The violation of human rights was mostly
due to the civil war between north and south tension, the Darfur conflict
involving the Arab people in the Darfur region due to the fact that the elite
in the country were mostly the Arabs with good lands and economic prosperity and
control over the government, southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states issues.

Comprehensive Peace Agreement interim that
was signed in 2005 that was to end the rift between the north and south had
promised to include human rights commitments in their bill of rights as part of
its work too. The CPA work come to an end immediately after South Sudan was
declared independent and with this statement the rate of human rights violation
increased in both sides of the new boarder formed.



Women rights violation- the rights of
women in Sudan were violated due to the fact there is gender inequality with
them not being able to be involved in the regimes of Sudan. During the Darfur
conflict, women were being raped. All this is shown by the fact that the Arab
militias were raping women in Darfur region after the conflict. Gender
inequality is brought by the fact that Sudan was not at first signatory to
Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women
(CEDAW). It criminalizes against their dressing too due to religion difference
majority being Muslim

Child rights violation- the children
rights were violated in Sudan due to the fact that there were over 17000 child
soldiers fighting for the government and the rebels groups. Mostly the children
are abducted or recruited by force

Freedom of religion- in Sudan several
pastors were arrested due to the fact of restriction in terms of religious

Right to life- several people lost their
lives during the conflicts that aroused In Sudan, over 100 thousand people lost
their lives during the Darfur misunderstanding and also in 2013, 170 people
were killed in Sudan who had no real justice

Torture, unlawful detention- several
human rights activists, journalists covering the issue, student leaders that
were against harassment and civil society leaders were tortured and abducted

Freedom of speech- security forces use
lethal force against protests that were protesting against Arab influence in
their country and economic and also controlling and intimidating the media and
civil society organization

Right to self determination- during the
rift that concerned the south Sudan people in wanting to succeed on their own.
These brought about conflict that caused so many violation of human right  

Other rights like access to justice,
right to proper living standards, extra-judicial killings, equality before the
law etc. were committed too.


In terms of implementation Sudan shows a
monist and dualist approach and that international treaties play a direct role
in their legal system after ratification. Although these two hybrid legal norms
bring about difficulty in practice in terms of implementation of international
treaties by law enforcement and courts due to conflicting issues.

Also implementation of these rights are
hindered by the fact there is conflict between international treaties, Sudan
constitutional bill of right, Shari ‘a laws and customary laws.

Constitutional; bodies and CPA
commissions tasked with protecting and promoting human rights i.e. human rights
commission, National commission for the review of the constitution and the
National judicial service commission are meant to help in the implementation of
these rights but  the fact that these
bodies are weak calls for reviewing and reforming them in Sudan. Institutional
reforms regarding the police and the National Intelligence and Security Service
in Sudan are needed too due to their weak structure.

Sudan constructional court failed in its
implementation due to lack of challenging the executive branches of the
government and also they failed to consider the international human rights law
although their constitutional obligates them to do so

The state is supposed to protect and
look after the obligation of its citizen by ensuring proper representation and
implementation of their rights although Sudan failed to do this and rather
allowed economic prosperity by the Arab people over its people.


International treaties at play are
international covenant on civil and political right, International covenant of
economic, social and cultural rights, Convention on the rights of child,
convention against torture and other cruel in human acts, convention on
elimination of human rights discrimination, convention on migrant members.

For example convention on the right of
child was adopted into the constitutional of Sudan as the child Act which
brought about several concerns that helped in forming a committee that looked
into several issues concerning a child like discrimination and wrongful doing
to a child, imprisonment issues concerning a child etc.

Convention against women discrimination
helped shine light to Sudan which was experiencing high rate of women
discrimination. This is the fact of culture since majority of Sudan are Muslim
and also the undermining of women is basically a role in Sudan. Regime forms
and changes were created concerning this fact through shifting of ideologies
and speaking for women rights in Sudan.  

ICCPR and ICESCR are part of the bill of
rights in Sudan and therefore Sudan is under the obligation of protecting,
promoting and implementing the bill of rights and therefore no derogation from
the bill of rights is allowed. Human rights commission concerning in providing
and avoiding violation of these rights was formed as a helping hand of
fulfilling the bill of rights act

The involvement of other states in Sudan
showed that the international treaties had a role in their decision to
interfere although not the case for all but with that the application of
international treaties indirectly helped the people of Sudan

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