reach other category members or to

seek coach aid. Again, this is offered via WWW signifiers and incorporate

transparently with an electronic mail bringing system. 4.2 Tele-education Content There

are several manners of educational interaction, which could be supported by a

practical theatre/study room. These would include lecture presentation, class

material presentation and browse, self-study, group work ( shared

application/work, category treatments, group presentations ) , audience

( tutor/participant, participant/participant ) , tutorial Sessionss, practical java

room/virtual sofa, and uninterrupted appraisal. There are besides some other signifier

of larning that have been identified. These signifiers of larning are: & # 183 ;

Self larning & # 183 ; bringing of formatted classs stuff for pupils ain

survey & # 183 ; Lecture presentation & # 183 ; a one-to-many presentation by the

coach of class or organisational stuff. & # 183 ; Exercises & # 183 ; the

installation to execute exercisings either in groups or separately & # 183 ; Undertaking

work & # 183 ; the development of ample undertakings utilizing package outside the

learning environment. & # 183 ; Discovery/Reference research & # 183 ; ability to

locate and entree background or auxiliary larning stuff & # 183 ;

Seminar/Class treatment groups & # 183 ; many-to-many communicating between

participants. & # 183 ; Consultation & # 183 ; private one-to-one communicating

between participants. There is some overtap between these larning signifiers. For

illustration, exercises, undertaking work, discovery/reference hunt can be portion of the

self-learning signifier, but all of acquisition signifiers are listed here for completeness.

It has been pointed out that non merely should the different manners of learning be

supported in the Tele-educational environment but besides the different manners of

larning adopted by the pupils need to be supported. So for case pupils

who like to footnote their work or their class stuff should be facilitated

in making so. This is really much in the spirit of hypertext beginnings of the WWW.

Another point raised is that multimedia activity in the practical schoolroom should

be captured and associated with relevant class stuff. For case, the

instructors remarks on a peculiar slide could be captured with the slide in

inquiry. Besides the conversation of pupils working on group could besides be

recorded and stored with the exercising. Course stuff could be presented as a

hyper-document with the participant capable of voyaging through the papers

or taking the prescribed ordination of the presentation. In add-on, the

participant could besides be given entree to the more traditional acquisition

stuff, for illustration, notes, books, etc. Course assignments could besides be

electronically submitted to advance fast feedback on public presentation. An of import

component of assignments and undertaking work is the demand to let participants to

co-operate in groups. 4.3 Network Architecture of Tele-education System From the

application & # 8217 ; s point of position, web operates as IP ( Internet Protocol ) web

routing both multicast and unicast IP packages. Connection from web degree to

the Q-adapters pull offing the switches communicate via ISO stack over X.25 links,

but apart from this instances all web substructure is in support of IP

traffic. This web construction connects seven sites. The purpose of the logical

web substructure is to supply stable web interconnectednesss every bit good as

to be managed to some extent by the web direction, and to supply a

working, broadband web substructure while besides back uping an endeavor

theoretical account suited for multi-domain environment. For the separate client webs,

each sites posses of LANs of Ethernet, or assorted ATM/Ethernet LAN engineerings.

For maximal efficiency of scarce international, broadband resources, merely one

site in each states ( that taking portion in Tele-education system ) are

connected. The connexion, internationally connected client sites entree the

public web ATM service via an ATM cross-connect ( ATM XC ) supplying ATM

public web supplier & # 8217 ; s Point-of-Presence ( POP ) in each of relevant states.

Each client sites posses ATM Customer Premises Equipment ( CPE ) which is used

to complect ATM public web with local routers. For the connexion within

the same state, it is performed via leased lines between routers at

internationally connected client sites and sites non connected to ATM populace

web supplier. The ATM CPEs at internationally connected sites and routers at

all client sites managed by VPN ( Virtual Private Network ) supplier. It is

performed in concert with direction of ATM public service by VPN supplier to

provide Intranet manner connectivity between hosts on client site LANs. This

web is rather complicated because it connects seven sites in four states

and dwelling of the following nucleus constituents: & # 183 ; Four ATM LANs & # 183 ;

Seven Ethernet based LANs & # 183 ; Four ATM Cross Connects & # 183 ; Eight atmospherics

IP routes & # 183 ; Seven multicast routers & # 183 ; Two 2 Mbps leased lines

& # 183 ; Ten International ATM links ( practical way ) & # 183 ; One basic rate ISDN

associate The followers is the figure of logical web substructure: Figure 4:

Logical Network Infrastructure. The ATM substructure that represents ATM

public web supplier consists of a individual ATM XC at each internationally

connected sites. These Nineties are interconnected by lasting VPs ( Virtual Paths ) .

The ATM CPE at each site based on one or more Fore System ASX-200 switches. It

is employed as logically separate ATM LANs besides as supplying ATM entree

between public web and routers at each site. The followers is the figure of

ATM constellation. Figure 5: ATM Configuration. The IP constellation consists

of routers at each connected sites being connected by Permanent Virtual Channel

( PVC ) running over VPs. The routing map at each site performed either by

dedicated hardware router or by workstations running routing devil package.

Routing of multicast IP packages ( used for multimedia conferencing applications )

is non to the full supported by most current IP routers, hence, routing performed

by multicast routing devil ( mrouteds ) running on workstations. The mrouteds are

interconnected by unicast IP tunnels, which can be used to be routed via routers

together with all other unicast traffic. The IP tunnels between mrouted at

internationally connected sites used the 2nd sets of VPs. This supports

divider of multicast traffic from other unicast traffic and therefore enables

proviso of more deterministic Quality of Service ( QoS ) for multimedia

conferencing application. For external substructure, the purpose is to supply

international ATM links between IP routers at the client sites. Parallel VPs

are used between each brace of sites ; one for multicast routing and another 1

for unicast routing. Figure 6: The web constellation Reflecting the

modern-day tendencies in multimedia and information services, all package

communicating is over IP, including direction system traffic. For the web

substructures that are conducted at a individual site, the demand its web

is reasonably simple, necessitating merely Ethernet connexion to back up IP

communicating between Personal computers and workstations. If the system includes the

direction of connexions over IP switches, so the web substructure

would include both a representative public web ATM cross connect and

client premises web ATM work-group switch ( a FORE systems ASX200 ) . These

are connected and configured with multiple VPs to emulate a web with a

larger figure of nodes. IP routing maps in this web are provided by the

SPARC workstations with ATM interface cards executing IP forwarding. The

following is the web constellation of this sort of web: Figure 7:

Network constellation For this web constellation, the TES Customer is able

to bespeak the set-up of a new connexion to the TES supplier. The TES supplier

so requested the VPN supplier to make similarly. The VPN supplier made a petition

to the Public Network Provider and Customer Premises Network Provider to guarantee

that the end-to-end IP/ATM connexion was in topographic point for the TES Customer. This is

the end for the constellation scenario. One of the most of import on an Standard atmosphere

web degree direction system is to supply end-to-end connectivity across

component ATM web component, and so back up the connectivity provisioning

with mistake direction and quality of service characteristics. Challenged by these

demands, a system that is able to put up ATM Virtual Paths and to correlate

faulty conditions, finding how these mistake consequence the connectivity for each

terminal user has been built. The followers is the Network substructure of this

system: Figure 8: Network substructure The figure shows that all the web

equipment is connected to one Ethernet hub, that is, the hub that acts as a

anchor for one Public Network sphere and two Customer Premises Networks. In

world, this hub could be partitioned into a figure of cyberspaces that are

inter-connected by routers, besides known as the Internet. For the web that is

required to run over six sites in four different states, would necessitate a

much more comprehensive web substructure. This substructure consisted of

an ATM VP service, leased lines, and the internal ATM and IP web

substructure. The followers is the illustration of this web substructure:

Figure 9: Network substructure 4.4 Performance of Tele-educational Service

4.4.1 Courses There were two classs, both aimed at pupils with above norm

anterior cognition of calculating and/or computing machine webs. The first, an

debut to SQL, was a self-study class, dwelling chiefly of faculties of

written text with appraisals based on these. The 2nd class, an debut

to ATM, was led by a coach and involved varied methods of bringing, including

lecture/seminar, single survey and group work. Students were hence

expected to interact both with one another and with the coach. This class, excessively,

included assessment faculties. Both of the classs were offered over a three-day

period and pupils were expected to take part for three half yearss. Within

this clip, those taking the SQL class was able to gait their ain survey. On the

ATM class, the pupils? usage of the different resources was timetabled and

directed by the coach. Time was divided between events, such as talks, at

which all pupils were expected to be present, and survey clip, during which

they would work through a series of faculties, with appraisal associated with

each one. 4.4.2 Students There were 16 pupils on the more synergistic of the

two classs, the Introduction to ATM, and a similar figure on the self-paced

survey class, An Introduction to SQL. All the pupils appeared to be

experienced computing machine users. This has to be accepted as necessary in a test such

as this, which takes topographic point in the context of a research undertaking which uses

taking border engineering, some of it is still being tested. The archetypal

nature of parts of the system may do unusual demands on the pupils, such as

enforcing unexpected holds. Having pupils who appreciate the troubles may

good be of import. Having said this, it appeared that although they were

knowing about computing machines, these pupils were non experts in networked

multimedia engineering, and did necessitate some initial preparation in the usage of the

package. This was given prior to the start of the class. The classs were

clearly directed at this mark group, as their rubrics suggest. The pupils

besides stated that they had a echt want to larn the topics being offered and

that this was a major motivation factor. They were besides paid for their

engagement, which may hold helped better their continuity when there were

proficient enlistments. 4.4.3 System The system used for the ATM class is described

here. Those taking the SQL class used merely those parts suited to self survey.

There are three chief elements: sound, and picture communications channels support

a Tele-education system built on a web-browser base, but with considerable

functionality added. The audio tool, rat, allows participants to have and

transmit sound, to place who is talking, command the volume of entrance and

surpassing audio watercourse. Since this tool was developed as a research platform,

there are many excess characteristics which the mean end-user is non likely to utilize in

an application such as this one, for illustration, the installation to alter the sound

encoding strategy. The tool? s basic functionality is easy to larn and utilize. The

picture tool, vic, besides offers functionality suitable for its usage as a platform

for research into networked picture. For the non-expert, nevertheless, the most

of import characteristics are that multiple users can direct and have picture

at the same time and that they can command some characteristics of both show and

capture/transmission ( image size and frame rate are two illustrations ) . Video images

can be displayed at assorted sizes from thumbnail image to CIF. Enlarging images

does, nevertheless, involve making a new window for each one. Students entree the

Tele-education system via a web browser and navigate within it utilizing hypertext

links, buttons and active countries of images. Initial entree is password protected

and the system supports the impression of groups and hence, presumptively of multiple

categories and tutorial groups. The interface is based on the metaphor of an

educational establishment, a edifice divided into suites whose map most

pupils will be able to foretell from their real-life experience of instruction:

schoolroom, tea room, hall, office, library and seminar room. Users are presented

with an aerial position of the layout, in which the suites are labeled. They gain

entree to a room by snaping on the appropriate portion of this image. The

ensuing window sometimes maintains the metaphor but is more frequently chiefly

textual & # 8211 ; a list of hypertext links, for illustration. Once “ in ” a room,

pupils have entree to the resources they need for the portion of the class they

are taking. As might be assumed from the description, the system is intended to

support a assorted manner of class bringing, including talks, group treatments

and assignments, single survey, appraisal with feedback. The being of

the office implies that pupils can besides entree relevant class administrative

information. The Hall and tea suites suggest that the purpose is besides to

support less formal, societal interactions. 4.4.4 Positive Findingss The classs

both seemed to be appropriate for the mark group. Students reported that they

believed they had learned a considerable sum and felt they would retain the

of import points. The tempo of the survey besides seemed successful. The coach

clearly had a sense that this was a existent category in a existent establishment and made

considerable attempts to bring forth a relaxed and positive ambiance. Use of

pupils? names, and recognizing them every bit shortly as they logged in, contributed to

this. This is no average accomplishment, given the restraints. The coach tended to

refer to the environment as if it were a existent topographic point, set uping with pupils,

for illustration, to “ run into in the tea room ” or stating them to “ travel to

the library ” . Whether the pupils shared this perceptual experience is less clear.

This may be due to the short clip available to go familiar with it. It would

be interesting to see whether the environment would go more “ existent ”

to the pupils over a longer class. The room-based construction therefore seems

to hold been successful. The metaphor seems to hold been good chosen, since

pupils seemed to hold appropriate outlooks of each “ room ” . None

of them appeared to hold trouble voyaging between different suites.

Observation did demo that some pupils had to scroll up and down repeatedly,

nevertheless, when they were working on single survey texts. This seemed

peculiarly to be the instance where they found the stuff more hard. Again,

there was no mark that they were unsure of where to travel or had trouble in

pilotage. In footings of class bringing, the test showed that pupils

experienced considerable assortment in the ATM class ( necessarily less so in the

SQL class ) . Not merely this, but the coach seemed able to work the flexibleness

of the system and to direct the pupil to alternate countries of survey from what

had been planned originally, if necessary. One of the jobs with distance

instruction is that such flexibleness can be harder to accomplish than in a

face-to-face state of affairs, so this is assuring and an interesting consequence of holding

different applications integrated in this manner. It besides has a matter-of-fact usage:

given proficient jobs in one country, it was possible to switch pupils to

another activity rather easy. Interactivity, both structured and insouciant was

potentially considerable. The shared whiteboard used for group work was

perceived by pupils as a good characteristic. It seemed, nevertheless, that they did non

all realize at first that they could compose and pull on it. Possibly this should

be pointed out in the introductory Sessionss, or the whiteboard should be

accompanied by a short explanatory note. It would besides be just to state that this

was non a long plenty test to measure serviceability of this portion of the system. In

the limited clip it was besides non easy for pupils to set up relationships.

The system and the manner the coach used it did promote pupils to acquire to cognize

one another since, for illustration, one of the first activities for pupils was to

upload their CVs and images and to shop through those of other pupils. The

degree of concentration appeared to be high. Naturally, as in a schoolroom, there

were minutes when pupils? attending moved off from the topic of survey but

these were non frequent. Interestingly, they normally stayed at the workstation

but moved to another activity such as reading electronic mail. The pupils observed

“ unrecorded ” appeared to keep concentration despite considerable

background noise and other possible distractions. This is non a surprise, since

other computer-based instruction and acquisition tests have drawn similar decisions

– but it is another promising characteristic. At best, the stuff with which the

pupils were engaged appeared good designed for bringing on a computing machine screen.

The information was “ packaged ” into manageable balls and was visually

exciting. Diagrams, coloring material and life were used efficaciously, and the

layout was clear and appealing. As the following subdivision suggests, nevertheless, non all

of the written stuff was so suited for this method of presentation.

Feedback was given to pupils both by the coach, during treatments ( for the

ATM class ) , and as a consequence of appraisals done at the terminal of each faculty.

Students appeared to take these appraisals earnestly and were observed to

return to the relevant portion of the notes when unsure or when they had given an

wrong reply. The range of this rating did non widen to measuring the

class design or the assessment methods, but it is deserving adverting that the

regular appraisal seems to hold been a successful characteristic of the class.

Awareness of other pupils is something that is difficult to accomplish in distance

instruction. Interestingly, with the audio channel left unfastened during private survey

periods, it appeared that pupils experienced something similar to working in a

library with other pupils around them. They were able to hear conversations

and could hold asked inquiries if they needed to. The possible disadvantage is

that the extra background noise might interfere with concentration. It

would likely be deserving look intoing whether the handiness or otherwise of

the audio channel makes a difference to pupils. 4.5 Operation and Management

of Tele-education Service A critical component of any service is the dependability,

configurability and disposal of that service. In order to guarantee success

of an educational service from both the participants? and coach? s

positions, the delivered service must be good managed and monitored. It is

crucially of import to recognize the package and processs necessary to pull off

and present Tele-educational services over broadband webs. Four basic

rules for successful instruction in a practical schoolroom environment have been

identified as & # 183 ; media profusion, & # 183 ; interaction, & # 183 ; seasonably

reactivity and & # 183 ; organisation of stuffs. Media profusion and

interaction mechanisms can be satisfied by the educational services described

earlier. The organisation of class stuffs and the insurance of seasonably

response by systems, participants and coachs are ends of the direction

service. During the bringing of a class, there is a important mass of

stuff presented to participants every bit good as a high grade of interactive

responses amongst participants. Unless this mass of stuffs is organized and

interaction controlled, participants can go baffled and disillusioned.

Proper care and direction of the airing of stuff must be put

in topographic point to supply an effectual acquisition environment. Segregation of stuff,

both between and within class faculties should besides be supported. The scheme of

? participant-paced? acquisition is of import so as to guarantee that the category

moves through the faculties of a class together in order for the interactions to

be meaningful. Seasonably reactivity has besides been identified as a key

demand for Tele-education. Thus entree to class stuff, every bit good as other

participants and coachs, should be dependable and seasonably. To accomplish successful

operation of the tele-educational service, participant ( on-site ) package should

be configurable for a broad scope of calculating environments. Besides engagement

of the category members should be manageable e.g. class enrollment, commanding

entree to category treatments, automatic collection/distribution of assignments

and undertakings etc. The online direction system should supply the scope of

services as required by each class leader. 5.0 CONCLUSION Tele-education system

is a really new emerging engineering. It has been applied in Europe and Canada, and

is still under survey in order to better it from clip to clip. From this

undertaking, it is known that Tele-education is a revolution of distance acquisition in

which distance larning fundamentally merely provides asynchronous larning

environment. But Tele-education has improved it by supplying both asynchronous

and synchronal larning environment. After analyzing all the stuffs found for

this stuff, it was found that Tele- instruction is non easy to implement. This

is because there are a batch of things need to be considered before implementing

such as what sort of web constructions available, what sort of service can be

provided by web service supplier, what is the most suited web for

interconnectedness among the involved sites, etc. Another ground is that, after

implementing it, there need to hold several tests on the service to look at its

efficiency which would take a long clip. In general, it can be concluded that

Tele-education is going popular as the emerging of multimedia engineering. Its

advantages that could get the better of the job in current acquisition environment besides

has made it a preferred manner of larning procedure. 6.0 Needed EQUIPMENT AND

MATERIALS The followers are the equipment or stuffs needed for the completion

of this undertaking in 3rd semester: a ) Opnet package ( Sun workstation ) & # 8211 ; used

to execute simulation B ) Television Conferencing System with ; i. ISDN Interface two. H324

Television Conferencing Interface three. Small Television camera four. Speaker ( stereo ) & # 183 ;

this is required for some experiment intents on Tele-education system degree Celsius )

Satellite System with ; i. Antenna ( 2.6 m ) two. RF receiving system ( C-band ) three. 2 Mbps

Television conferencing Interface four. ISDN ( 2B+D ) Interface & # 8211 ; Still under

study/discussion 7.0 SCHEDULE OF PLANNING ( Timetable )

[ 1 ] Krebs, A.M, “ D21A & # 8211 ; The Initial Requirement Analysis ” , ACTS

Undertaking AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: // # D21A

[ 2 ] Jain, R, “ A Revolution In Education ” , IEEE, 1997, pp. 1 [ 3 ]

Bison, T, “ Distance Learning Is an Opportunity ” , Circuit and Devices,

March 1997, pp. 41. [ 4 ] GammelGaard, A, “ D21B & # 8211 ; Final Requirement

Analysis ” , ACTS Project AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: // # D21B

[ 5 ] Nielsen, A.B, “ D53A & # 8211 ; Evaluation of the First Trial Phase ” , ACTS

Undertaking AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: // # D53A

[ 6 ] Krebs, A.M, “ D53B & # 8211 ; Evaluation of The Second Trial ” , ACTS Project

AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: // # D53B

[ 7 ] ] Nielsen, A.B, “ D51A -Operational Plan for First Trial ” , ACTS

Undertaking AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: // # D51A

[ 8 ] Johansen, A, “ D51B & # 8211 ; Operational Plan for Trial 2 ” , ACTS Project

AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: // # D51B

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