The United States is a leader in the Vietnamese catfish industry and. in 2001. produced 597 million lbs of mudcat. Catfish is a peculiarly popular dish in the southern provinces of the United States and produced domestically in Mississippi. Arkansas. and Louisiana in semisynthetic fresh water pools. Although the U. S. is clearly one of the top manufacturers in the market. Vietnamese catfish importers have been doing jobs for the United States’ domestic mudcat industry.

Vietnamese catfish importers saw an chance to capture market portion and took it. The U. S. domestic mudcat industry had worked to spread out the market with important attempt and investing and believed the Vietnamese importers actions unjust. At the terminal of 2001. the U. S. was importing seven million lbs of mudcat from Vietnam which caused the monetary value of catfish to fall to 50 cents per lb in the U. S. . 15 cents lower than the cost of production. This led to U. S. manufacturers faulting Vietnamese importers for the autumn in monetary values and for endangering more than 15. 000 occupations in the poorer parts of Mississippi. Arkansas. and Louisiana.

Although it seems unjust to the United States catfish manufacturers. Vietnamese catfish importers are non wholly at mistake. The U. S. manufacturers expanded their stock lists and limited the supply of mudcat to merely a few provinces. therefore. driving down monetary values themselves. Vietnamese catfish importers saw the market portion chance and took it. Their portion in the market could take to increased trade between the U. S. and Vietnam. a stalling of possible trade wars. and improved dealingss between the two states every bit good.

One of the other issues environing the Vietnamese catfish importers is the quality of the merchandise. U. S. catfish manufacturers attempted to convert the populace that Vietnamese mudcats are of low quality and raised in dirty Waterss that perchance contain toxins. Catfish imported from Vietnam have to merely run into FDA blessing. U. S. raised catfish. in comparing. are raised in man-made. purified ponds run intoing the Catfish Institute criterions and must be inspected by 17 different federal bureaus. including. the Food and Drug Administration. Environment Protection Agency and the Department of Commerce. If quality differences do be. it is of import that both domestic and foreign catfish be identically tested and full revelation of consequences be required.

In an effort to queer Vietnamese importers. U. S. catfish manufacturers pushed for aid from Congress. In 2002. the FDA published “Guidance for Industry” ordinances on the labeling of catfish. This led to importers. food market shops. and eating houses naming Vietnamese catfish “basa” or “tra. ” The new labeling ordinances did the antonym of their purpose and increased gross revenues of Vietnamese mudcats due to the machination in the market.

U. S. manufacturers reported 30 per centum in their net incomes per one kg of mudcat. The labeling ordinances could perchance hold led to consumers paying a higher monetary value than they would hold originally have paid. which is non right. Due to U. S. producers’ reluctance to portion the market with the Vietnamese catfish importers and to lose money. consumers would hold suffered and paid more than they would hold had to otherwise.

The U. S. catfish industry influenced lawgivers to do determinations in their favour against Vietnamese catfish importers. Other industries in the United States can try to rock lawgivers in their favour if they are inquiring for support against the import of merchandises that could ache the domestic industry. or if they believe the merchandises would be harmful to the state ( societal and wellness ) . Agribusiness and aquaculture are industries sensitive to lifting imports and seek to act upon lawgivers against free market forces. Lawgivers can be swayed to do determinations in the favour of domestic industries if they pertain to protectionism.

The United States catfish manufacturers were threatened by Vietnamese catfish importers and attempted to protect their domestic mudcat industry by act uponing lawgivers to make up one’s mind in their favour. This catfish difference led to highly high import duties. an unstable trade relationship between Vietnam and the United States and reviews of protectionism and lip service.

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