Teleworking Essay, Research Paper
Teleworking Traveling The Idea Not The Person Teleworking is a comparatively new and increasing signifier of working ensuing from alteration in our civilization employers, employees, the economic system and society all benefit from teleworking. Human Culture has changed and is still altering. Our civilization went from Gather-Hunters to agricultural to industrial to service oriented. In the last several old ages our service-oriented society progressively is traveling towards an informational based society. Looking at United States concern the service sector is responsible for about three fourths of the employment. ( Wright, 1998 ) & # 8220 ; The computing machine is a machine for hive awaying and treating information & # 8221 ; ( Wright, 1998 ) The engineering that makes personal computing machines and related hardware work has made teleworking possible. To see how offices are traveling into the information age expression at any office. One will see tonss of computing machines. & # 8220 ; As many as 200 million personal computing machines are out at that place. ( Wright, 1998 ) . Compare this to concern prior to the 1970s when there were virtually no personal computing machines in the mean office. And now about 40 per centum of American places even have them. ( The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1999, 1998 ) Telecommuting and Teleworking are an branch of our progressively information centered society. Technology has enabled telecommuting. & # 8220 ; The Department of Transportation estimations that up to 15 million workers may be telecommuting in the following decennary & # 8230 ; A recent study of 2,000 U.S. families & # 8230 ; found that the figure of telecommuters in the U.S. jumped to 11.1 million in 1997, up from 9.7 million in 1996. & # 8221 ; ( Secretariat for Electronic Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce 1998 ) TeleCommute Solutions, Inc claims that & # 8221 ; Telecommuting Is Taking Off. More than 15 million people telecommute in the United States today. & # 8221 ; ( TeleCommute Solutions, Inc 1998 ) How Widespread Is Teleworking? Teleworking has become worldwide. It is being used in many states. Teleworkers may utilize the Internet in their work. Thirty-five per centum of today & # 8217 ; s telecommuters use the Internet and e-mail & # 8230 ; Information engineering has opened up new chances for planetary commercialism. The signals transmitted over the Internet do non acknowledge national boundary lines. Work on the same undertaking can be done in several topographic points or several states without workers holding to physically relocate. Organizations can now deploy resources and operations around the universe. Information about new merchandise debuts, corporate net incomes, forecasted gross revenues forms, and stuffs demands can be shared about outright via corporate e-mail systems and value-added webs, and now, over the Internet. ( Secretariat for Electronic Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce 1998 ) The World Almanac and Book of Facts provinces that one hundred million people around the universe now use the Internet. It undertakings that one billion people may utilize the cyberspace by 2005, ( 1998 ) Looking at places there are 24.9 million place based concerns in the U.S. ( Get downing a Home Based Business, 1996 ) Another writer Barbara Weltman gives the figure as 30 million. 1997 ) Some efforts have been made in the United States to gauge the figure of teleworkers from the prevalence of home-based information engineering and the utilizations to which its proprietors say it is put. During the 1980s, for case, a Gallup canvass found 40 % of place computing machine proprietors stating that they used them for & # 8220 ; concern or office prep & # 8221 ; with a smaller proportion ( 27 % ) mentioning & # 8220 ; concern in place usage & # 8221 ; . Another study, by Yankelovitch, Skelly and White, found 33 % of place computing machine proprietors saying that their primary usage was for concern. An IBM study found that 60 % of its computing machines which sold for $ 2,000 or more were being used in the place and that over half of these place computing machines were being used chiefly for business-related intents. A farther 11 % were being transported between place and office. Olson & # 8217 ; s study of 598 Datamation readers found that 64,5 % of these informations processing professionals sometimes worked at place in add-on to their regular office work, 12,4 % did it as an occasional replacement and 6,2 % worked entirely from place. More late, efforts have been made to gauge the Numberss of nomadic workers from gross revenues of portable engineering such as nomadic phones and laptop computing machines. In 1994, for case, New York-based advisers Link Resources drew on such information ( along with other beginnings ) to bring forth their estimation that there are presently seven million nomadic teleworkers in the USA, with figure predicted to turn to 25 million by the twelvemonth 2000. Many companies today are allowing employees work at place. & # 8220 ; More than 50 % of US companies now allow their employees to telework ( Manchester Metropolitan University, UK and DGXIII European Commission, 1998 ) What Is Teleworking? & # 8221 ; Teleworking is a new signifier of working still in a procedure of evolution. & # 8221 ; ( Accart, 1997 ) This is a reasonably new term frequently confused with teleworking. The word & # 8220 ; telecommuting & # 8221 ; came foremost. The American Heritage lexicon of The English Language defines telecommuting as the pattern of working at place by utilizing a modem and a computing machine terminus connected with one & # 8217 ; s concern office. ( 1996 ) The word telecommuting is excessively new to be found in lexicons. Teleworking evidently refers to working by agencies of distance. & # 8220 ; Networking and by extension teleworking are non a individual, easily-measured phenomenon but, on the contrary, comprises a scope of different types of employment which have in common merely the fact that they involve some signifier of resettlement of work which has been facilitated by the combined usage of information and communicating technologies. & # 8221 ; ( Accart, 1997 ) & # 8221 ; Any work based activity that contains elements of information transmittal via communicating engineering, carried out in a location which is separate from the cardinal organisation or office. & # 8221 ; ( Manchester Metropolitan University, UK and DGXIII European Commission, 1998 ) The word telework besides may connote the usage telematic devices and systems such as the computing machine modem, telephone, Television, facsimile, pagers, to have and direct information. These devices allow teleworkers to get the better of many jobs affecting distance and clip. And of class all of the above involve working with and interchanging information in frequently in several signifiers. Telework, hence, involves pass oning information between people in such a wayThat distance and clip restraints are removed. Full executions of teleworking letpeople work where they wish to work and at times they wish to work. It besides implies onemajor progress over traditional on the job relationships: work travels to people instead thanthe traditional construct of people going to work. ( The European Commission, 1998 ) Variations Of Telework There are fluctuations based on several factors. Those based on location include: working physically at place, working at a satellite office or telecenter which may be shared with other workers, working at a impermanent location such as an airdrome, auto, new wave, hotel, office of a client or other non fixed location. Then there are fluctuations based on Numberss of workers including working entirely known as lone telecommuting. The worker normally works off from the chief office.Several workers at a location known is known as group-based telecommuting. But since the definition is non stiff this could besides intend groups of workers at scattered locations. A new term telecottage is a new name for an office equipped with the equipment needed to service groups of teleworkers. These people may even work for different employers.Freelance telecommuting is yet another fluctuation, which consists of free-lance workers, who may even work for a figure of different employers. Finally there is besides a fluctuation known as flexible telecommuting in which work times, work groups, work locations may change. The sum of clip spent teleworking versus sum of clip spent at regular work may change. Workers may work off from the office for changing Numberss of hours. They may go forth the office work to telework or they may merely see the office. Benefits Of Teleworking For The IndividualTeleworking offers benefits for the person, the household, the employer, and for societyFirst the person may profit greatly from teleworking. The possible riddance of a frustrating commute that causes emphasis, frequently wastes hours hebdomadal and entails important disbursal is in itself a important motive for many persons to seek this sort of work. So many people: waste ten or more hours a hebdomad in driving on crowded, roads with 100s nerve-racking traffic determinations to be made, sometimes in bad conditions, halt and travel traffic, covering with aggressive drivers, traffic accidents, auto jobs, auto fixs, and sometimes immense transit disbursals. When all of that could be replaced with a few stairss to the place office taking merely a few seconds of clip and practically no disbursal. Telecommuting benefits employees, every bit good. For those who need to equilibrate work committednesss with household committednesss, telecommuting provides the agencies for working and pass oning with coworkers and clients from place. Employees working part-time can pull off their clip more efficaciously, passing
less clip driving to o
ne or more offices, and instead focusing on completing work assignments. (Secretariat for Electronic Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce 1998) There are also reduced costs for clothing, gasoline, oil, and insurance.Also one arrives at the home office fresh, unstressed and ready to work. This can result in greater productivity. There is a greater safety factor for those working at home. Reduced job stress, greater job satisfaction. Work hours can be much more flexible. Example a child needs to go to the doctor. There is less change of having to take time off without pay.Benefits Of Teleworking For The Family Benefits for the family are of course that one can be increased time at home to monitor the family situation. If children are distraction many home workers being in a caregiver at less expense than the typical day care. If a child is sick and or home from school the worker need not take unpaid time off from work. The home office can be located in a separate room. Of particular note is that Telework can free many women to work who would otherwise be tied down by family responsibilities. This leads to more sex-equality in the workplace and better pay for female workers. Or at least a paycheck where before hand it may have been nearly impossible to work at all outside of the home.Benefits Of Teleworking For The Employer The employer can benefit in several ways: lower expense for office rent, maintenance and insurance because smaller facilities are needed for less workers. Better productivity, improved worker satisfaction resulting in better employee retention, reduced job stress. Employers can recruit better quality employees from a larger pool of workers because if the employee need not come to the office as often they can live farther away. Indeed some employees may work from across the country. Since work times can be more flexible workers can handle doctors appointments, sick children home from school, with less or no time off from work.Since the employee does not have to spend hours commuting that gives them more time to make up for situations like doctor visits. Less job stress leads to less sick days taken. One point observed is the greater productivity of teleworkers: the increase is about 20 %. A teleworker produces a report more quickly than a comparable worker based in an office. (Accart, 1997) Organizations with telecommuting programs report an increase in productivity, faster completion of assignments, fewer sick or absent days, better time management and increased morale and commitment to the company. They also benefit from reduced office space needs and associated costs, an enhanced ability to attract and retain quality employees, and improved customer service. (Secretariat for Electronic Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce 1998) Employers may also benefit from a better gender mix and good productivity from otherwise unemployable female employees. Finally adding teleworkers may benefit the entire organization itself because it may add a new dimension to the organization that takes some of the load off of the on-site staff unless teleworkers are used to replace on-site staff.Benefits Of Teleworking For SocietySociety benefits also in several ways. Other benefits: less traffic congestionThe president in the state of union address urged employers to be friendlier toward families. Teleworking allows this to happen to a larger extent than traditional work. The economy benefits because of greater numbers of employed because of the numbers of people who are made more employable when limitations of distance, time, and handicaps are removed. There are positive effects on energy use and on the environmentOther possible effects are improving competitiveness and generating new business and employment opportunities: the technologies involved can form the basis of new industries and services; the productivity and efficiency of enterprises can be improved increasing their market share ; new forms of teamworking, collaboration or telepartnership can be open up; relocation of work in economically deprived… The new technologies can bring about improvements in the quality of life, through the introduction of new services such as telemedicine, telebanking, teleshopping. (Accart, 1997) Human Resource Benefits There are improved employment opportunities for large numbers of potential employees including the handicapped. Disabled workers can particularly benefit. Special devices can be installed at their home workstation that allows them to perform as well as non-disabled workers. They gain equal access to the work environment. Increased opportunities Job sharing can be made a reality with its often-higher productivity. “Remote work has tremendous potential to benefit the organization, the individual, and society.” (International Telework Association and Council 1998) There appears to be an increase in teleworking, which proves its acceptance by society, employers and workers. Teleworking offers undoubted opportunities for improved work output, productivity and effectiveness. It also enables both organizations and society to ‘engineer’ opportunities to help develop the kind of social and economic change that will benefit particular societies and members of society. (Manchester Metropolitan University, UK and DGXIII European Commission, 1998) Working hours can be restructured perhaps allowing for higher productivity. Staffing problems may be reduced through the use of more part-time workers, flextime, and or job-sharing”New technologies can bring about improvements in the quality of life, through the introduction of new services such as telemedicine, telebanking, teleshopping” (Accart, 1997) Telecommuting programs can provide annual savings of up to $12,000 per telecommuter. Telecommuting Is Taking Off More than 15 million people telecommute in the United States today. If 10-20% of traditional commuters switched to telecommuting, savings would total $23 billion annually. It would eliminate 1.8 million tons of regulated pollutants, saving 3.5 billion gallons of gas, freeing up 3.1 billion hours of personal time from reduced congestion and automobile trips, and reducing maintenance costs for existing transportation infrastructure by $500 million. Study by Arthur D. Little and Associates Tight Job Market Nearly 70% of executives believe attracting and retaining quality front-line workers will become increasingly difficult by 2005, and more than 60% expect the same of executive positions Deloitte and Touche Survey Attract & Retain Key Employees Money is no longer the primary motivator for employees – growth opportunities, genuine empowerment, quality of life and interesting work will increasingly become more important. FIND/SVP Competitive Advantage More than 50 percent of North American companies have telecommuting programs and nearly 75 percent of those companies are planning to expand their programs. William Olsten Center for Workplace Strategies Reduce Relocation Costs Cost of moving current employees is between $34,000 – $ 47,000 for home owners, and between $9,000 – $14,000 for renters Employee Relocation. (TeleCommute Solutions, Inc 1998) The Down Side Of Teleworking. Some people do not like working alone and do not like teleworking. Salary levels are often lower than for comparable traditional jobs located in the office. Management of distance employees can be a challenge. Some people want to get away from their family and kids and do not want to work at home. Promotion possibilities may be less than for on site staff. Many workers need to be trained in order to do telework. Subcontracting may be needed and or used to eliminate staff and expenses. On site staff can be downsized to a point that the organization is not as efficient. Full time on-site workers could be laid off and be replaced with part time teleworkers. Conclusion In practice the benefits far outweigh the above negative points. Teleworking is a growing way of working that benefits families, workers, employers and the economy. References Accart Jean-Philippe (1997). Networks and New Ways of Working: Human Aspects (On-line), Available: http://ifla.inist.fr/ifla/IV/ifla63/63accj.htm The American Heritage Dictionary of The English Language (3rd Ed.). (1996). New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.Entrepreneur Magazine Book Starting a Home Based Business (1996) New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Famighette, Robert (Ed.)(1998) The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1999 Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac Books. The European Commission, (1998) Psychological Aspects of Teleworking in Rural Areas http://www.swan.ac.uk/psychology/patra/tw_type.htm PATRA study International Telework Association and Council Home Page (1998) (On-line), Available: Http://www_telecommute_org.html) Secretariat for Electronic Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce 1998. The Emerging Digital Economy Workers In The Digital Age (On-line), Available: http://www.ecommerce.gov/danc7.htm TeleCommute Solutions, Inc. Home Page (1998) (On-line), Available: http:///D|/akp/www_telecommuter_com.html Weltman, Barbara. (1997) The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Starting a Home-Based Business. New York: Alpha Books. Wright, John (Ed.). (1998) 1999 New York Times Almanac New York, New York: Penguin Books.