Tele Education Essay, Research Paper1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.
1 Background of Tele-education Tele-education has a longhistory get downing with systems like that for learning kids in AustralianOutback, the British Open University and other such organisations. These builton the thought of correspondence classs where class stuffs are sentsporadically by station and augmented the experience with broadcasts either onwireless or on Television. The job of pupil isolation was addressed partly throughtechniques such as telephone entree or bipartisan wireless links with instructors. At theterminal of 1980s, the vest bulk of distance instruction throughout the universes wasstill chiefly print-based. Technologies used for distance instruction aregerminating from chiefly? one-way? engineerings and applications such ascomputing machine aided acquisition, computing machine based preparation and computing machine aided direction,to more? two-way? engineerings and applications such as computing machine mediatedcommunications and computing machine conferencing systems for instruction.
The significanceof? two-way? engineerings is that they allow foe interaction betweenparticipant and coachs, and possibly even more significantly amongst participantthemselves. This development has allowed and in some senses force researches toexpression more closely at the impact of educational environment, on the pupilslarning experience. In the hereafter, it is expected that thetelecommunications-based engineerings to go the primary agencies of bringing ofdistance instruction. The grounds for this are as follows: & # 183 ; a much widerscope of engineerings are going more accessible to possible distanceinstruction participants & # 183 ; the costs of technological bringing are droppingdramatically & # 183 ; the engineering is going easier to utilize for both coachsand scholars & # 183 ; the engineering is going more powerful didactically& # 183 ; instruction centres will happen it progressively hard to defy thepolitical and societal force per unit areas of the technological jussive moods. 1.
2 TheEmergence of Tele-education Radical alterations in the computer science substructure,spurred by multimedia computer science and communicating, will make more than widen theeducational system, that is revolutionise it. Technological progresss will doschoolrooms mush more accessible and effectual. Today, schoolroom instructiondominates instruction from simple school to graduate school. This method hasremained popular for a really long clip and will likely prevail as the mostcommon manner of instruction. However, schoolroom instruction has its jobs, that isthe effectiveness diminution with addition in the figure of pupils per category.Other force per unit areas affect the teachers, many of whom are non experts in thestuff they must learn, are non good? performing artists? in category, or merely arenon interested in learning. The biggest restriction of the schoolroom directionis that a category meets at a peculiar clip in a peculiar topographic point.
Thisbasically requires all pupils and the teachers to roll up in one topographic point fortheir specified period. But with the emerging engineering, these jobs can beovercome. 1.
3 Reasons for analyzing Tele-education The current Tele-educationsystems that have been applied in some states are by and large of multipointtransmittal technique. It is found that, this sort of transmittal techniqueholding several jobs or defects. Largely, jobs raised during theapplication of the system. One of the important jobs raised is that, forthe multipoint transmittal, the signals or information transmitted by thetransmitter do non wholly received by the receiving system.
This job is might be dueto error that occurs during the transmittal of the signals or information.Another job is slowdown of transmittal. For this instance, the signals orinformation transmitted do non get at all the receiving system at the same clip, forillustration, the inquiry raised by the lector might non received by the pupilsat the same clip and this is non a good environment for Tele-education system.
Some receiving system receives the signals earlier than the others and some later oreven non receives at all. Therefore, it is of import to analyze the Tele-educationengineering from clip to clip to get the better of these jobs so that theTele-education system could supply a more effectual manner of larningenvironment. In order to hold a talk from, for illustration, a really celebratedprofessor from other state would necessitate him to come at our topographic point. But thesum of money spent for paying him to give talk would be really expensive andthis besides would do troublesome for him. However, this job can be solvedwith Tele-education system in which the professor does non necessitate to travel anyplaceelse to give his talk. This would salvage a batch of disbursals and clip. Anotherground is that, in normal categories the acquisition procedure would non be reallyeffectual if the figure of pupils in a category is really large.
This is because thelector entirely can non organize such a big category. With Tele-educationsystem, one lector could present his talk to as many pupils as possibleefficaciously in a manner that a big figure of pupils from different sites holdingthe same talk at one time. 1.4 Purpose of Research The intent of this researchis to analyze the current Tele-education system that has been applied in somestates. This survey covers the background of Tele-education ; that is itsdefinition, the publications of Tele-education ; that is any documents that discussapproximately Tele-education as a whole, the public presentation of applied Tele-education, andbesides the engineering of Tele-education ; that is its web architecture. But thechief intent of this survey is to understand the Tele-education system that havebeen applied in another state and seek to implement it in our state.
1.5Acronyms ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode CCITT Committee ConsultatifInternational Telegraphique et Telephonique CPE Customer Premises Equipment IPInternet Protocol ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISO InternationalStandard Organization JAMES Joint ATM Experiment on European Services LAN LocalArea Network MAC Medium Access Control Mbone Multicast Backbone PC PersonalComputer POP Point-of-Presence PVC Permanent Virtual Channel QoS Quality ofService RAT Robust Audio Tool SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol TCP-IPTransmission Control Protocol & # 8211 ; Internet Protocol TES Tele-Educational ServiceUI User Interface VIC Video Conferencing Tool VP Virtual Path VPN VirtualPrivate Network VSD Virtual Student Desktop WAN Wide Area Network WWW World WideWeb XC Cross Connect 2.0 METHOD OF INVESTIGATION Since Tele-education is a reallynew engineering that is popularly discussed today, it is rather hard for meto happen any books that discuss about Tele-education from the library. Therefore,the easiest and the fastest manner to garner information associating this undertaking isvia the Internet. I have surfed and found many interesting sites that discussabout Tele-education. Besides surfboarding, I besides have contacted several people whoare involved in this country, Tele-education, by e-mail. But unfortunately, this doesnon truly assist because most of them did non answer.
Besides utilizing the Internet,I besides get the information for this undertaking from the IEEE Database at thelibrary of Universiti Telekom. 3.0 BACKGROUND STUDY 3.1 Definition ofTele-education What is Tele-education? Before discoursing about whatTele-education agencies, Lashkar-e-Taibas look at what distance acquisition is.
This is becauseTele-education and distance acquisition are really related to each other. Distanceacquisition is the acquisition of accomplishments and cognition through electroniccommunications that allow pupil and teacher to be separate in either inclip or infinite. The to distance acquisition is? asynchronous acquisition? which canbe defined slackly as larning at different clip. It is a extremely flexible methodof preparation because the transmitter and receiver do non necessitate to be synchronized ininfinite or clip. But Tele-education is more than that of distance acquisition. InTele-education, non merely asynchronous but synchronal acquisition is besides madepossible.
In other words, Tele-education is the development of distance acquisition.As stated before, asynchronous larning environment is non real-timeenvironment. It is a self-study-based application and is accessed via theInternet to a waiter.
The demand to the pupil is merely an ordinary Personal computer withstandard package and Internet entree. This application is applicable for abig sum of users who can entree the class independent of each other. Thecombination of the lecture-part, group-work-part, and self-study-part is anothertype of Tele-education larning environment, which is synchronal larning.
Itis a real-time environment. In this environment, pupils and lectors caninteract with each other at the same time. Tele-education use the engineering ofpicture teleconferencing that allows two or more parties at different geographicalcountry to interact with each other or to hold larning procedure together. Butpeople normally get baffled whether picture teleconference can be considered asTele-education every bit good. Tele-education is really different with pictureteleconferencing in a manner that Tele-education normally involve a big figure ofpeople as compared to video teleconference, that is, it is in pictureteleconferencing many people use a individual proctor to see other people at othercountry but in Tele-education, pupils have their ain proctor that can be used nonmerely to see their lector and co-workers but besides to direct and haveeducational stuffs. 3.
2 Publications of Tele-education There are many documentsdiscoursing about Tele-education. Most of these documents cover merely the general oroverall range of Tele-education. The country of treatment on Tele-education can besummarized as the followers: & # 183 ; Tele-education service & # 183 ; Content ofTele-education & # 183 ; Network architecture & # 183 ; public presentation ofTele-education & # 183 ; operation and direction of Tele-education ForTele-education service, it describes about what multimedia tele-service andhyper media service is, and how it can be integrated into Tele-educationservice. It besides describes about what Tele-education service facilitate.
Contentof Tele-education describes about the manner or manner of Tele-education system,that is, what sort of instruction manner used, and how the talk notes or anystuffs delivered to all the pupils. For web architecture, it describesabout the protocol used for the Tele-education system and its websubstructure. Performance of Tele-education covers the public presentation of serviceof Tele-education and besides the web public presentation. The description of thesepublic presentations is from the client point of position. For the operation anddirection of Tele-education, it describes about what should be taken intoconsideration in order to supply a good managed Tele-education service. 3.3Examples of Systems From the survey of stuffs gathered, there are by and largethree illustrations of Tele-education system that have been applied in the Europe andCanada.
Those illustrations are: & # 183 ; Tele-education NB & # 183 ; Delta & # 8217 ; s VirtualCollege & # 183 ; ACTS Project AC052 ( RACE Project Report ) The intent of lookinginto these illustrations is to seek to understand what sort of Tele-education systemis implemented, how Tele-education can be implemented, to cognize what are thedemands to implement it, and what considerations should be taken intoconsideration for implementing it. 3.3.1 Tele-education NB Tele-education NB isimplemented at the University of New Brunswick, Canada.
The present physicalweb consists of three independent webs that operate on telephone lines ;& # 183 ; Voice & # 183 ; SMART 2000 computing machine teleconferencing & # 183 ; ComputerMediated Communications utilizing NBNet The SMART 2000 span for computing machine packagesharing and audiographic teleconference is owned and operated by theTele-education NB. This is accessed by simple dial connexions utilizing ordinarytelephone lines. This allows for the computing machine proctor at each site to demoimages created by users at the other sites. The package can be used like anluxuriant electronic chalkboard, overhead projector, or slide projector. Inadd-on, it is being used for package sharing at multiple locations. Datascommunications are transmitted over NBNet utilizing a SLIP waiter which resides in auser friendly simple bill of fare front-end created by Tel-education NB to allow easyentree to NBNet and to installations available. Students and instructors can entreeNBNet for uploading and downloading assignments and other class stuffs. ACD-ROM waiter is being set up at the cardinal site and at the University of NewBrunswick library for allowing entree to different databases.
Tele-educationNB besides supports an online acquisition centre with a file waiter located at MountAllison University. Information of relevancy distance instruction and the webin peculiar can be accessed at that place. In Tele-education NB, a particular listserv iscreated for internal communications among different sites.
As an built-in portionof the state & # 8217 ; s electronic information main road, Tele-education NB isback uping the development of an unfastened, distributed web, taking advantage ofmedia available. The most widely used bringing manners are audio teleconferencewith SMART 2000, every bit good as videoconferencing. However, it is non restricting theweb to any one engineering, or suite of engineerings. It is activelyadvancing experimentation and cooperation in the response and bringing ofclasss utilizing other package and media. Tele-education NB placed routers in theCommunity College Campus in each part, and other sites in parts that do nonhold a college. Initially it operates utilizing 56K connexions and will travel T1.
Smart 2000 runs non merely on regular telephone lines but besides on LANs and WANsutilizing Novell, TCP-IP and other telecommunication protocols. Tele-education Niobiumare now experimenting with synchronal transmittals utilizing the TCP-IP protocolon NBNet. The Picturetel videoconferencing units bing in state all areCCITT compatible. Tele-education NB has provided the guidelines for choosingappropriate engineering for its web as follows: & # 183 ; The web shallexperiment with different engineerings and enterprise non to trust on any oneengineering or any provider. & # 183 ; Existing equipment and distance instructionsites in the state shall be integrated into the web wherever possible.& # 183 ; The web shall set up computing machine teleconference and computing machineconferencing links among the sites, including entree to electronic informationmain road and the Internet.
& # 183 ; Satellite bringing and response capablenesssand upgrading of sites to PC-based videoconferencing will be investigated forexecution in future. & # 183 ; Other optional equipment may be placed insites at the petition of users and establishments such as MACs and CD-ROMs.& # 183 ; The web should be compatible every bit much as possible with otherstates and parts. 3.3.2 DELTA & # 8217 ; s Virtual College Delta & # 8217 ; s Virtual College isimplemented in Denmark ( Europe ) . It offers the chance for pupils toparticipate in desktop Tele-education from their places or offices.
This constructagencies that single pupils take part in Tele-educational classs utilizing adesktop computing machine online connected to a class supplier. The user interface is acommon Web browser, that is, Netscape Web-browser, extended with slacklyintegrated sound and picture tools. The educational environment applies themetaphor of a practical college. The thought is that pupils entree DELTA & # 8217 ; s practicalcollege waiter when take parting in a class.
The user interface looks like theprogram of a college. From the college hallway, the pupil can come in differentsuites with different maps. Those suites are: & # 183 ; schoolrooms whereonline talks and presentation take topographic point, & # 183 ; group suites where on-lineconcerted work takes topographic point, & # 183 ; surveies where off-line survey such asself-study stuff, exercises, slides from old talks, auxiliarystuff and links to other sites on the Web take topographic point, & # 183 ; instructoroffices where it is furnished with class disposal tools, & # 183 ; tearoom where it is used for informal confabs and societal contact with fellow pupilsduring interruption.
The undermentioned figure, the “ floor program ” , illustratesthose suites: Figure 1: The floor program The end of this practical college is tointegrate different manners of instruction and acquisition. This includes synchronalmanners like online talks and group exercisings every bit good as asynchronous manners likesynergistic ego survey, engagement and threaded measure board conferences andsharing of paperss. The practical college is run chiefly in a local webenvironment in order easy to supervise and command the pupils and engineering.Then, when there are several states participate, each sites are connected bythe JAMES ( Joint ATM Experiment on European Services ) broadband web. 3.
3.3ACTS Project AC052 ( RACE Project Report ) This is a large undertaking onTele-education. It covers the whole facets that should be taken intoconsideration for implementing Tele-education in Europe such as service facets,direction facets, web architecture, etc. In this undertaking, there areseveral tests have been done in order to obtain an effectual Tele-educationsystem.
The inside informations of this will be discussed subsequently throughout this study. 4.0Consideration It is non easy to happen stuffs or any documents describing thearchitecture of Tele-education. Most of the stuffs found are fundamentallydiscoursing about the general thought on what Tele-education system is, for illustrationsome documents discuss about the general system of a Tele-education serviceoffered, its advantages over current educational environment, etc.
However, Imanaged to happen a really interesting stuff discoursing approximately Tele-education as awhole, that is the ACTS Project AC052 ( RACE Report Project ) . Therefore, I choosethis study as my chief mention in making my survey on Tele-education overallsystem description covering the architecture. There are fundamentally five chiefsubjects that are traveling to be discussed in rather item sing theTele-education as a whole in this study.
These chief subjects are: & # 183 ;Tele-education service & # 183 ; Tele-education content & # 183 ; Networkarchitecture of Tele-education system & # 183 ; Performance of Tele-educationservice & # 183 ; Operation and direction of Tele-education service 4.1Tele-education Service The multimedia tele-service provides both nucleus anddirection services. The multimedia tele-services are briefly described asVideo/audio conferencing service, which based on the MBONE ( Multicast Backbone )tools VIC ( video conferencing ) and RAT ( audio conferencing ) . Hypermedia serviceallows entree to be provided to hypermedia information stored on a WWW waiter.The WebStore service is a managed WWW based multimedia papers shop, whichallows users to hive away and recover arbitrary paperss ( text, picture, sound,etc.
) , utilizing the well-known interface of the WWW. The direction of the WebStoreincludes subscription, accounting and entree control. A function between thelarning signifiers and the multimedia teleservices has resulted in a list of fourbasic paradigms: a ) Self-study & # 183 ; Individual work with web based classstuff including exercisings and discovery/reference hunt. & # 183 ; Thisparadigm is supported by the interactive multimedia and WebStore services. B ) Lecture& # 183 ; Teacher to category presentation.
& # 183 ; Supported by the conferencingand interactive multimedia services. degree Celsius ) Group work & # 183 ; Discussions, exercisings orundertaking work performed by the pupils in groups. This paradigm can besides includeshared discovery/reference hunt. & # 183 ; It is supported by conferencing,interactive multimedia, and WebStore services. vitamin D ) Consultation & # 183 ; Student to tutoraudience & # 183 ; Supported by video/audio conferencing and interactive multimediaservices. In order to back up these four paradigms the multimedia services areintegrated into a Tele-educational Services ( TES ) which provides both the nucleusservice and the direction service functionality. The nucleus Tele-educationalservice provides two user interfaces, one for the instructor and one for thepupils. In Tele-educational service, each class, presented as portion ofTele-educational service, would affect the rendition and seamless integratingof audio, text, graphics/bitmaps and appropriate picture sections, to accommodate thepresentation of the class stuff.
An educational service would besidesease the interaction of class participants with one another in categorytreatments, every bit good as with the class coach. In this manner, a class coach canusher arguments on issues originating from class stuff and allow participants toexchange positions and portion experience. This interaction is really of import, asparticipants need to be encouraged to larn both from the tutored class every bit goodas from each other & # 8217 ; s practical experience. This forum of treatment besidessupports the coach in measuring feedback from the participants refering thecomprehension, benefit and effectivity of a class for participants. Theeducational service could besides ease entree to simulation environments and& # 8216 ; unrecorded systems & # 8217 ; , which are parts of the participant & # 8217 ; s class stuff. Forillustration, it could supply entree to specific commercial database information,which would be portion of a Database Modeling class. In this manner, entree may begained to systems and information, which would otherwise non be available on theparticipant & # 8217 ; s site. Course could be taken when the participant & # 8217 ; s work agendaspermitted.
Similarly, participant/participant interaction could be scheduledflexibly. An educational service can be seen as integrating severalinteraction ( tele-services ) and class presentation mechanism, for illustration,multimedia presentation tools conferencing, e-mail or notice board systems. Thefollowing is an illustration of service bed used in the ACTS Project AC052: Figure2: Service Layer In the ACTS Project AC052, there are two Tele-educationalclasss offered as a test of the direction service. These classs are “An Introduction to ATM “ and “ An Introduction to Relational Databasesand SQL “ . 4.1.
1 An Introduction to ATM The class includes bothsynchronal and asynchronous bringing methods. The continuance of the class isthree to four yearss with about three hours of learning and analyzing eachtwenty-four hours. The class consists of five talks, three ego survey faculties and threegroup exercises with a follow-up treatment of the consequences. The differentfaculties and manners of the class are conducted in a Tele-educational environmentwhich includes class outline information, a database of participants withimages and CVs, a WWW hoarding back uping off-line treatments, entree to aWebStore and a tea-room which participants can see for informal confabs.
Thetalks are performed by utilizing video/audio conference tools. A system was usedto demo slides on the participants web-browsers. The ego survey facultiescontained web pages with information to read and little built-in exercisings. Thegroup exercises consist of a figure of inquiries to be answered by the group andreturned to the instructor for rectification afterwards.
When the instructor hascorrected the replies they are discussed in a conference with all theparticipants. In the first test a shared editor was introduced for usage in groupexercisings. The shared editor is a tool for synchronal coaction on smallertexts, and is meant to complement the confab and whiteboard tools used in earliertests. An illustration of the new shared editor can be found below. In the2nd test, a new floorcontrol-system for usage during talks every bit good as acomplete new graphical design of the practical acquisition environment was tested.The floorcontrol system was used by the instructor during talks, to findwhich pupils wanted to inquire a inquiry, and to muffle or unmute the mikesand picture cameras consequently. A new graphical design of the User Interface ( UI )was introduced, in an effort to make an even more homogeneous UI. Thefloorplan metaphore was kept, but new images and controls where implementedthroughout the environment.
4.1.2 An Introduction to Relational Databases andSQL This class covered the theoretical rules of relational databaseengineering every bit good as back uping the hands-on accomplishments of utilizing relationaldatabase linguistic communication ( SQL ) . Students took the class over a three twenty-four hours period, fortwo hours each twenty-four hours. At the beginning of the class a one hr talk outlinedthe aims of the class and provided an debut to the subjects. Theeducational content comprised of text, artworks, and life and was dividedinto four subdivisions, dwelling of a sum of 20 one faculty ( a facultytypically being 1-5 pages ) . The class was made available via the ProspectTele-educational environment.
On accessing the class, a separate coursewarebrowser window was opened, called the Virtual Student Desktop ( VSD ) . All pupilinteractions with the courseware are facilitated via this VSD. TheTele-educational environment is besides accessible by the pupil for conferencingand synchronal interaction. The VSD is rendered as a set of WWW Windowss,frames, tool saloon and icons. All native WWW browser buttons are suppressed( hidden ) so as non to deflect the user from the chief end of instruction. A toolsaloon specially designed for educational usage is provided by the VSD at the undersideof the screen. From this tool saloon the pupil is able to reach coachs orfellow pupils ( asynchronously ) , entree external systems, every bit good as navigateand interact with the educational class stuff. Figure 3 illustrates a pagefrom a faculty in the class, and shows the educational toolbar at the underside ofthe screen and an index of the subjects dealt with by this peculiar faculty inthe class on the left manus side of the screen.
Figure 3: page from faculty inthe class Overall the class comprised several different types of information:Administrative ( i.e. how to utilize the class etc. ) ; A database of ( self contained )faculties ; Indexes or Roadmaps of specific classs through assorted faculties ;Evaluation Forms and a Case Study. The roadmaps were of import as the facultiescan be combined in several ways to fulfill the different demands fordifferent pupil aims. Each roadmap corresponds to different acquisitionaims of the RDBMS class.
Thus the roadmaps provide a agency of re-usingbing faculties with every bit small redundancy as possible of educational stuffand administrative operating expense. A important characteristic of the system was to supplydirect entree to a existent? commercial?RDBMS via the same interface as theeducational class. The relational DBMS is seamlessly integrated into thepupil educational desktop. Thus the tool saloon offered by the VSD contains anicon which allows pupils to publish SQL questions on a unrecorded database. The thought ofthis is to intentionally film over the differentiation between the educational environmentand the? mark? systems. This encourages pupils to? seek out? assortedparts of the class before trying a larger undertaking. Another characteristic was theability of the pupil to hive away mentions to distinguishable locations in the classstuff ( bookmarks ) .
Traditionally these are stored locally on the pupil? smachine. However this has disadvantages as pupils seldom use the same machineall the clip. The VSD allows such bookmarks to be stored within the educationalservice and are therefore ( in private ) accessible to an single pupil at anyclip.
Besides if the pupil has logged off the class and logs back on, the VSDallows him/her the ability to restart at his/her most recent place or restartat the beginning. Assorted signifiers of online tutorials are embedded into theclass. ? True or False? and? Multiple Choice Questions? are supported,with automatic rectification and presentment of Markss to the pupil. Form based( short unstructured text manner ) replies are besides facilitated in some tutorials.In these instances the pupil replies are automatically delivered to class coachsfor subsequent rectification. Besides integrated into the class are rating signifierswhich, when completed, are automatically submitted and stored for later analysisby class coachs. The VSD provides buttons to reach other category members or toseek coach aid. Again, this is offered via WWW signifiers and incorporatetransparently with an electronic mail bringing system.
4.2 Tele-education Content Thereare several manners of educational interaction, which could be supported by apractical theatre/study room. These would include lecture presentation, classmaterial presentation and browse, self-study, group work ( sharedapplication/work, category treatments, group presentations ) , audience( tutor/participant, participant/participant ) , tutorial Sessionss, practical javaroom/virtual sofa, and uninterrupted appraisal. There are besides some other signifierof larning that have been identified. These signifiers of larning are: & # 183 ;Self larning & # 183 ; bringing of formatted classs stuff for pupils ainsurvey & # 183 ; Lecture presentation & # 183 ; a one-to-many presentation by thecoach of class or organisational stuff. & # 183 ; Exercises & # 183 ; theinstallation to execute exercisings either in groups or separately & # 183 ; Undertakingwork & # 183 ; the development of ample undertakings utilizing package outside thelearning environment. & # 183 ; Discovery/Reference research & # 183 ; ability tolocate and entree background or auxiliary larning stuff & # 183 ;Seminar/Class treatment groups & # 183 ; many-to-many communicating betweenparticipants.
& # 183 ; Consultation & # 183 ; private one-to-one communicatingbetween participants. There is some overtap between these larning signifiers. Forillustration, exercises, undertaking work, discovery/reference hunt can be portion of theself-learning signifier, but all of acquisition signifiers are listed here for completeness.It has been pointed out that non merely should the different manners of learning besupported in the Tele-educational environment but besides the different manners oflarning adopted by the pupils need to be supported. So for case pupilswho like to footnote their work or their class stuff should be facilitatedin making so. This is really much in the spirit of hypertext beginnings of the WWW.
Another point raised is that multimedia activity in the practical schoolroom shouldbe captured and associated with relevant class stuff. For case, theinstructors remarks on a peculiar slide could be captured with the slide ininquiry. Besides the conversation of pupils working on group could besides berecorded and stored with the exercising. Course stuff could be presented as ahyper-document with the participant capable of voyaging through the papersor taking the prescribed ordination of the presentation.
In add-on, theparticipant could besides be given entree to the more traditional acquisitionstuff, for illustration, notes, books, etc. Course assignments could besides beelectronically submitted to advance fast feedback on public presentation. An of importcomponent of assignments and undertaking work is the demand to let participants toco-operate in groups. 4.3 Network Architecture of Tele-education System From theapplication & # 8217 ; s point of position, web operates as IP ( Internet Protocol ) webrouting both multicast and unicast IP packages. Connection from web degree tothe Q-adapters pull offing the switches communicate via ISO stack over X.
25 links,but apart from this instances all web substructure is in support of IPtraffic. This web construction connects seven sites. The purpose of the logicalweb substructure is to supply stable web interconnectednesss every bit good asto be managed to some extent by the web direction, and to supply aworking, broadband web substructure while besides back uping an endeavortheoretical account suited for multi-domain environment.
For the separate client webs,each sites posses of LANs of Ethernet, or assorted ATM/Ethernet LAN engineerings.For maximal efficiency of scarce international, broadband resources, merely onesite in each states ( that taking portion in Tele-education system ) areconnected. The connexion, internationally connected client sites entree thepublic web ATM service via an ATM cross-connect ( ATM XC ) supplying ATMpublic web supplier & # 8217 ; s Point-of-Presence ( POP ) in each of relevant states.Each client sites posses ATM Customer Premises Equipment ( CPE ) which is usedto complect ATM public web with local routers. For the connexion withinthe same state, it is performed via leased lines between routers atinternationally connected client sites and sites non connected to ATM populaceweb supplier. The ATM CPEs at internationally connected sites and routers atall client sites managed by VPN ( Virtual Private Network ) supplier. It isperformed in concert with direction of ATM public service by VPN supplier toprovide Intranet manner connectivity between hosts on client site LANs.
Thisweb is rather complicated because it connects seven sites in four statesand dwelling of the following nucleus constituents: & # 183 ; Four ATM LANs & # 183 ;Seven Ethernet based LANs & # 183 ; Four ATM Cross Connects & # 183 ; Eight atmosphericsIP routes & # 183 ; Seven multicast routers & # 183 ; Two 2 Mbps leased lines& # 183 ; Ten International ATM links ( practical way ) & # 183 ; One basic rate ISDNassociate The followers is the figure of logical web substructure: Figure 4:Logical Network Infrastructure. The ATM substructure that represents ATMpublic web supplier consists of a individual ATM XC at each internationallyconnected sites. These Nineties are interconnected by lasting VPs ( Virtual Paths ) .The ATM CPE at each site based on one or more Fore System ASX-200 switches.
Itis employed as logically separate ATM LANs besides as supplying ATM entreebetween public web and routers at each site. The followers is the figure ofATM constellation. Figure 5: ATM Configuration.
The IP constellation consistsof routers at each connected sites being connected by Permanent Virtual Channel( PVC ) running over VPs. The routing map at each site performed either bydedicated hardware router or by workstations running routing devil package.Routing of multicast IP packages ( used for multimedia conferencing applications )is non to the full supported by most current IP routers, hence, routing performedby multicast routing devil ( mrouteds ) running on workstations. The mrouteds areinterconnected by unicast IP tunnels, which can be used to be routed via routerstogether with all other unicast traffic. The IP tunnels between mrouted atinternationally connected sites used the 2nd sets of VPs. This supportsdivider of multicast traffic from other unicast traffic and therefore enablesproviso of more deterministic Quality of Service ( QoS ) for multimediaconferencing application. For external substructure, the purpose is to supplyinternational ATM links between IP routers at the client sites. Parallel VPsare used between each brace of sites ; one for multicast routing and another 1for unicast routing.
Figure 6: The web constellation Reflecting themodern-day tendencies in multimedia and information services, all packagecommunicating is over IP, including direction system traffic. For the websubstructures that are conducted at a individual site, the demand its webis reasonably simple, necessitating merely Ethernet connexion to back up IPcommunicating between Personal computers and workstations. If the system includes thedirection of connexions over IP switches, so the web substructurewould include both a representative public web ATM cross connect andclient premises web ATM work-group switch ( a FORE systems ASX200 ) . Theseare connected and configured with multiple VPs to emulate a web with alarger figure of nodes.
IP routing maps in this web are provided by theSPARC workstations with ATM interface cards executing IP forwarding. Thefollowing is the web constellation of this sort of web: Figure 7:Network constellation For this web constellation, the TES Customer is ableto bespeak the set-up of a new connexion to the TES supplier. The TES supplierso requested the VPN supplier to make similarly. The VPN supplier made a petitionto the Public Network Provider and Customer Premises Network Provider to guaranteethat the end-to-end IP/ATM connexion was in topographic point for the TES Customer. This isthe end for the constellation scenario. One of the most of import on an Standard atmosphereweb degree direction system is to supply end-to-end connectivity acrosscomponent ATM web component, and so back up the connectivity provisioningwith mistake direction and quality of service characteristics. Challenged by thesedemands, a system that is able to put up ATM Virtual Paths and to correlatefaulty conditions, finding how these mistake consequence the connectivity for eachterminal user has been built. The followers is the Network substructure of thissystem: Figure 8: Network substructure The figure shows that all the webequipment is connected to one Ethernet hub, that is, the hub that acts as aanchor for one Public Network sphere and two Customer Premises Networks.
Inworld, this hub could be partitioned into a figure of cyberspaces that areinter-connected by routers, besides known as the Internet. For the web that isrequired to run over six sites in four different states, would necessitate amuch more comprehensive web substructure. This substructure consisted ofan ATM VP service, leased lines, and the internal ATM and IP websubstructure. The followers is the illustration of this web substructure:Figure 9: Network substructure 4.4 Performance of Tele-educational Service4.
4.1 Courses There were two classs, both aimed at pupils with above normanterior cognition of calculating and/or computing machine webs. The first, andebut to SQL, was a self-study class, dwelling chiefly of faculties ofwritten text with appraisals based on these. The 2nd class, an debutto ATM, was led by a coach and involved varied methods of bringing, includinglecture/seminar, single survey and group work. Students were henceexpected to interact both with one another and with the coach. This class, excessively,included assessment faculties. Both of the classs were offered over a three-dayperiod and pupils were expected to take part for three half yearss.
Withinthis clip, those taking the SQL class was able to gait their ain survey. On theATM class, the pupils? usage of the different resources was timetabled anddirected by the coach. Time was divided between events, such as talks, atwhich all pupils were expected to be present, and survey clip, during whichthey would work through a series of faculties, with appraisal associated witheach one. 4.4.2 Students There were 16 pupils on the more synergistic of thetwo classs, the Introduction to ATM, and a similar figure on the self-pacedsurvey class, An Introduction to SQL. All the pupils appeared to beexperienced computing machine users.
This has to be accepted as necessary in a test suchas this, which takes topographic point in the context of a research undertaking which usestaking border engineering, some of it is still being tested. The archetypalnature of parts of the system may do unusual demands on the pupils, such asenforcing unexpected holds. Having pupils who appreciate the troubles maygood be of import. Having said this, it appeared that although they wereknowing about computing machines, these pupils were non experts in networkedmultimedia engineering, and did necessitate some initial preparation in the usage of thepackage. This was given prior to the start of the class. The classs wereclearly directed at this mark group, as their rubrics suggest.
The pupilsbesides stated that they had a echt want to larn the topics being offered andthat this was a major motivation factor. They were besides paid for theirengagement, which may hold helped better their continuity when there wereproficient enlistments. 4.4.3 System The system used for the ATM class is describedhere.
Those taking the SQL class used merely those parts suited to self survey.There are three chief elements: sound, and picture communications channels supporta Tele-education system built on a web-browser base, but with considerablefunctionality added. The audio tool, rat, allows participants to have andtransmit sound, to place who is talking, command the volume of entrance andsurpassing audio watercourse.
Since this tool was developed as a research platform,there are many excess characteristics which the mean end-user is non likely to utilize inan application such as this one, for illustration, the installation to alter the soundencoding strategy. The tool? s basic functionality is easy to larn and utilize. Thepicture tool, vic, besides offers functionality suitable for its usage as a platformfor research into networked picture. For the non-expert, nevertheless, the mostof import characteristics are that multiple users can direct and have pictureat the same time and that they can command some characteristics of both show andcapture/transmission ( image size and frame rate are two illustrations ) .
Video imagescan be displayed at assorted sizes from thumbnail image to CIF. Enlarging imagesdoes, nevertheless, involve making a new window for each one. Students entree theTele-education system via a web browser and navigate within it utilizing hypertextlinks, buttons and active countries of images. Initial entree is password protectedand the system supports the impression of groups and hence, presumptively of multiplecategories and tutorial groups. The interface is based on the metaphor of aneducational establishment, a edifice divided into suites whose map mostpupils will be able to foretell from their real-life experience of instruction:schoolroom, tea room, hall, office, library and seminar room.
Users are presentedwith an aerial position of the layout, in which the suites are labeled. They gainentree to a room by snaping on the appropriate portion of this image. Theensuing window sometimes maintains the metaphor but is more frequently chieflytextual & # 8211 ; a list of hypertext links, for illustration. Once “ in ” a room,pupils have entree to the resources they need for the portion of the class theyare taking. As might be assumed from the description, the system is intended tosupport a assorted manner of class bringing, including talks, group treatmentsand assignments, single survey, appraisal with feedback.
The being ofthe office implies that pupils can besides entree relevant class administrativeinformation. The Hall and tea suites suggest that the purpose is besides tosupport less formal, societal interactions. 4.4.4 Positive Findingss The classsboth seemed to be appropriate for the mark group. Students reported that theybelieved they had learned a considerable sum and felt they would retain theof import points.
The tempo of the survey besides seemed successful. The coachclearly had a sense that this was a existent category in a existent establishment and madeconsiderable attempts to bring forth a relaxed and positive ambiance. Use ofpupils? names, and recognizing them every bit shortly as they logged in, contributed tothis. This is no average accomplishment, given the restraints. The coach tended torefer to the environment as if it were a existent topographic point, set uping with pupils,for illustration, to “ run into in the tea room ” or stating them to “ travel tothe library ” . Whether the pupils shared this perceptual experience is less clear.This may be due to the short clip available to go familiar with it. It wouldbe interesting to see whether the environment would go more “ existent ”to the pupils over a longer class.
The room-based construction therefore seemsto hold been successful. The metaphor seems to hold been good chosen, sincepupils seemed to hold appropriate outlooks of each “ room ” . Noneof them appeared to hold trouble voyaging between different suites.Observation did demo that some pupils had to scroll up and down repeatedly,nevertheless, when they were working on single survey texts. This seemedpeculiarly to be the instance where they found the stuff more hard. Again,there was no mark that they were unsure of where to travel or had trouble inpilotage. In footings of class bringing, the test showed that pupilsexperienced considerable assortment in the ATM class ( necessarily less so in theSQL class ) .
Not merely this, but the coach seemed able to work the flexiblenessof the system and to direct the pupil to alternate countries of survey from whathad been planned originally, if necessary. One of the jobs with distanceinstruction is that such flexibleness can be harder to accomplish than in aface-to-face state of affairs, so this is assuring and an interesting consequence of holdingdifferent applications integrated in this manner. It besides has a matter-of-fact usage:given proficient jobs in one country, it was possible to switch pupils toanother activity rather easy. Interactivity, both structured and insouciant waspotentially considerable. The shared whiteboard used for group work wasperceived by pupils as a good characteristic. It seemed, nevertheless, that they did nonall realize at first that they could compose and pull on it. Possibly this shouldbe pointed out in the introductory Sessionss, or the whiteboard should beaccompanied by a short explanatory note.
It would besides be just to state that thiswas non a long plenty test to measure serviceability of this portion of the system. Inthe limited clip it was besides non easy for pupils to set up relationships.The system and the manner the coach used it did promote pupils to acquire to cognizeone another since, for illustration, one of the first activities for pupils was toupload their CVs and images and to shop through those of other pupils. Thedegree of concentration appeared to be high.
Naturally, as in a schoolroom, therewere minutes when pupils? attending moved off from the topic of survey butthese were non frequent. Interestingly, they normally stayed at the workstationbut moved to another activity such as reading electronic mail. The pupils observed“ unrecorded ” appeared to keep concentration despite considerablebackground noise and other possible distractions. This is non a surprise, sinceother computer-based instruction and acquisition tests have drawn similar decisions- but it is another promising characteristic. At best, the stuff with which thepupils were engaged appeared good designed for bringing on a computing machine screen.The information was “ packaged ” into manageable balls and was visuallyexciting. Diagrams, coloring material and life were used efficaciously, and thelayout was clear and appealing. As the following subdivision suggests, nevertheless, non allof the written stuff was so suited for this method of presentation.
Feedback was given to pupils both by the coach, during treatments ( for theATM class ) , and as a consequence of appraisals done at the terminal of each faculty.Students appeared to take these appraisals earnestly and were observed toreturn to the relevant portion of the notes when unsure or when they had given anwrong reply. The range of this rating did non widen to measuring theclass design or the assessment methods, but it is deserving adverting that theregular appraisal seems to hold been a successful characteristic of the class.Awareness of other pupils is something that is difficult to accomplish in distanceinstruction. Interestingly, with the audio channel left unfastened during private surveyperiods, it appeared that pupils experienced something similar to working in alibrary with other pupils around them. They were able to hear conversationsand could hold asked inquiries if they needed to. The possible disadvantage isthat the extra background noise might interfere with concentration.
Itwould likely be deserving look intoing whether the handiness or otherwise ofthe audio channel makes a difference to pupils. 4.5 Operation and Managementof Tele-education Service A critical component of any service is the dependability,configurability and disposal of that service. In order to guarantee successof an educational service from both the participants? and coach? spositions, the delivered service must be good managed and monitored. It iscrucially of import to recognize the package and processs necessary to pull offand present Tele-educational services over broadband webs. Four basicrules for successful instruction in a practical schoolroom environment have beenidentified as & # 183 ; media profusion, & # 183 ; interaction, & # 183 ; seasonablyreactivity and & # 183 ; organisation of stuffs. Media profusion andinteraction mechanisms can be satisfied by the educational services describedearlier.
The organisation of class stuffs and the insurance of seasonablyresponse by systems, participants and coachs are ends of the directionservice. During the bringing of a class, there is a important mass ofstuff presented to participants every bit good as a high grade of interactiveresponses amongst participants. Unless this mass of stuffs is organized andinteraction controlled, participants can go baffled and disillusioned.Proper care and direction of the airing of stuff must be putin topographic point to supply an effectual acquisition environment.
Segregation of stuff,both between and within class faculties should besides be supported. The scheme of? participant-paced? acquisition is of import so as to guarantee that the categorymoves through the faculties of a class together in order for the interactions tobe meaningful. Seasonably reactivity has besides been identified as a keydemand for Tele-education. Thus entree to class stuff, every bit good as otherparticipants and coachs, should be dependable and seasonably. To accomplish successfuloperation of the tele-educational service, participant ( on-site ) package shouldbe configurable for a broad scope of calculating environments. Besides engagementof the category members should be manageable e.g.
class enrollment, commandingentree to category treatments, automatic collection/distribution of assignmentsand undertakings etc. The online direction system should supply the scope ofservices as required by each class leader. 5.0 CONCLUSION Tele-education systemis a really new emerging engineering. It has been applied in Europe and Canada, andis still under survey in order to better it from clip to clip.
From thisundertaking, it is known that Tele-education is a revolution of distance acquisition inwhich distance larning fundamentally merely provides asynchronous larningenvironment. But Tele-education has improved it by supplying both asynchronousand synchronal larning environment. After analyzing all the stuffs found forthis stuff, it was found that Tele- instruction is non easy to implement. Thisis because there are a batch of things need to be considered before implementingsuch as what sort of web constructions available, what sort of service can beprovided by web service supplier, what is the most suited web forinterconnectedness among the involved sites, etc.
Another ground is that, afterimplementing it, there need to hold several tests on the service to look at itsefficiency which would take a long clip. In general, it can be concluded thatTele-education is going popular as the emerging of multimedia engineering. Itsadvantages that could get the better of the job in current acquisition environment besideshas made it a preferred manner of larning procedure. 6.0 Needed EQUIPMENT ANDMATERIALS The followers are the equipment or stuffs needed for the completionof this undertaking in 3rd semester: a ) Opnet package ( Sun workstation ) & # 8211 ; usedto execute simulation B ) Television Conferencing System with ; i. ISDN Interface two.
H324Television Conferencing Interface three. Small Television camera four. Speaker ( stereo ) & # 183 ;this is required for some experiment intents on Tele-education system degree Celsius )Satellite System with ; i. Antenna ( 2.6 m ) two.
RF receiving system ( C-band ) three. 2 MbpsTelevision conferencing Interface four. ISDN ( 2B+D ) Interface & # 8211 ; Still understudy/discussion 7.0 SCHEDULE OF PLANNING ( Timetable )[ 1 ] Krebs, A.M, “ D21A & # 8211 ; The Initial Requirement Analysis ” , ACTSUndertaking AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/platun/coop/prospect/new/delivara.htm # D21A[ 2 ] Jain, R, “ A Revolution In Education ” , IEEE, 1997, pp. 1 [ 3 ]Bison, T, “ Distance Learning Is an Opportunity ” , Circuit and Devices,March 1997, pp. 41. [ 4 ] GammelGaard, A, “ D21B & # 8211 ; Final RequirementAnalysis ” , ACTS Project AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/platun/coop/prospect/new/delivara.htm # D21B[ 5 ] Nielsen, A.B, “ D53A & # 8211 ; Evaluation of the First Trial Phase ” , ACTSUndertaking AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/platun/coop/prospect/new/delivara.htm # D53A[ 6 ] Krebs, A.M, “ D53B & # 8211 ; Evaluation of The Second Trial ” , ACTS ProjectAC052, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/platun/coop/prospect/new/delivara.htm # D53B[ 7 ] ] Nielsen, A.B, “ D51A -Operational Plan for First Trial ” , ACTSUndertaking AC052, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/platun/coop/prospect/new/delivara.htm # D51A[ 8 ] Johansen, A, “ D51B & # 8211 ; Operational Plan for Trial 2 ” , ACTS ProjectAC052, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/platun/coop/prospect/new/delivara.htm # D51B