; “>Bicchi et al 1 has discussed the possibility of surrogating detailed tactile information for softnessdiscrimination, with information on the rate of spread of the contact area between the finger andthe specimen as the contact force increases. Devices for implementing such a perceptual channel11are described, and a practical application to a mini-invasive surgery tool is presented.Psychophysical test results are reported, validating the effectiveness and practicality of theproposed approach.

Birglen et al 2 has presented a new type of haptic device using spherical geometry. The basicidea of this haptic device was to provide users with feedback information on the motion and/orforce that has been generated by the sensing device.Vlachos et al 3 presented the design and implementation work of a force feedback hapticmechanism with active degrees of freedom (DoF), which has been used as part of a trainingsimulator for urological operations. That mechanism consists of a 2-DOF, 5-bar linkage, and a 3-DOF spherical joint, designed to present low friction, inertia and mass, and to be staticallybalanced. The device is suitable for the accurate application of small forces and moments. All fiveactuators of the haptic device are base-mounted dc motors and uses a force transmission systembased on capstan drives, pulleys, and tendons. The paper describes the overall design and sizingconsiderations, the resulting kinematics and dynamics, the force feedback control algorithm, andthe hardware employed.Katsura and ohnishi 4 has described a haptic training system based on multilateral control.

Thelaw of action and reaction is attained by three robots. Bilateral control is extended, and multilateralcontrol is introduced. Multilateral control is designed similarly as bilateral control based on modaldecomposition, force is controlled in the common mode, and position is controlled in thedifferential mode. The scaling factors of position and force are set independently which makes itpossible to change a trainer’s assistant force according to a trainee’s skill level. The proposedtraining system was based on multilateral control will act as a fundamental technology for theevolution of haptic devices.Christopher et al 5 has suggested that force feedback reduces applied forces for both subjectgroups, but only the surgically trained group can take advantage of this benefit without a significantincrease in trial time.

This paper hypothesized that this training difference is due to the interactionbetween visual-spatial motor abilities and the information contained in the mechanical interactionforces.Tholey and Desai 6 has presented the design and development of 7 DoF haptic device. Inaddition, a kinematic and workspace analysis of the device has been completed to compute theposition of the slave robot and end-effector tool.

Friction estimation has been presented to enablea high transparency of the haptic device. Finally, a simulation of needle insertion into soft tissuewas developed to test the device.Punagmali et al 7 has presented the state-of-the-art in future and tactile sensing technologiesapplied in minimally invasive surgery. Several sensing strategies including displacement-based,current-based, pressure-based, resistive-based, capacitive-based, piezoresistive-based, vibrationbased, and optical-based sensing has also been discussed.

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