Textile Dyeing Procedures Essay, Research Paper
Textile stuffs can be dyed at any phase of their production process. The chief types of methods are batch, uninterrupted, or semicontinuous procedures. The method used depends on several factors including type of stuff ( fibre, narration, cloth, garment )
type of fibres composing the stuff, terminal usage of stuff, and the quality expected from finished merchandise. The machinery used for dyeing application is normally made out of type 316 chromium steel steel. This strong stuff is used because of the invariable
ttack by the acids, bases, and other extra strong chemicals and dyes used in the procedure. Many cloths besides undergo publishing procedures to bring forth patterned effects.
Batch dyeing is the most common method used today. In this system, fabric merchandises are processed as single distinct units. The dye is transferred easy to the stuff from a big volume dye bath. Three basic types of application are used 1 )
bric is circulated through a still dyebath 2 ) dyebath is circulated through a stuff that is held stationary 3 ) both the dyebath and stuff are circulated. The most popular machines that carry out batch dyeing are becks, jet dyeing, and gigues.
Dying becks consist of a trough with a slanted dorsum to let cloth to skid down into the dye. The cloth has been sewn together at the terminals to organize a cringle about 50 to 100 metres long. It is controlled by a reel that pulls the cloth out of
he dye bath and over an idle axial rotation that maps to press off extra dye. The chemicals used are added to the beck by a compartment in the forepart that contains a pierced splitter that serves to allow the chemicals be added bit by bit. The compartment is
ated with steam to let better commixture and supply agitation. The advantages of the dye becks are low cost, versatility, and the encouragement of narration fold and fabric majority. The drawbacks are the sums of H2O, chemicals, and energy used, and the Pr
einsteinium may do scratch or deformation to the cloth.
Jet dyeing machines are similar to becks in that the cloth is sewed together in cringles. But in jet dyeing many cringles of fabric Ate threaded through ushers and circulated at speeds from 200 to 800 metres per minute while a pump passes dye liqour thr
gh a heat money changer located outside the machine and back indoors. The machine may be heated or pressurized to help in dyeing. It besides uses less H2O and chemicals and energy than the dye beck.
In Jig dyeing the cloth is moved back and Forth through a dye bath by being wound from a axial rotation on one side of the gigue to another on the opposite side. This is a nonabrasive method since the fabric surface is undisturbed, and normally used for worsted degree Fahrenheit
rics. This procedure normally takes topographic point at atmospheric force per unit area, but the gigue dyer at upper limit can dye several thousand metres of cloth.
Continuous dyeing is a system used for polyester blend woven cloths, and besides nylon rugs. In uninterrupted systems, cloths move invariably from one procedure to the other. The steady flow reduces the clip of treating cutting back on stock list physique
p. Speeds from 50 to 100 metres per minute are typical in this method. & # 8220 ; The chief advantages of uninterrupted dyeing are: 1 ) no H2O pollution, 2 ) recovery and recycling of dissolver and extra dye, 3 ) simple operation in altering dyeing colourss. and 4 ) aut
ation in colour matching and tone accommodation with the usage of a computing machine system and automatic deliberation system. & # 8221 ; ( Lyle, 1976 )
One method, called cushioning, involves a closed system in which the dissolver is recycled extinguishing the job of pollution. The cloth is immersed into a concentrated dye solution and the sent to two leaden mangles where the extra dye is squeezed O
and returned back its contain
Er. Next the cloth may be steamed, or left to stand at room temperature for a few hours to let the dye molecules to perforate into the fibres. After this procedure the extra dye is washed off.
A uninterrupted dyeing procedure is used in dyeing of rugs. A machine called a Festoon soft-shell clam can be used. The rug is placed on usher axial rotations so that the surface of the rug ever faces outward. This prevents the compression of the rug when it
s rolled in the soft-shell clam. Dyes are applied in watercourses and metered onto the surface. Particular effects can be produced by the manner the dye is applied: ( the watercourse can be momently interrupted to bring forth a patterned consequence ) .
A semi uninterrupted procedure is one in which the production rate is momently interrupted for the stuff to soak in the dye. Pad-batch dyeing is on such method, it is chiefly used for dyeing cotton cloths with reactive dyes. The cloth is padded humor
the dyes and chemicals, lesion on a axial rotation, and so allowed to put from 4 to 24 hours to let the dye to respond with the fibres. The reaction can be sped up by utilizing heat, higher alkalinity, and choosing more reactive dyes. Scouring and bleaching of fa
Intelligence Community can be done by a similar cold pad-batch procedure.
There are three methods of form dyeing and printing: direct, resist, and discharge printing. In direct printing a design is transferred to fabric by a Cu axial rotation. In resist publishing a dye driving substance is applied to cloth that will be topographic point
nto a dyebath. This is a popular method for making white designs on a colored background. Discharge publishing takes topographic point by first dyeing the whole cloth, so publishing a form on the cloth with a oxidizing or cut downing agent to make a white rap
radon like in discharge printing. Three popular printing processs are roller screen and transportation printing.
Roller printing is a direct method that takes topographic point by an etched Cu axial rotation that has been dipped into dye and had the extra scraped off. A different engraved axial rotation is used for each colour in the design. The fabric base on ballss through the axial rotations and comes
ut printed. The print is so set into the cloth for good by heat. Prints can dwell of up to 16 different colourss and can be produced at rates of up to 100 to 150 paces per minute.
Another method called screen printing, a type of resist printing, uses screens made by covering a frame with fabric made of silk, nylon, metal, or polyester fibrils. Alternatively of the traditional method of stenciling, today a resist design is applied
the cloth by usage of a exposure sensitive emulsion that hardens when it is exposed to visible radiation. Like in roller publishing a different screen is used for each colour.
Transportation printing is one of increasing popularity because it requires no H2O, is comparatively fast, and can be carried out by less skilled workers. By reassigning, complex multi designed prints can be easy transported to cloths. The paper has bee
printed with disperse dyes with sublimation temperatures around 200 grades Celsius. The transportation takes topographic point from the paper to the cloth due to the hydrophobic cloth holding a high affinity for the dye in the vapour stage. The printing takes topographic point at
nly about 8 1/2 yards/minute.
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