The
Cambridge dictionary defines Psychology as a scientific study of how the human
mind functions, including explanations which influences an individual’s
behaviour. Moreover, the oxford dictionary defines science as a physical and
natural study of structure and behaviour through observations and experiment.
This assignment intends to critically evaluate the integrate debatable
statement ‘Psychology is a Science’ (Dictionary, 2018), (Oxford Dictionaries | English, 2018).

 

A
study published by microbiologist Alex B. Berezow (2012) immediately states why
psychology isn’t a science, instantly directing five attributes which makes
something scientific. A clearly defined terminology, quantifiability, highly
controlled experiment conditions, reproducibility and predictability and
testability are all stated to be demanding requirements for a field to be
scientific. Psychology can be identified alone without it being scientific as
it does not direct at scientific principles to study the human mind and what
may influence behaviour. Science comes under Biology, chemistry and physics
whilst Psychology is majorly viewed as a social science. Scientists like
Berezow (2012) argue science has its own sector and is an empirical analysis
focusing on natural insights. Through various aspects of psychology human
behaviour is not generalised based on all behaviours. For instance, the humanistic
approach concentrates on self-actualisation and an individual’s separate
involvements whereas the social representation theory highlights interactions
between individuals. These two popular psychological theories did not need any
scientific methods. Through these psychological studies unstructured interviews
and case studies are involved aiming for validity and qualitive data. This is
not a scientific method of research as Berezow (2012) mentions within the
article (latimes, 2018), (Skeptical Educator, 2018).

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Wilham
Wundt (1879) was considered founder of psychology exclusively carrying out
psychological research within a laboratory. This being prior 135 years ago some
psychologists find psychology is to be regarded as a science. Through physics a
chain of discoveries during the recognition period of psychology and before
that was developed which linked with one another however through the aspect of
psychology this is not the case. A study published by Sadri Hassani (2016) assesses
psychology as non-science, in sciences such as chemistry and physics the use to
variables are required such as voltages and amps when carrying research. However,
psychologists generalise their research and provide biased clarifications of
the researcher and only consist of variables depending on how subjective the
process is for example if a psychologist was to look at stress, indirect
variables like sweat are looked upon however a firm direct variable is
identified during stressing scenarios. Psychological researchers use levels of
explanations to back their findings and arguments (Jean Piaget, 1979), Thomas
Kuhn (1990) claims during early years, psychology has time to be classed as a
science however has potential to be regarded as one regardless of the fact psychology
follows just like science the hypothetic-deductive model. This is a scientific analysis
used by scientists formulating hypothesis to test which psychologists also
carry out when researching however despite this proposed method individuals
still marginalise psychology. The biggest difference claimed by Tom Hartsfield (2015)
is both focusses may practice out in a similar conduct however study different
theories and subjects finding psychology more multifaceted. This claim was
agreed by several psychologists who discussed how psychology being recently
discovered still needs time to be classified as a science or an aspect of its
own and questions if psychology is considered a science (Horgan and Horgan,
2018), (Realclearscience.com, 2018).

 

Regardless
the views individuals attain on psychology not being a science, others believe
it is. Most scientific explanations are not considered “facts” because
everything one scientist may claim to be “facts” can easily be disapproved with
evidence by another. Therefore, scientists just like psychologists constantly
research and never draw a conclusion to how the natural world cooperates. An
article published former psychologist Tanya Karam (2014) establishes how
science is based on theories from the start, for instance the theory of evolution,
this biological theory caused controversy which till today some individuals
disagree with. Psychological science abides the same methodologies and rules as
science, both psychology and science use the model of human behaviour along
with looking at the statistics classified. Both subjects also pilot their
theories to identify reliability and validity alongside parameters of the
theories. Wilhelm Wundt (1879) discovered the first psychological laboratory,
the equipment around the time was crude which meant it was not as effective as
it is today however it was a start just like Galileo (1609), the equipment used
for his telescope was primitive however till today has developed and furthered
into astronomy. This displays how science took effective turns in psychology
from early stages and around 50 years of studying human recognition various
theories were discovered covering processes of human behaviour and its
perceptions, learning, memory, language and so on. Psychology scientifically demeanours
human experience which includes social, child, personality, neuro and abnormal psychology
(Tanya Karam, 2014). This means in such a short time after psychology being
discovered. Psychologists specialise around various areas which some scientists
such as Alex Berezow (2012) ignore (Jarreau, 2018).

 

Precision
and reliability is also measured in psychology which scientists tend to ignore as
Deary et al. (2007) mentions within an abstract. IQ tests are very common
within psychology and are considered the very reliable to predict something, this
is also correlated within science research too. Any scientific practice being
conducted needs a hypothesis and to test it, this includes making predictions
based on the behaviour controlled through various conditions just like
psychologists did for instance B.F. Skinner’s operant conditioning attempt (1938)
predicating what will occur then putting it to the test in a controlled laboratory
experiment like scientists. With science, you can question and experiment the
research being conducted which also takes place within psychology. The data
used is measured to be precise and reliable, however psychology is not concrete
like physics as the data for both science and psychology is subjective (Pdfs.semanticscholar.org,
2018).

 

Cognitive
psychology is an aspect which implements a scientific approach through using
advancing accurate models and leading these experiments through behaviour which
encounters the hypothesis or disproves. Majority professions want to know how
the brain works however cognitive psychology and science work together with new
advance psychology using their research and information to identify mental
illnesses and diagnosis of an individual. An article published by Melanie Tannenbaum
(2013) opposes Alex Berezow’s (2012) and agrees psychology should be a science mentioning
how as a microbiologist he will be biased and not give much favour to
psychology however psychologist Melanie argues science spends too many time
researching theories which don’t have a concrete stand and is selective when
experimenting. However, when it comes to psychological research potential
information is critiqued. Both science and psychology take time to get answers
and to prove something right or wrong as the measurement can be complicated and
not simple every time guaranteed (Tannenbaum, 2018).

 

Psychology
can be proved to be scientific as well as non, however various sectors of
psychology focus on different subjects. Psychology grew out as a separate field
which immediately adapted into both scientific for example physiology and non-scientific.
To an extent, I believe psychology should be considered a science as most it’s methods
are like scientific methods. Since the time psychology was discovered it has developed
independently and opened to various roots which few individuals believe is a
revolution and paradigm alteration using natural science as a guide. Eventually
whatever aspect of theory a psychologist discovers the method used is the same
as a scientist focusing on the claims made, the prediction and then gaining
evidence. The process for both science and psychology is difficult however they
are both critically view their research which makes psychology a science
despite the traditional provisions of science.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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