The aesthetic analysis of a
building’s external form refers to the aesthetic aspects of buildings.
Aesthetics is one of the important principles of architecture to be understood
by the students and professionals as a philosophy behind a pleasing appearance.

There are some rules, principles,
guidelines for achieving aesthetic feelings in art and architecture.
Architecture makes use of them in order to create effective forms, interesting
volumes, surfaces, and masses. Artistic composition takes place according to
aesthetic principles such as; proportion and scale, unity, variety, balance,
rhythm, emphasis and focal point, contrast, hierarchy which have the large
impact on architectural design. (burden,
2000; Roth & Pentak, 2011).It is necessary to
develop a visual awareness to identify how these principles are used in the
composition of everyday design.

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v  Balance: Refers to the equalization of elements in a work of art. This
is either Actual and Implied, Actual balance is a phenomenon of nature ruled by
gravity, operating in real space. 
Implied balance is a virtual or implied condition involving one’s
awareness of actual gravity and balance(aesthetic factors of visual weight .There are three kinds of
 -symmetrical- formal, when left and
right sides are mirror images. Correspondence across a divide. Radial symmetry
is based on symmetry around a central axis. Trees, flowers.

Spherical symmetry is the condition of having similar form arranged
regularly around a single point.

–  asymmetrical-informal,
Dynamic Form asymmetry is based on different arrangements of parts. Where
equilibrium is achieved by the balance differences in the art elements within a


v Unity/ Harmony: is
achieved when the whole is more important than the parts the appearance of
oneness, wholeness. Using a similar shape, lines, textures, and patterns to
create harmony. A unified design may be – A simple monolith or mass and Many forms or objects brought together to
construct a coherent whole.


v  Variety: It is achieved through diversity and
change. Using different line types, colors, textures, shapes.

v  Repetition: Three repetition methods: 
repetition, patterns, and rhythm.

Repetition of an element of art (i.e., shapes, lines, or colors) to
achieve a visual beat (Rhythm) or to create a decorative effect (pattern).

 Repetition is the
simplest element that is repeated. Repetition Visual and Structural Repetitive
elements in three-dimensional work often provide structural stability as well
as visual unity. gives a composition unity, continuity, flow and emphasis 


v  Pattern: Pattern
is a combination of elements that are repeated. Patterns are simply a
repetition of more than one design element working in concert with each other.


v  Rhythm: It is a type of movement in an artwork or design often
created by repeated Objects. Rhythm involves using intervals or spaces between
elements to give the user an impression of rhythm or movement. Rhythm can exist
in relief and in the round. There are different types of rhythm: Regular-
Example: Rhythm in architecture relates to a regular occurrence (rhythmic) of
similar and like effects. The same intervals over and over again.
– Irregular- Repeating elements with no specific regular interval creates
random rhythms.


v  Movement: Illusion of
Motion with shape or contour to create a slow to the fast action of the
eye. It is a false perception. Characteristics of sleek forms designed to move
without turbulence also allow these objects to look fast, even while standing

v  Proximity: An Organizational Tool. The principle of proximity visually unites
things that are near one another and excludes those more distant. Proximity can
be a visual tool and/or a functional one.


v  Focus/Emphasis/Dominance refers to placing greater attention on certain areas or
objects in a piece of work. There are numerous strategies for achieving
emphasis, and often, these techniques are combined.: Differences, or contrast,
of color, texture, shape, and size

      Or Isolation of elements and Relative
placement of elements.


v  Proportion: Refers to the relationship of certain elements to the whole
and to each other.

and to the comparative relationship of size. It can be expressed
using a mathematical ratio: in relation to the viewer to perceive size depends
on comparison, in relationship to other objects in the context. The
relationship of one part of the whole to an outside measure, such as the human
body. Variation of scale. Intimate, Impressively and Monumental


v Gradation/Hierarchy: Refers to a way of combining elements by
using a series of gradual changes. Examples of gradation: gradually from small
shapes to large shapes
, gradually from a dark color to a light color and gradually from shadow to

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