Cancer is uncontrolled growing and unnatural proliferation of cells in the organic structure. Most malignant neoplastic diseases form a tumour but some malignant neoplastic diseases, like leukaemia do non organize any tumours. The subdivision of medical specialty which concerned about the survey, diagnosing, remedy and bar of malignant neoplastic disease is known as oncology. Cancer metastasis is a procedure where tumour cells leave the primary tumour and travels through lymph and blood circulatory system and establishes secondary tumour in other organic structure variety meats. Carcinogens are a category of substances responsible for the damaging DNA, and causes mutants. It ‘s really hard to find what causes malignant neoplastic disease. Proto-oncogenes are normal cistrons coding for proteins that helps in cell proliferation and ordinance. Whenever there are mutants in the proto-oncogene, it will trip uncontrolled cell proliferation. There are two types of tumour suppresser cistrons that ever maintain the unity of genome and it reduces the chance of change overing normal cell in to tumor cell ( Philip W. Hinds and Robert A. Weinberg, 1994 ) .
Care taker cistrons are p53, Rb1 and APC ( adenomatous polyposis coli )
Gate keeper cistrons are BRCA1, BRCA2 and MSH2 MLH1
Cancer is classified by the site of beginning and tissue type
Carcinoma: malignant neoplastic disease originates from the epithelial cells that signifiers run alonging on external parts of organic structure and internal organic structure organs most common type of malignant neoplastic diseases as chest, lung, liver and prostrate.
Sarcoma: malignant neoplastic disease originates from the conjunction and supportive tissues like gristle, castanetss and musculuss.
Myeloma: originates from the plasma cells of bone marrow, myeloma is a type of blood malignant neoplastic disease.
Leukemia: malignant neoplastic disease affects the bone marrow in the site of blood cell production.
Lymphoma: they are like solid malignant neoplastic diseases and effects in the sites of tummy, encephalon and bowel ( T.R. Golub et al. , 1999 ) .
1.1 BREAST CANCER
Harmonizing to American Cancer Society, chest malignant neoplastic disease is the most common type of malignant neoplastic disease in adult females. Breast malignant neoplastic disease originates from the tissue of the chest ; it can be invasive and non-invasive.
It is classified into two different types based upon the beginning of tumour, ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma starts in the canals that help in traveling milk from the chest to nipple. Most of the chest malignant neoplastic diseases are ductal carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma originates in the lobules of the chest where milk produces. Invasive chest malignant neoplastic disease means it spreads from the canals and lobules to other chest tissue whereas non-invasive status it has non yet invaded other tissue in chest part. Based upon the receptor position four types are present.
Group1 ( luminal A ) : Tumors are positive for estrogen and Lipo-Lutin and negative for HER-2.
Group 2 ( luminal B ) : Tumors are positive for estrogen, negative for Lipo-Lutin and positive for HER-2.
Group 3 ( HER-2 positive ) : Tumors include estrogen negative, progesterone negative and HER-2 positive. . HER2 cistron helps the chest cells to turn faster, divide and besides repair themselves. When cells have excessively many transcripts of the HER 2 cistron it leads to high hazard factor of chest malignant neoplastic disease.
Group 4 ( basal like ) : It is besides called as ternary negative chest malignant neoplastic disease ( TNBC ) . TNBCs are negative for Lipo-Lutin, estrogen and HER-2 receptors ( Lisa A. Carey et al. , 2006 ) .
1.2 BREAST CANCER STAGING
Cancer theatrical production is a procedure that explains about whether malignant neoplastic disease has spread within the chest or other parts of the organic structure. Staging procedure besides reveals the badness of the disease and to be after intervention. There are chiefly three different ways to distribute malignant neoplastic disease with in the organic structure. One is through tissue of the organic structure, where malignant neoplastic disease invades environing normal healthy tissue. Second is through the lymph system, where malignant neoplastic disease cells invades lymph system and travels to other organic structure system through lymph vass. Last one is through blood circulation, where malignant neoplastic disease cells enters in to the venas and capillaries and travels to other organic structure variety meats. Cancer cells separate from the chest tumour and travels to other organic structure organ through blood or lymph vass and starts secondary tumour. This procedure is known as metastasis. Phases of chest malignant neoplastic disease are phase I, II, IIIA, IIIB, IIIC & A ; IV. Phase I malignant neoplastic disease was divided in two parts phase IA and IB. In phase IA, tumour will be 2cm or less than 2cm and tumour has non spread yet outside the chest tissue and in phase IB little ball of chest tumour cells are found in the lymph nodes and size is non greater than 0.2 millimetre. Stage II once more divided in to two phases IIA and IIB. In phase IIA, there will be no tumour or tumour sizes of 2cm are found in alar lymph nodes near the chest bone. In phase IIB, tumours are larger than 2cm but smaller than 5cm and are found in the lymph nodes. In this phase, tumour cells are besides spread to 1 to 3 alar lymph nodes near the chest bone. Stage IIIA tumour will be of any size or no tumour and malignant neoplastic disease was found in 4 to 9 alar lymph nodes near the chest bone sometimes besides seen in lymph nodes and size of tumour will be larger than 5cm and little balls of chest malignant neoplastic disease will be found in lymph nodes, phase IIIB tumours will be of any size and will distribute to clamber and chest. Swelling will be seen and malignant neoplastic disease cells are spread up to 9 alar lymph nodes. In phase IIIC, no tumours will be seen or tumours of any size are spread to clamber, chest, and besides more than 10 alar lymph nodes near chest bone, above or below collar bone. Concluding phase is stage IV where metastasis is seen and tumours are spread to other variety meats of the organic structure, largely to liver, castanetss, lungs and encephalon.
1.3 Hazard FACTORS
A hazard factor is anything that affects your opportunity of acquiring disease. Assorted types of malignant neoplastic diseases have different types of hazard factors. Having hazard factor, it does n’t intend that the individual gets the malignant neoplastic disease but opportunities of acquiring malignant neoplastic disease will be higher. In most instances, chest malignant neoplastic disease will happen even in the absence of any hazard factors. There are different types of hazard factors like gender and age which can non be changed and some related to personal wonts such as alcohol addiction, smoke, diet which can be changed.
Womans have really higher per centum of hazard factor in developing chest malignant neoplastic disease comparison to work forces.
Hazard of developing chest malignant neoplastic disease additions in older age. Women more than 55 age have high opportunity of acquiring chest malignant neoplastic disease than the immature adult females.
Familial hazard factor:
Approximately 5 to 10 % of patients usually develop chest malignant neoplastic disease because of heredity and mutants in the cistrons. There are several cistrons like BRCA1, BRACA2 which are tumour suppresser and DNA fix cistrons. Normal map of these cistrons is protecting cells from unnatural proliferation and mending the damaged DNA. Mutants in these cistrons can be transferred from one coevals to another. If individual inherit one transcript of mutated cistron from parents so the individual is holding high chance of acquiring malignant neoplastic disease in life clip and they besides have high rate of developing other malignant neoplastic diseases like ovarian malignant neoplastic disease. There are other cistron mutants which are besides responsible for doing chest malignant neoplastic disease but lesser rate than the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cistrons. Mutated or defected cistrons of ATM, TP53, CHEK2, PTEN, CDH1, and STK11 will besides do chest malignant neoplastic disease.
Life manner related factors:
Gestating kids after the age of 35, faulty birth control methods, endocrine therapy after climacteric, intoxicant ingestion, overweight or corpulent and deficiency of physical activity.
Family history of chest malignant neoplastic disease ( William D. Dupont, PH.D. , and David L.Page, 1985 ) , personal history of chest malignant neoplastic disease, race and ethnicity, dense chest tissue, certain benign chest status ( non-proliferative lesions and proliferative lesions without atypia, lobular carcinoma in situ, irregular catamenial periods, old thorax radiation, diethylstilboestrol exposure ) . Diet, vitamin consumption, antiperspirants, induced abortion, chemical environment, baccy fume etc are other unproved factors.
The first symptom in the chest malignant neoplastic disease individual may develop balls in their chest tissue but 9 out 10 adult females these balls are benign. Most of these benign balls are breast cell alterations, cysts and fibro adenoma.
Most of the chest malignant neoplastic diseases patients have a balls or thickener of the chest country, hardening of chest tegument, altering of chest form, and a blood stained discharge from the mammilla, itching, rashes around the mammilla and presence of balls near the arm cavity country.
Even though presence of all this symptoms most of the tumours are benign they are non cancerous.
A rare type of a malignant neoplastic disease called inflammatory chest malignant neoplastic disease was seen with different types of symptoms the whole chest will look in ruddy colour, redness will be seen and really sore and clamber will be hardened.
Another really rare type of chest malignant neoplastic disease was seen it is known as Sir james pagets disease it will be ruddy, lepidote roseola and sometimes antsy. In many chest malignant neoplastic disease adult females breast hurting will be present but in some adult females it is absent.
Biopsy is a procedure of roll uping sample of tissue cells from the chest and proving them to see whether they are cancerous or non.
Mammogram is an X ray of chest. Diagnostic mammograms are used to observe chest diseases which have symptoms related to chest malignant neoplastic disease. It shows the country of unnatural tissue and normally it takes in two different angles. If mammogram shows any balls in the chest a biopsy is required to corroborate the tumour.
MRI was used along with the mammograms to screen adult females who have high opportunities of developing chest malignant neoplastic disease.
Breast malignant neoplastic disease intervention can be done in four different ways.
Breast malignant neoplastic disease surgery is remotion of tumour and environing normal healthy tissue and conserving every bit much of the chest tissue possible. There are different types of chest malignant neoplastic disease surgery interventions are present. The type of surgery differs depending upon the sum of healthy chest tissue that removed from the tumour, tumour features and whether tumour has metastasized. Types of chest malignant neoplastic disease surgery include lumpectomy, partial or segmental mastectomy, entire mastectomy, modified extremist mastectomy and extremist mastectomy.
Radiation therapy typically involves presenting precise sum of high radiation energy to kill malignant neoplastic disease cells. Radiation stops the tumour cells regeneration and minimizes the harm of healthy tissue. Radiation therapy for chest malignant neoplastic disease used after lumpectomy or mastectomy, endocrine therapy and chemotherapy, to diminish the hazard of malignant neoplastic disease re-growing. Radiation therapy is painless. However, patients experiences side effects after intervention.
1.6.3 Hormone therapy
There are certain types of endocrines that can attach to the chest malignant neoplastic disease cells and affects their ability to multiply. The chief purpose of endocrine therapy is to barricade, or take endocrines. In chest malignant neoplastic disease, estrogen and Lipo-Lutin endocrines promote the growing of malignant neoplastic disease cells. Hormone therapy is given to barricade the of course bring forthing estrogen endocrine from the organic structure to halt or decelerate the malignant neoplastic disease ‘s growing.
Womans who are estrogen- positive are more likely to react to hormone intervention than the adult females who are estrogen-negative. Hormone therapy drugs used to handle chest malignant neoplastic disease are Tamoxifen, Fareston, Arimidex, Aromasin, Femara, Zoladex/ Lupron, Megace and Halotestin.
Chemotherapy refers to utilize of anti-cancer drugs ( chemicals ) to kill the chest malignant neoplastic disease cells. The US nutrient and drug Administration approved the usage of combinable chemotherapeutic drugs, FEC- 5FU, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide. Combinational intervention has important hazard of bruising and hemorrhage, anaemia, diarrhoea and hazard of blood coagulums side effects. Chemotherapy used for three chief different intents.
Accessory therapy: Used to forestall or prorogue the malignant neoplastic disease from coming back after the surgery and radiation therapy.
Neo-adjuvant therapy: Sometimes tumours are really large that can be shriveling it foremost with chemotherapy and do it easier to make surgery.
To handle metastatic diseases: If the malignant neoplastic disease shows up in different parts of the organic structure other than chest and lymph nodes.
Apoptosis is a procedure of programmed cell decease occurs in multicellular beings. Biochemical actions lead to distinctive cell alterations ( morphology ) and decease. These alterations include loss of cell membrane dissymmetry and fond regard, blebbing, atomic atomization, chromatin condensation, cell shrinking, and chromosomal DNA atomization. Apoptosis procedure is different from mortification ( another signifier of cellular self-destruction ) , in which the cellular dust can damage the host being. German scientist named Carl Vogt was foremost to specify the rule of programmed cell death in 1842. Walther Flemming another scientist in 1885 given a more elaborate description of the patterned advance of programmed cell decease. Though, it was non clear until 1965 that the subject was resurrected. While detecting the tissue sample utilizing electron microscope, John Foxton Ross at University of Queensland was able to distinguish programmed cell death procedure from traumatic cell decease. Apoptosis procedure is controlled by broad scope of cell signals, which may originate from either extracellular ( extrinsic inducers ) or intracellular ( intrinsic inducers ) ( Roberto R. Rosato et al. , 2003 ) . Extracellular signals like toxins, endocrines, azotic oxide or cytokines and growing factors that must traverse the plasma membrane to impact a response. These signals may positively ( triggers ) or negatively ( repress or inhibit ) affect programmed cell death.
Curcumin is the cardinal chief curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice Curcuma longa ( turmeric ) , which is the member of household Zingiberaceae ( Guido Shoba et al. , 1998 ) . There are three different types of curcumins are present, curcumin I, II and III, and other two curcuminoids are bis-desmethoxycurcumin and desmethoxycurcumin. The curcuminoids are polyphenols, in which phenols are connected by two I± , I?-unsaturated carboxyl groups. Polyphenols are responsible for the presence of xanthous colour in Curcuma longa.
Degree centigrades: UsersHarishDownloadsCurcumin_structure.png
Figure: 1 construction of Curcumin
Curcumin can be in two different tautomeric signifiers, one is keto and other one is enol. The enol signifier is more stable in the solid and solution stages. Curcumin induces programmed cell death in chest malignant neoplastic disease cells without any cytotoxicity on environing healthy cells.
1.8.1 BIOSYNTHESIS OF CURCUMIN
The biosynthetic path of curcumin was proven to be really debatable for research workers to find. In the twelvemonth 1973 Roughly Whiting scientists proposed two different mechanisms for curcumin biogenesis. The first mechanism of synthesis involved a concatenation extension reaction procedure by cinnamic acid and 5 malonyl-CoA molecule both finally arylized into a curcumioid. The 2nd mechanism of synthesis involved two cinnamate units coupled together by malonyl-CoA. Cinnamic acid is the get downing point for both the mechanisms, which is derived from the phenylalanine amino acid. This is non worthy procedure because the works biogenesis using cinnamic acid as a get downing point was rare compared to the more general usage of p-coumaric acid. Merely a limited identified compounds, such as anigorufone and pinosylvi, use cinnamic acid as their start molecule. This proposed biosynthetic path follows together the first and 2nd mechanisms suggested by Roughly and Whiting. Though, the first proposed mechanism theoretical account in which 5 malonyl-CoA molecule reacts with cinnamic acid and signifiers curcumin. However, functional groups, both the intoxicant and the methoxy, are introduce themselves onto the curcuminoid seem like to back up more strongly than the 2nd proposed mechanism.
5-FU is a rationally designed anti-metabolite drug by Charles Heidelberger in 1957. It is a pyramidine parallel ( which mimic the construction of metabolic pyrimidine ) and thymidylate synthase inhibitor.
Figure: 2 construction of 5-FU
5-Fu has been used as anti-cancer drug for about 40 old ages ; against colorectal malignant neoplastic disease, pancreatic malignant neoplastic disease and chest malignant neoplastic disease ( Daniel B. Longley and Patrick G. Johnston, 2007 ) . It acts in several ways, but chiefly as thymidylate synthase inhibitor. Thymidylate synthase enzyme methylates deoxyuridine monophosphate ( shit ) converts into thymidine monophosphate ( dtmp ) . DTMP plays really important function in the DNA synthesis and fix mechanism. 5FU inhibits the Thymydylate synthase, prevents the formation of thymidine consequences no DNA reproduction and cells will travel thymidine less decease. In combination of Curcumin and 5FU they sensitize the chest malignant neoplastic disease cells and bring on programmed cell death.
1.9.1 MODE OF ACTION
5-FU is a pyramidine parallel ; it transformed in to the cell in different cytotoxic metabolite and incorporated into DNA and RNA. 5-FU induces cell rhythm apprehension and programmed cell death by suppressing the Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. 5-FU active during certain cell rhythm because it is S-phase specific drug. In add-on to being incorporated into DNA and RNA it besides inhibits the activity of exosome composite ( exoribonuclease composite ) which is indispensable for cell endurance. 5-FU shows terrible side effects includes ;
1.10 SYNERGESTIC EFFECT
Synergetic consequence was defined as the interaction of two or more agents so that their combined consequence is greater than the entire sum of their single effects. Drug synergy occurs when drugs can interrelate in ways that enhances or amplify one or more effects of those drugs.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1. BOOK REFERENCES
Daniel B. Longley, Patrick G. Johnston ( 2007 ) . Apoptosis, Cell Signaling, and Human Diseases 2007. Volume 2. Humana Press, pp 263-278.
2. Diary Mention
T.R. Golub, D.K. Slonim, P.Tamayo, C.Huard, M.Gaasenbeek, J.P.Mesirov, H.Coller, M.L.Loh, J.R.Downing, M.A. Caligiuri, C.D.Bloomfield, E.S.Lander ( 1999 ) . “ Molecular categorization of malignant neoplastic disease: Class Discovery and Class anticipation by Gene Expression Monitoring ” .sciece.286.5439.531.
Lisa A. Carey, MD ; Charles M. Perou, PhD ; Chad A. Livasy, MD ; Lynn G. Dressler, PhD ; David Cowan, BS ; Kathleen Conway, PhD ; Gamze Karaca, MSc ; Melissa A. Troester, PhD ; Chiu Kit Tse, MSPH ; Sharon Edmiston, BS ; Sandra L. Deming, PhD, MPH ; Joseph Geradts, MD ; Maggie C. U. Cheang, MMedSci ; Torsten O. Nielsen, MD ; Patricia G. Moorman, PhD ; H. Shelton Earp, MD ; Robert C. Millikan, DVM, PhD, . ( 2006 ) . “ Race, Breast Cancer Subtypes, and Survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study ” .jama.295.21.2492.
William D. Dupont, PH.D. , and David L.Page, M.D. “ Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in adult females with Proliferative Breast Disease ” . N Engl J Med 1985 ; 312:146-151.
Philip W. Hinds, Robert A. Weinberg, “ Tumor suppresser cistrons ” . Current Opinion in Genetics & A ; Development [ 1994, 4 ( 1 ) :135-141 ] .
Roberto R. Rosato, Jorge A.Almenara, Yun Dai and Steven Grant. ( 2003 ) . “ Coincident activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic tracts by histone deacetylase ( HDAC ) inhibitors and tumour mortification factor- related apoptosis-inducing ligand ( TRAIL ) syngergistically induces mitochondrial harm and programmed cell death in human leukaemia cells ” . Mol Cancer Ther December 2003 2 ; 1273.
GuidoA Shoba, DavidA Joy, ThangamA Joseph, M.A Majeed, R.A Rajendran, P.A S. S. R.A Srinivas. ( 1998 ) . “ Influence of Piperine on the Pharmacokineticss of Curcumin in Animals and Human Volunteers ” . Planta Med 1998 ; 64 ( 4 ) : 353-356.